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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs D Biographical Sketches of Committee Members Anita K. Jones is a professor at the University of Virginia. She received her Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in 1973. Dr. Jones left CMU as an associate professor when she cofounded Tartan Laboratories. She was vice president of Tartan from 1981 to 1987. In 1988 she joined the University of Virginia as a professor and the chair of the Computer Science Department. From 1993 to 1997 Dr. Jones served at the U.S. Department of Defense where, as director of defense research and engineering, she oversaw the department’s science and technology program, research laboratories, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. She received the U.S. Air Force Meritorious Civilian Service Award and a Distinguished Public Service Award. Dr. Jones served as vice chair of the National Science Board and cochair of the Virginia Research and Technology Advisory Commission. She is a member of the Defense Science Board, the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Corporation, the National Research Council Advisory Council for Policy and Global Affairs, and the MIT Corporation. She is a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the author of 45 papers and two books. Dr. Jones is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., retired from the U.S. Navy in 1987 after 34 years of distinguished service, principally with the nuclear submarine force and directing the Department of the Navy research and technology development enterprise. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1953 with a B.S. in engineering, and subsequently completed graduate-level studies in nuclear engineering as part of his training for the naval nuclear propulsion program. He served as chief of naval research from 1978 to 1981, and as the director of research, development and acquisition, the senior military Research, Development and Acquisition official in the Department of the Navy, from 1983 to 1987. Upon retirement, he established The Baciocco Group, Inc., a technical and management consulting practice, and has since been engaged in a broad range of business and pro bono activities with industry, government, and academe, including memberships on the Naval Studies Board and the Army Science Board, and service on the Boards of Directors of several corporations, both public and private. He is a trustee of the South Carolina Research Authority and serves as Director of the Foundation for Research Development at the Medical University of South Carolina. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, a national engineering honor society and the recipient of an Honorary Doctorate in Engineering from Florida Atlantic University. Vice Admiral Baciocco is a senior fellow of the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Arlington, Virginia, and has been designated a lifetime national associate of the National Academies by the Council of the National Academy of Sciences. Julie Brigham-Grette is a professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Dr. Brigham-Grette received her Ph.D. from the University of Colorado’s Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research. After postdoctoral research at the University of Bergen, Norway, and the University of Alberta, Canada, with the Canadian Geological Survey, she joined the faculty at the University of Massachusetts in the fall of 1987. Dr. BrighamGrette has been conducting research in the Arctic for nearly 24 years, including eight field seasons in remote parts of northeast Russia since 1991, participating in the science program as well as dealing with difficult logistics. Her research interests and experience span a broad spectrum dealing with Arctic paleoclimate records and the Late Cenozoic evolution of the Arctic climate both on land and offshore, especially in the Bering Strait region. She was a member of the Arctic Logistics Task Force for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of Polar Programs (OPP) in 1996-1999 and 2000-2003, and was a member of the external OPP Office Advisory Committee in 2002-2004. She chaired the U.S.
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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs Scientific Delegation to Svalbard for Shared Norwegian-U.S. Scientific Collaborations and Logistical Platforms in 1999. Dr. Brigham-Grette is currently chair of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program’s Science Steering Committee on Past Global Change (PAGES) with an international program office in Bern, Switzerland, and president of the American Quaternary Association. She also serves as one of two U.S. representatives to the International Continental Drilling Program. Rita R. Colwell received her Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Washington. Dr. Colwell is the chair of Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc., and distinguished university professor at the University of Maryland, College Park, and at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Colwell was the first woman to be named director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), where she served with distinction from 1998 to 2004. In her capacity as NSF Director, she served as cochair of the Committee on Science of the National Science and Technology Council. Dr. Colwell has held many advisory positions in the U.S. government, nonprofit science policy organizations, and private foundations, as well as in the international scientific research community; she is a member of the American Philosophical Society, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and National Academy of Sciences. Hajo Eicken is associate professor at the Geophysical Institute and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Before joining the University of Alaska, Dr. Eicken was a senior scientist at the Alfred Wegener Institute where he was the head of a research group for sea-ice physics and remote sensing. He received his Ph.D. in geophysics at the University of Bremen. Dr. Eicken’s research interests include studies of the growth, evolution, and properties of sea ice in the Arctic and the Antarctic. He is particularly interested in determining how microscopic and macroscopic properties affect larger-scale sea-ice processes and their role in the climate system. Dr. Eicken has participated in several icebreaker expeditions in both hemispheres. He is serving on a number of national and international scientific and technical committees. Jeffrey M. Garrett has been a maritime affairs consultant since retiring from the U.S. Coast Guard in 2005 after 31 years of service. Graduating from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in 1974, he served multiple assignments in the polar icebreaker fleet, in the commissioning crew of POLAR STAR, aboard the Wind class icebreaker BURTON ISLAND, again in POLAR STAR as executive officer, as commanding officer of POLAR SEA, and as commissioning commanding officer of HEALY during delivery, shakedown operations, and ice trials. These shipboard assignments included multiple deployments to the Arctic and Antarctic in support of research, defense, and other national interests. He had additional operational duty at the Vessel Traffic Service in Prince William Sound, Alaska; commanding officer of MOBILE BAY in the Great Lakes; and as executive officer of ACTIVE. Staff experience included multiple headquarters assignments in ice operations and programming and budgeting, and chief of operations in the Pacific Area staff. As director of resources at headquarters he was responsible for the Coast Guard’s budget, long-range planning, and policy development. He holds a master of science in management degree from the Naval Postgraduate School and was a research fellow while attending the Industrial College of the Armed Services. His last assignment was as commander, 13th Coast Guard District, overseeing all Coast Guard activities in the Pacific Northwest. Jacqueline M. Grebmeier is a research professor and project director at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Her research interests include pelagic-benthic coupling, benthic carbon cycling, and benthic faunal population structure in the marine environment; understanding how water column processes influence biological productivity in Arctic waters and sediments; understanding how materials are exchanged between the seabed and overlying waters; and documenting longer-term trends in ecosystem health of Arctic continental shelves. Some of her research includes analyses of the importance of benthic organisms to higher levels of the Arctic food web, including walruses, gray whales, and diving sea ducks, and studies of radionuclide distributions of sediments and within the water column in the Arctic as a whole. Over the last 20 years she has participated in 33 oceanographic expeditions on both U.S. and foreign vessels, with more than 500 days on icebreakers alone. She is a member of the Polar Research Board, served previously as a member of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, and has contributed to coordinated international and national science planning efforts such as the International Polar Year and Shelf-Basin Interactions project. Dr. Grebmeier earned her Ph.D. in biological oceanography in 1987 from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Mahlon C. Kennicutt II is the director of sustainable development and team leader for the Sustainable Coastal Margins Program, Office of the Vice President for Research, at Texas A&M University. Dr. Kennicutt earned his Ph.D. in oceanography in 1980 from Texas A&M University. Dr. Kennicutt has worked as an oceanographer for 25 years, spent more than 500 days at sea, including on various ships in Antarctica, and is familiar with the logistics operations at McMurdo Station as well as University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) ship operations. In addition, Dr. Kennicutt is a vice president of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council for Science (ICSU), an international committee that serves as the formal science advisor to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties. In this role he is familiar
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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs with the Antarctic Treaty and especially its environmental protocols. As the U.S. delegate to SCAR, he accompanies the U.S. Department of State delegation to treaty meetings. As a scientist, his research interests include environmental monitoring; fate and effects of contaminants; environmental impacts of offshore energy exploration and exploitation; coordination of the social and physical sciences to address environmental issues; and all aspects of the sustainable development of coastal margins. He served on the National Research Council’s Committee to Review the Oil Spill Recovery Institute and the Committee on Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska’s North Slope. Dr. Kennicutt is a member of various professional organizations including the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. Ronald K. Kiss is president emeritus of Webb Institute, a private four-year college providing B.S. degrees in naval architecture and marine engineering. Prior to joining Webb Institute, he was vice president of SYNTEK, assisting the U.S. Navy on the Joint Navy-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency arsenal ship program and the Navy’s aircraft carrier and surface combatant programs. He served as deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for ship programs in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisition) and as executive director of the Amphibious, Auxiliary, Mine and Sealift Directorate at Naval Sea Systems Command. Mr. Kiss spent nearly 20 years with the Maritime Administration, culminating as acting associate administrator for shipbuilding and ship operations. He holds a B.S. degree in naval architecture and marine engineering from Webb Institute, and an M.S. in naval architecture from the University of California-Berkeley; he has participated in a number of postgraduate programs at institutions including Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Douglas R. MacAyeal is a professor in the Department of the Geophysical Sciences at the University of Chicago. Dr. MacAyeal’s field efforts in Antarctica, including the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea, yield a range of physical models concerning the dynamics of large ice masses. His work in the past has focused on the processes of ice-stream flow and the nature of the subglacial boundary layer that facilitates ice-stream basal lubrication. These models of ice streams were subsequently built upon to determine the role of ice-stream surging in abrupt climate change of the North Atlantic. Dr. MacAyeal’s current research interest involves the break-up of ice shelves and the subsequent transport of icebergs into the surrounding ocean. He received his Ph.D. from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at Princeton University. Dr. MacAyeal has been the chief editor for the Journal of Glaciology and a member of the Committee of Advisors for the Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation. Robert C. North retired from active duty with the U.S. Coast Guard in April 2001. He is presently serving as the president of North Star Maritime, Inc., a marine industry consulting firm specializing in international and domestic maritime safety, security, and environmental protection regulatory issues. Rear Admiral North’s U.S. Coast Guard career spanned nearly 35 years and culminated with service as the U.S. Coast Guard’s assistant commandant for marine safety, security and environmental protection, where he directed national and international programs for commercial vessel safety, merchant mariner licensing and documentation, port safety and security, and waterways management. In that capacity, he led U.S. delegations to the International Maritime Organization and also served as a member of numerous classification society committees and the Sealift Committee of the National Defense Transportation Association. Previously, he served as chief of acquisition involving major systems such as the U.S. Coast Guard’s newest polar icebreaker, the HEALY, and the replacement programs for the U.S. Coast Guard’s buoy tender and patrol boat fleets. Earlier assignments included first lieutenant and deck watch officer on the WESTWIND, a polar icebreaker involved in ice escort, resupply, and search-and-rescue operations in the Arctic and Great Lakes regions. He is a graduate of the State University of New York Maritime College at Fort Schuyler and the U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Raymond J. Pierce obtained his master mariner (H.T.) certification in 1976, his Canadian Coast Guard command in 1977, and his master’s foreign going certification in 1981. During this period he held positions of increasing responsibility on various Canadian Coast Guard ships operating in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans. In 1979 he was promoted to the rank of commanding officer and later assigned to headquarters as superintendent, operational requirements and polar icebreaking. Captain Pierce has worked for BeauDril Ltd. as a shipmaster, port captain of Arctic operations, marine superintendent, and manager. He was also active in the field of advanced navigation and electronic charting with Offshore Systems International of Vancouver. He was an adviser to and director of this emerging public company. After his work in the private sector Pierce rejoined the Canadian Coast Guard where he has served as regional director ship safety, regional director general of the northern central and arctic regions. Captain Pierce is currently executive director of departmental renewal at the Canadian Coast Guard. Steven T. Scalzo is the chief operating officer of Marine Resources Group, Inc., a holding and support company for investments in tug, barge, and ancillary marine service companies. Mr. Scalzo joined Foss Maritime, a subsidiary of Marine Resources Group, in 1975. He is a graduate of the
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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs U.S. Merchant Marine Academy and received a master’s degree in law and commerce from Gonzaga University. Mr. Scalzo is a past member of the National Research Council Marine Board, and he is active in international, national, and local public policy and legislative and regulatory issues affecting the safety of marine transportation, including service as past chairman of the U.S. Department of Transportation Towing Safety Advising Committee and the State of Washington Puget Sound Marine Safety Committee. He has also served as chairman of the American Waterway Operators, the tug and barge industry national trade association, and he is currently a board member of the American Steamship Owners Mutual Protection and Indemnity Association, Inc. (the American Club) and the Coast Guard Foundation. David G. St. Amand has more than 30 years of maritime industry experience, the last 20 of which have been as a management consultant. He is a maritime economist-business analyst specializing in commercial shipping. He holds a B.S. in naval architecture and marine engineering from Webb Institute and an M.B.A. from the Amos Tuck School of Business Administration at Dartmouth College. His industry experience covers a wide range of activities, including transportation planning, marketing, finance, operations, and engineering. Mr. St. Amand has extensive experience consulting to most sectors of the maritime industry. He has served bulk vessel owner-operators, liner companies, tugbarge firms, industry organizations, marine service firms, cruise lines, ferry operators, terminal operators, and port authorities. These assignments included strategic planning, asset-business valuation, organization analysis, market planning, benchmarking, and regulatory analysis. His strategic planning experience includes tanker owners, liner companies, ferry-cruise operators, tug-barge companies, and port authorities. Mr. St. Amand has been named an expert witness on vessel economics and damages in numerous proceedings. He has also done extensive analysis of the Jones Act, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), the 1984 Shipping Act, and the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998 (OSRA) for individual carriers and industry organizations. James H. Swift is a research oceanographer and academic administrator at the University of California, San Diego Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). He received his Ph.D. in physical oceanography from the University of Washington. Dr. Swift has been on 25 blue water and icebreaker expeditions in the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, and Southern Oceans. His primary scientific interests are Arctic water masses and circulation, the global thermohaline circulation, and ocean measurement and interpretation. Dr. Swift is scientific adviser to the SIO Oceanographic Data Facility and coordinator for academic institutions involved in the U.S. Global Ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography program. He is also director of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Hydrographic Program Office (now known also as the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) and Carbon Hydrographic Data Office). Dr. Swift was the founding chair of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System Arctic Icebreaker Coordinating Committee, which oversaw science-related aspects of the construction and testing of the research icebreaker HEALY, and whose long-term mission includes promoting a productive and successful working relationship between the U.S. Coast Guard and the science community using icebreakers. He now serves on the U.S. Antarctic Research Vessel Oversight Committee, is chair of the NSF Office of Polar Programs Advisory Committee, and chairs its Subcommittee on the McMurdo Antarctic Resupply, which presently relies on icebreaker support.
Representative terms from entire chapter: