INDEX

A

Acinetobacter baumannii, 3, 29

concerns regarding, 185186

Active tuberculosis, 140142

clinical manifestations of active TB, 141142

coinfection with TB and HIV, 142

diagnosis, 140141

primary TB vs reactivation TB, 140

relapse, 144

sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 142, 144

sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5

treatment, 142

Acute Al Eskan disease, 182

Acute brucellosis, 114115

diagnosis, 114115

Acute Campylobacter infection, 103104

diagnosis during and after, 104

Guillain-Barré syndrome, 104105

long-term adverse health outcomes, 104107

reactive arthritis, 106107

treatment, 104

uveitis, 107

Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), 151, 154

Acute idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, 183

Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 105, 127128

Acute leishmaniasis, 120121

Acute malaria, 125

Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), 105

Acute nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 109

diagnosis, 109

Salmonella bacteremia, 109

Salmonella gastroenteritis, 109

treatment, 109

Acute Q fever, 130131

atypical presentations, 131

Coxiella burnetii hepatitis, 130131

Coxiella burnetii pneumonia, 130

treatment for, and related long-term toxicity, 131

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 83



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases INDEX A Acinetobacter baumannii, 3, 29 concerns regarding, 185–186 Active tuberculosis, 140–142 clinical manifestations of active TB, 141–142 coinfection with TB and HIV, 142 diagnosis, 140–141 primary TB vs reactivation TB, 140 relapse, 144 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 142, 144 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5 treatment, 142 Acute Al Eskan disease, 182 Acute brucellosis, 114–115 diagnosis, 114–115 Acute Campylobacter infection, 103–104 diagnosis during and after, 104 Guillain-Barré syndrome, 104–105 long-term adverse health outcomes, 104–107 reactive arthritis, 106–107 treatment, 104 uveitis, 107 Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), 151, 154 Acute idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, 183 Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 105, 127–128 Acute leishmaniasis, 120–121 Acute malaria, 125 Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), 105 Acute nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 109 diagnosis, 109 Salmonella bacteremia, 109 Salmonella gastroenteritis, 109 treatment, 109 Acute Q fever, 130–131 atypical presentations, 131 Coxiella burnetii hepatitis, 130–131 Coxiella burnetii pneumonia, 130 treatment for, and related long-term toxicity, 131 Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 83

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases Acute Shigella infection, 111 diagnosis, 111 treatment, 111 Acute West Nile fever, 151 Adverse health outcomes. See Long-term adverse health outcomes AFP. See Acute flaccid paralysis AIDP. See Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy AIDS, 190. See also Coinfections with HIV Al Eskan disease, 28–29, 181–183 description of acute illness, 182 long-term adverse health outcomes, 182 pathogenesis, 182 treatment, 183 AMAN. See Acute motor axonal neuropathy Amnesia, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6 Ankylosing spondylitis, 110–111 Anopheles mosquito, 124 Anthrax, 194 Antimicrobial susceptibility, 65 ARDS. See Acute respiratory distress syndrome Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 85, 182 Army Medical Surveillance Activity, 61, 82 Arthritis in chronic brucellosis, 116 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 116 Attributions to military service in southwest and south-central Asia, 24–26 B Background, 9–16 charge to the Committee on Gulf War and Health:Infectious Diseases, 13, 15–16 identifying infectious diseases to study, 13–14 Bacterial diseases, 2, 21–22, 25–26, 36–44 antibiotic-resistant or common nosocomial infections, 44 endemic to southwest and south-central Asia that have long-term adverse health outcomes, 36–44 more prevalent in southwest and south-central Asia than in the US, 36–41 not more prevalent in southwest and south-central Asia than in the US, 42–44 of special concern to US troops or veterans, 41 against which all military personnel were immunized and vaccines are highly or fully protective, 41 against which all military personnel were immunized and vaccines are partly protective, 42 BAMC. See Brooke Army Medical Center Benign intracranial hypertension, 131 Biologic-warfare (BW) agents, 29, 193–194 Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC), 86–87, 185–186

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases Brucellosis, 1, 3, 112–118 acute, 114–115 chronic, 115–118 coinfection, 115 diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 84–85 limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 long-term adverse health outcomes, 115–118 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 116–117 transmission and endemicity, 113–114 treatment for, and related long-term toxicity, 115 BW. See Biologic-warfare agents C Campylobacter infection, 1, 3, 103–107 acute illness, 103–104 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 103 limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 107 transmission, 103 Cardiovascular system infections in chronic brucellosis, 117 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 117 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 61, 110 Chicken pox (varicella), diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 85 Choroiditis, multifocal, 6, 117 Chronic brucellosis, 115–118 arthritis, 116 cardiovascular system infections, 117 diagnosis, 115 genitourinary tract manifestations, 117 hepatic involvement, 116 major manifestations, 115–118 neurologic involvement, 116–117 ophthalmologic involvement, 117 other symptoms, 118 respiratory system infections, 118 Chronic hepatitis, sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 134 Chronic osteomyelitis, 187 Chronic sequelae of Coxiella burnetii infection, 132–135 chronic hepatitis, 134 endocarditis, 133 osteomyelitis, 134 post-Q fever fatigue syndrome, 134–135 vascular infection, 134 CL. See Cutaneous leishmaniasis Clinical manifestations of active TB, 141–142

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases extrapulmonary, 141–142 pulmonary, 141 tuberculosis pleurisy, 142 Coinfections with brucellosis, 115 Coinfections with HIV active tuberculosis, 142 Coxiella burnetii, 131–132 leishmaniasis, 122 malaria, 126 nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 109–110 Plasmodium spp., 126 Combat Support Hospital, 187 Committee on Gulf War and Health: Infectious Diseases, 1 approach to its charge, 15–16 charge to, 13 Complications, of acute Q fever, 132 Conclusions, 4–7 inadequate or insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists, 6 limited or suggestive evidence of an association, 6 limited or suggestive evidence of no association, 7 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship, 4 sufficient evidence of an association, 5–6 Coxiella burnetii infections chronic sequelae of, 1, 132–135 hepatitis, 130–131 limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 135 pneumonia, 130 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 134 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 133–134 Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), 118 in the Gulf War, 79–80 in OEF and OIF, 80–81 D Deafness, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 Demyelinating meningovascular syndromes, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 Demyelinating polyneuropathy acute inflammatory, 105, 127–128 limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 128 Department of Defense (DOD), 7, 61, 88, 91, 145 Deployment Health Support, 15 medical databases, 28, 91–93, 191 policies on tuberculin skin testing, 7 policy regarding predeployment and postdeployment serum collection, 7, 93–94

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases Serum Repository, 93 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), 1, 11, 19, 61, 155, 187 Occupational and Environmental Health Strategic Healthcare Group, 15 Depression, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6 Desert Storm pneumonitis, 181 Detection, of tuberculosis transmission, 136 Development of conclusions, 3–4 of inclusion criteria, 2–3 Diagnosis active TB, 140–141 acute brucellosis, 114–115 acute Campylobacter infection, 104 acute nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 109 acute Shigella infection, 111 chronic brucellosis, 115 latent tuberculosis infection, 136 leishmaniasis, 121 Q fever, 131 West Nile fever, 151–152 Diarrheal diseases, 1, 62–73, 103–112 Campylobacter infection, 103–107 diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 62–73 enteric infections in the Gulf War, 62–69 gastroenteritis in OEF and OIF, 69–73 nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 108–110 Shigella infection, 110–112 Diseases, unreported, 25 Diseases and etiologic agents considered by the Committee for evaluation, 21–24 bacterial diseases, 21–22 fungal diseases, 22 helminthic diseases, 22–23 miscellaneous diseases, 23–24 protozoan diseases, 23 viral diseases, 23 Diseases and etiologic agents of special interest to Gulf War, OEF, and OIF veterans, 181–194 Al Eskan disease, 181–183 bacterial diseases, 41 biologic-warfare agents, 193–194 comments on, 28–29 idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, 183–184 mycoplasmas, 190–193 sexually transmitted diseases, 57–58 wound and nosocomial infections, 184–185 Diseases excluded from in-depth study Escherichia coli, 28

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases reasons for, 28 sand fly fever, 28 DOD. See Department of Defense E ELISA. See Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing Encephalitis St. Louis, 149 West Nile, 151 Endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 2, 15, 25–26, 120 brucellosis, 113–114 Campylobacter infection, 103 malaria, 124–125 nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 109 Q fever, 130 Shigella infection, 111 tuberculosis, 137 West Nile virus infection, 150 Endocarditis, 117 sequelae of Coxiella burnetii infection, 133 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 133 Enteric Disease Research Program (US Navy), 69 Enteric infections in the Gulf War, 62–69 among ground troops, 62–68 among shipboard military personnel, 68–69 Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), 2 characterization of, 64–65 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing, 67, 84, 114–115, 131 Epidemiologic investigations among ground troops in the Gulf War, 66 of gastroenteritis in OEF and OIF, 69–71 Episcleritis, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 Escherichia coli pathogenic, 13 reasons for excluding from in-depth study, 28 ETEC. See Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Etiology. See Diseases and etiologic agents Exclusions. See Diseases excluded from in-depth study Extrapulmonary TB, 141–142 late manifestations, 143–144 F Fatigue and inattention, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases FDA. See Food and Drug Administration First Marine Expeditionary Force, 72 Focal neurologic deficits, West Nile virus-positive patients with, 154 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 85, 136, 187 Fungal diseases, 22 G Gastroenteritis in OEF and OIF, 69–73 epidemiologic investigations, 69–71 laboratory analysis, 71–73 GBS. See Guillain-Barré syndrome Genitourinary tract manifestations, in chronic brucellosis, 117 Geographic boundaries, 19–20 Giardia lamblia, 68 Glomerulonephritis, immune-complex, 5 Ground troops in the Gulf War with enteric infections, 62–68 with mild acute respiratory disease, 74–75 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), 127–128 in acute Campylobacter infection, 104–105 limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117, 128 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 105 Gulf War, 1–3, 11, 15, 103 instance of leishmaniasis, 78–80 malaria in, 82 nosocomial infections in, 85 Q fever contracted during, 89 severe acute respiratory disease in, 76 West Nile fever in, 84 Gulf War and Health series, 4, 11, 101 "Gulf War Illness" (GWI), 13 and mycoplasmas, 191–193 H Helminthic diseases, 2, 22–23, 25 endemic to southwest and south-central Asia that have long-term adverse health outcomes, 53–55 Hematologic complications of infection with Plasmodium spp., 126 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 126 Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), 112 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 112 Hemoptysis, 141

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases Hepatic abnormalities in chronic brucellosis, 116 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 116 Hepatitis. See Chronic hepatitis HIV. See Coinfections with HIV HLA-B27 gene, 106–107 HUS. See Hemolytic uremic syndrome I IAEP. See Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia IARC. See International Agency for Research on Cancer ICD. See International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (IAEP), 28–29, 183–184 acute, 183 long-term adverse health outcomes, 183–184 pathogenesis, 184 treatment, 184 Immune-complex glomerulonephritis, sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 128 Immunofluorescence assay (IFA), 131–132 Inadequate or insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists, 6, 31 Infectious diseases diagnosed in US troops who served in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 61–94 brucellosis, 84–85 chicken pox (varicella), 85 and Department of Defense Medical Databases, 91–93 and Department of Defense policy regarding predeployment and postdeployment serum collection, 93–94 diarrheal diseases, 62–73 insect-borne diseases, 78–84 meningococcal disease, 85 nosocomial infections, 85–88 Q fever, 88–90 respiratory disease, 73–78 tuberculosis, 90–91 viral hepatitis, 90 Infectious diseases endemic to southwest and south-central Asia that have long-term adverse health outcomes, 20–24, 35–60 bacterial diseases, 36–44 helminthic diseases, 53–55 protozoan diseases, 50–52 sexually transmitted diseases, 56–58 viral diseases, 45–49 Infectious diseases identified for study, 13–14, 19–29 direct attribution to military service in southwest and south-central Asia, 24–26 diseases and agents of special interest to Gulf War, OEF, and OIF veterans, 28–29

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases endemic to southwest and south-central Asia that have long-term adverse health outcomes, 20–24 geographic boundaries, 19–20 for strength of association with long-term adverse health outcomes, 27–28 timing of appearance of long-term adverse health outcomes, 27 Infectious diseases to be studied for strength of association with long-term adverse health outcomes, 27–28 Insect-borne diseases, 78–84 diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 78–84 leishmaniasis, 78–82 malaria, 82–84 West Nile fever, 84 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 1, 4, 11, 13, 28, 30, 91, 101 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 4, 30 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), 91–93, 141 IOM. See Institute of Medicine K Keratitis, nummular, 6, 117 Kuwait, Iraqi invasion of, 9 L Laboratory analysis among ground troops in the Gulf War, 62–65 of enteric infections in the Gulf War, 62–65 of gastroenteritis in OEF and OIF, 71–73 Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC), 86–88, 186 Late manifestations of active tuberculosis, 142–144 extrapulmonary tuberculosis, 143–144 pulmonary tuberculosis, 143 relapse of active TB, 144 spinal tuberculosis and long-term neurologic disability, 144 tuberculosis meningitis and long-term neurologic disability, 143–144 Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), 7, 137, 142, 145 diagnosis, 136 Leishmaniasis, 3, 13, 78–82, 118–123 acute, 120–121 coinfection with HIV, 122 diagnosis, 121 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 120 in the Gulf War, 78–80 long-term adverse health outcomes, 122–123

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases in OEF and OIF, 80–82 transmission, 119–120 treatment for, and related long-term toxicity, 121–122 Levels of association between select diseases and long-term adverse health outcomes, 101–155 brucellosis, 112–118 diarrheal diseases, 103–112 leishmaniasis, 118–123 malaria, 123–129 Q fever, 129–135 tuberculosis, 135–149 West Nile virus infection, 149–155 Limited or suggestive evidence of an association, 6, 31 involving amnesia, 6 involving brucellosis, 6, 117 involving Campylobacter infection, 6, 107 involving Coxiella burnetii infections, 6, 135 involving deafness, 6, 117 involving demyelinating meningovascular syndromes, 6, 117 involving demyelinating polyneuropathy, 6, 128 involving depression, 6 involving episcleritis, 6, 117 involving fatigue and inattention, 6 involving Guillain-Barré syndrome, 6, 117, 128 involving multifocal choroiditis, 6, 117 involving myelitis-radiculoneuritis, 6, 117 involving neurologic and neuropsychiatric complications, 6, 128 involving nummular keratitis, 6, 117 involving optic neuritis, 6, 117 involving papilledema, 6, 117 involving Plasmodium falciparum infections, 6, 128 involving Plasmodium vivax infections, 6, 128 involving post-Q fever fatigue syndrome, 6, 135 involving sensorineural hearing loss, 6, 117 involving uveitis, 6, 107 Limited or suggestive evidence of no association, 7, 31 Literature amassing, 29 review and evaluation of, 3–4, 29–30 selection of, 29 Long-term adverse health outcomes, 24 of acute Campylobacter infection, 104–107 of Al Eskan disease, 182 of brucellosis, 115–118 definition, 2 of idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, 183–184 of infection with Plasmodium spp., 126–129

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases of infection with West Nile virus, 152–154 of leishmaniasis, 122–123 of nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 110 of Q fever, 132–135 of Shigella infection, 111–112 of visceral leishmaniasis, 122–123 Long-term neurologic disability in patients with West Nile neurologic disease, 154 in spinal tuberculosis, 144 in tuberculosis, 143–144 Long-term toxicity. See Treatments with related long-term toxicity LRMC. See Landstuhl Regional Medical Center LTBI. See Latent tuberculosis infection M Malaria (infection by Plasmodium spp), 1, 3, 82–84, 123–129 acute, 125 coinfection with HIV, 126 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 124–125 in the Gulf War, 82 long-term adverse health outcomes, 126–129 in OEF and OIF, 82–84 relapse and recrudescence, 128–129 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 126, 128–129 transmission, 124 treatment for, and related long-term toxicity, 125–126 Meningitis sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 117 tuberculosis and long-term neurologic disability, 143–144 West Nile, 151 Meningococcal disease, diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 85 Meningoencephalitis, 152 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 117 Methodology, 1–4, 19–31 categories of strength of association, 30–31 development of conclusions, 3–4 identifying the infectious diseases to study, 19–29 identifying the pathogens to study, 2–3 reasons for excluding two diseases from in-depth study, 28 review and evaluation of the literature, 29–30 MFS. See Miller-Fisher syndrome Mild acute respiratory disease in the Gulf War, 73–76 among ground troops, 74–75 among shipboard military personnel, 76 Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), 105

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases Multiple drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, anticipating, 149 Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, 1, 7 anticipating multiple drug-resistant, 149 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 142 Mycoplasmas, 28–29, 190–193 and "Gulf War Illness," 191–193 Myelitis-radiculoneuritis, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 N National Academy of Sciences (NAS), 1 National Library of Medicine, 29 National Naval Medical Center, 186 National Reference Center for Rickettsial Diseases (France), 132 Neurologic and neuropsychiatric complications. See also Long-term neurologic disability of chronic brucellosis, 116–117 of infection with Plasmodium spp., 127–128 limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 128 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 117 of West Nile disease, 150–151 NGT. See Nuclear gene tracking Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 1, 108–110 acute illness, 109 coinfection with nontyphoidal Salmonellae and HIV, 109–110 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 109 long-term adverse health outcomes, 110 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 110 transmission, 108 Norovirus (NV), 71 among ground troops in the Gulf War, 67 Nosocomial infections, 85–88, 184–185 antibiotic-resistant or common, 44 diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 85–88 Nuclear gene tracking (NGT), 192–193 Nummular keratitis, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 NV. See Norovirus O ODSh. See Operation Desert Shield ODSt. See Operation Desert Storm OEF. See Operation Enduring Freedom OIF. See Operation Iraqi Freedom Operation Desert Shield (ODSh), 9, 61, 85, 90, 181 Operation Desert Storm (ODSt), 9, 61, 85, 89–90, 181

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), 1–3, 11, 19, 35, 61, 78, 86–88, 90, 103 Brooke Army Medical Center, 86–87 Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, 87–88 leishmaniasis in, 80–82 malaria in, 82–84 nosocomial infections in, 86–88 Q fever contracted during, 89–90 Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 87–88 West Nile fever in, 84 Ophthalmologic complications of chronic brucellosis, 117 of infection with Plasmodium spp., 126–127 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 127 Optic neuritis, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 Orchioepididymitis, sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 117 Osteomyelitis, 189 chronic, 187 sequelae of Coxiella burnetii infection, 134 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4, 134 P Papilledema, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 Pathogenesis of Al Eskan disease, 182 of idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, 184 Pathogens, identified for study, 2–3 Persian Gulf War. See Gulf War Persian Gulf War Veterans Act, 1, 11–12, 24 PFTs. See Pulmonary function tests PKLD. See Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis Plasmodium falciparum infections limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 128 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 129 Plasmodium malariae infections, sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 128 Plasmodium vivax infections, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 128 Pleurisy, 141 Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 123 Post-Q fever fatigue syndrome limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 135 sequelae of Coxiella burnetii infection, 134–135 Potential relationships between tuberculosis and military service, 144–149 anticipating multiple drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, 149 promotion of tuberculin skin testing, 145–149

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases Pre-existing conditions, 27 Prevalence in southwest and south-central Asia, 2 bacterial diseases, 36–44 sexually transmitted diseases, 56–57 viral diseases, 45–49 Primary infections, 3 Primary TB, vs reactivation TB, 140 Protozoan diseases, 2, 23, 25 endemic to southwest and south-central Asia that have long-term adverse health outcomes, 50–52 PubMed, 29 Pulmonary function tests (PFTs), 143 Pulmonary TB, 141 late manifestations of, 143 Pyothorax, 143 Q Q fever (infection by Coxiella burnetii), 3, 88–90, 129–135 acute, 130–131 coinfection with HIV, 131–132 diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 88–90, 131 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 130 long-term adverse health outcomes, 132–135 transmission of Coxiella burnetii, 129–130 R ReA. See Reactive arthritis Reactivation TB, vs primary TB, 140 Reactive arthritis (ReA), 110–112 in acute Campylobacter infection, 106–107 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 107, 110, 112 Regional experiences in non-Americans, with wound and nosocomial infections, 188–190 Reiter's syndrome, 106 Relapse and recrudescence, of malaria, 128–129 Renal complications of infection with Plasmodium spp., 128 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship involving, 4 Resistance in the World: Anti-TB Drug Prevalence and Trends, 149 Respiratory system infections in chronic brucellosis, 118 diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 73–78 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 118 Reviewing the literature, 29–30

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases S Salmonella infection, 3, 108–110. See also Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection acute illness, 109 bacteremia, 109 coinfection with HIV, 109–110 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 109 gastroenteritis, 109 long-term adverse health outcomes, 110 transmission, 108 Sand fly fever, 13 reasons for excluding from in-depth study, 28 Sensorineural hearing loss, limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 117 Serum agglutination test (SAT), 114 Severe acute respiratory disease in the Gulf War, 76 Sexually transmitted diseases, 56–58 Shigella infection, 1, 3, 13, 71, 110–112 acute illness, 111 among ground troops in the Gulf War, 66–67 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 111 long-term adverse health outcomes, 111–112 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 112 transmission, 110 Shipboard military personnel enteric infections in the Gulf War among, 68–69 mild acute respiratory disease in the Gulf War among, 76 Silicosis, 182–183 Southwest and south-central Asia. See also Endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia; Prevalence in southwest and south-central Asia map of, 20 Special interest diseases. See Diseases and agents of special interest to Gulf War, OEF, and OIF veterans Spinal tuberculosis, and long-term neurologic disability, 144 Spondylitis, 116 ankylosing, 110–111 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 116 St. Louis encephalitis virus, 149, 154 Strength of association categories, 30–31 inadequate or insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists, 6, 31 limited or suggestive evidence of an association, 6, 31 limited or suggestive evidence of no association, 7, 31 sufficient evidence of a causal relationship, 4, 30 sufficient evidence of an association, 5–6, 31 Strength of the evidence, assessing, 4 Subacute infections, 27 Sufficient evidence of a causal relationship, 4, 30

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases involving active TB, 4, 142, 144 involving Coxiella burnetii infections, 4, 134 involving hematologic complications, 4, 126 involving malarial infection, 4, 126, 128–129 involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, 4, 142 involving ophthalmologic complications, 4, 127 involving osteomyelitis, 4, 134 involving renal complications, 4 Sufficient evidence of an association, 5–6, 31 involving active TB, 5 involving arthritis and spondylitis, 5, 116 involving brucellosis, 5, 116–117 involving cardiovascular system infections, 5, 117 involving chronic hepatitis, 5, 134 involving Coxiella burnetii infections, 5, 133–134 involving endocarditis, 5, 133 involving Guillain-Barré syndrome, 5, 105 involving hemolytic uremic syndrome, 5, 112 involving hepatic abnormalities, 5, 116 involving immune-complex glomerulonephritis, 5, 128 involving meningitis and meningoencephalitis, 5, 117 involving neurologic and neuropsychiatric complications, 5, 117 involving nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 5, 110 involving orchioepididymitis, 5, 117 involving Plasmodium falciparum infections, 5, 129 involving Plasmodium malariae infections, 5, 128 involving post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, 5, 123 involving reactive arthritis, 5, 107, 110, 112 involving respiratory system infections, 5, 118 involving Shigella infection, 5, 112 involving uveitis, 5, 117 involving vascular infection, 5, 134 involving visceral leishmaniasis, 5, 123 involving West Nile virus infection, 6, 154 T TB. See Tuberculosis Timing of appearance of long-term adverse health outcomes, 27 Toxicity. See Treatments with related long-term toxicity Transmission of brucellosis, 113–114 of Campylobacter infection, 103 of Coxiella burnetii, 129–130 of leishmaniasis, 119–120 of malaria, 124

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases of nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 108 of Shigella infection, 110 of tuberculosis, 135–136 of West Nile virus infection, 150 Treatments of active TB, 142 of acute Campylobacter infection, 104 of acute nontyphoidal Salmonella infection, 109 of acute Shigella infection, 111 of Al Eskan disease, 183 of idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia, 184 of latent tuberculosis infection, 140 of West Nile virus infection, 152 Treatments with related long-term toxicity of acute Q fever, 131 of brucellosis, 115 of leishmaniasis, 121–122 of malaria, 125–126 Tuberculin skin testing (TSTs) Department of Defense policies on, 7 promotion of, 145–149 Tuberculosis meningitis, and long-term neurologic disability, 143–144 Tuberculosis pleurisy, 142 Tuberculosis (TB), 1, 3, 135–149 active, 140–142 diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF and OIF, 90–91 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 137 late manifestations, 142–144 potential relationships with military service, 144–149 risk of progression from latent tuberculosis infection to active tuberculosis, 137–140 transmission, 135–136 treatment for latent tuberculosis infection to prevent active tuberculosis, 140 U Unreported diseases, 25 US Navy Forward Laboratory, 83 US Senate Committee on Veterans Affairs, Special Investigation Unit on Persian Gulf War Illness, 192 US troops levels of, 10, 14 living conditions of, 61 personal hygiene among, 66 USNS Comfort, 186 USNS Mercy, 62, 68, 76 Uveitis

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases in acute Campylobacter infection, 107 limited or suggestive evidence of an association involving, 6, 107 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 117 V VA. See Department of Veterans Affairs Varicella, 85 Vascular infection sequelae of Coxiella burnetii infection, 134 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 134 Veterans Programs Enhancement Act, 1, 11–12, 24 Viral diseases, 2, 23, 25–26, 45–49 endemic to southwest and south-central Asia that have long-term adverse health outcomes, 45–49 more prevalent in southwest and south-central Asia than in the US, 45–46 potentially more prevalent among troops in southwest and south-central Asia than in the US population, 46–49 Viral hepatitis, diagnosis in US troops serving in the Gulf War, OEF, or OIF, 90 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), 78, 118 in OEF and OIF, 81–82 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 5, 123 Viscerotropic leishmaniasis (VTL), 78 in the Gulf War, 79 VL. See Visceral leishmaniasis VTL. See Viscerotropic leishmaniasis W Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 15 Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC), 78, 80, 87–88, 186–187 West Nile encephalitis (WNE), 151 West Nile meningitis (WNM), 151 West Nile neurologic disease (WNND), 150–151, 153 West Nile virus (WNV) infection, 1, 3, 84, 149–155 acute, 151 diagnosis, 151–152 endemicity in southwest and south-central Asia, 150 in the Gulf War, 84 long-term adverse health outcomes, 152–154 in OEF and OIF, 84 sufficient evidence of an association involving, 6, 154 transmission, 150 treatment, 152 WHO. See World Health Organization

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases WNE. See West Nile encephalitis WNM. See West Nile meningitis WNND. See West Nile neurologic disease WNV. See West Nile virus infection World Health Organization (WHO), 30, 149 Wound infections, 29, 184–187 concerns regarding Acinetobacter baumannii, 185–186 regional experiences in non-Americans, 188–190 Wounded-to-killed ratios, 184 WRAMC. See Walter Reed Army Medical Center Z Zoonotic diseases, 84, 88, 113, 120

OCR for page 205
Gulf War and Health: Volume 5. Infectious Diseases This page intentionally left blank.