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Index

A

Acalyptratae, 113

Accommodations, 55-56

Actins, 50

Adaptation.

See also Coadaptation;

Color vision;

Temperature adaptation to altitude, see High-altitude adaptation to climate, 19-20

comparative studies, 183, 187-204, 227

to environmental challenges, xvii, 13, 15-16, 18-19, 225, 226-227

and evolution, 73-76, 83, 84, 95, 98, 101-103, 135, 184, 187-204, 226

fitness tradeoffs, 129, 130, 133-134, 137-138, 139, 140-142, 143, 225, 226, 227-238

functional, 14, 17, 73, 239-255

to habitat, 19-20, 74

Levins’ principle of allocation, 226, 233-234

local, 211

selection experiments, 227

symbiotic associations, 165-166, 169-170, 171-172, 180

Alternative splicing, 70, 71, 94

Altitude. See High-altitude adaptation

Altruism.

See also Reproductive altruism

defined, 134

gene, 134-136, 139, 143

American Civil Liberties Union, 297

Amoebae, 168

Answers in Genesis, 287

Anthropogenic selection, 214

Antibiotic resistance, 15-16

Ants, 54, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157, 158, 159, 160-161, 174, 177

Aphids, 155, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181

Apoptosis, 59, 73-74, 133, 273, 279

Aquinas, Thomas, xv

Arabidopsis, 213, 223

Archaea, 170

Arginine biosynthesis, 178

Argument against chance, 5, 8-9, 20

Argument from design.

See also Intelligent Design

Paley’s, xv, 5, 6-8, 10, 14, 293, 294

Arkansas Education Association, 287

Army ants, 152

Arrow, Gilbert, 281

Arthropods, 50, 60, 93, 112, 115, 180, 188, 267-268, 269, 277

Arthur M. Sackler colloquia, iv, viii, xiii-xiv, xvii, 43

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii

Artificial life models. See Avida populations

Artificial selection, 13, 14, 88, 183-184, 217.

See also Plant domestication

Atta ants, 160-161



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Index A American Civil liberties Union, 297 Amoebae, 168 Acalyptratae, 113 Answers in Genesis, 287 Accommodations, 55-56 Anthropogenic selection, 214 Actins, 50 Antibiotic resistance, 15-16 Adaptation. See also Coadaptation; Color Ants, 54, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157, vision; Temperature adaptation 158, 159, 160-161, 174, 177 to altitude, see high-altitude adaptation Aphids, 155, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181 to climate, 19-20 Apoptosis, 59, 73-74, 133, 273, 279 comparative studies, 183, 187-204, 227 Aquinas, Thomas, xv to environmental challenges, xvii, 13, Arabidopsis, 213, 223 15-16, 18-19, 225, 226-227 Archaea, 170 and evolution, 73-76, 83, 84, 95, 98, 101- Arginine biosynthesis, 178 103, 135, 184, 187-204, 226 Argument against chance, 5, 8-9, 20 fitness tradeoffs, 129, 130, 133-134, Argument from design. See also intelligent 137-138, 139, 140-142, 143, 225, 226, Design 227-238 Paley’s, xv, 5, 6-8, 10, 14, 293, 294 functional, 14, 17, 73, 239-255 Arkansas education Association, 287 to habitat, 19-20, 74 Army ants, 152 levins’ principle of allocation, 226, Arrow, Gilbert, 281 233-234 Arthropods, 50, 60, 93, 112, 115, 180, 188, local, 211 267-268, 269, 277 selection experiments, 227 Arthur M. sackler colloquia, iv, viii, xiii-xiv, symbiotic associations, 165-166, 169-170, xvii, 43 171-172, 180 Arthur M. sackler Gallery of Asian Art, viii Alternative splicing, 70, 71, 94 Artificial life models. See Avida populations Altitude. See high-altitude adaptation Artificial selection, 13, 14, 88, 183-184, 217. Altruism. See also reproductive altruism See also Plant domestication defined, 134 Atta ants, 160-161 gene, 134-136, 139, 143 

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 / Index Auchenorrhyncha, 173-176 developmental stages, 267 Avida populations dimorphism and, 257, 261, 262-265, 266, frequency and distribution of function, 275, 279, 280, 281 35-37 fossil record, 261 functional information of, 26, 28, 30, 33- gains and losses, 257, 258, 261-262, 264, 40, 41, 42, 43 280-281 islands of function, 36-40 insulin sensitivity, 272, 277-279, 280 measures of function, 34-35 morphology, 257, 260, 261, 262-265, 266, software, 43 273, 275-277, 279, 280, 281 stepped behavior, 37-38, 39-40, 41 mutations, 261, 280 Avise, John C., iv, xiii-xiv, 43, 163, 181 natural history of scarabs, 184, 257, Ayala, Francisco J., xiii-xiv, xvii, 3-21, 43, 259-265 68, 163, 181, 183, 296 nutrition-related modulation, 257, 270- 273, 275, 277-279 origin, 185, 257, 275-276 B patterning genes, 276-277, 279, 280 physical location of horns 262, 263, 273- Bacteria. See also Escherichia coli 277, 281 age of, 19 pupal remodeling, 265, 267, 273-275, 279 coadaptation, 171 shape, 257, 262, 264, 276-277, 279, 281 evolution of multicellularity, 132 stepwise evolution, 265-275 flagellum, 171, 285, 289-290, 291, 292, Behe, Michael, 288-289, 290, 291, 293, 295- 293 296, 299 genome analysis, 50, 170 Bell, Charles, 10, 12 horizontal gene transfer, 167, 168, 170- Bennett, Albert F., 183, 225-238 171, 172, 179 Bernard, Gary D., 187-204 loss of function, 69, 167 Bess beetles (Passalidae), 259, 260 pathogenic, 168, 170 β-tubulins, 50 phototrophic, 171 Bicyclus anynana, 191 resistance to antibiotics, 15-16 Biocomplexity. See also Avida populations; symbiotic associations, 167, 170-171, eusocial insect colonies; 172, 174-179 Multicellular organisms toxins, 167 artificial, 26 type-iii secretory systems, 167 behavioral, 28 Bacteriocytes, 174 competitive, 32 Bacteriomes, 174, 175, 176, 177, 179 conserved core processes, 54-55 Bacteriophages, 170, 179 of cross-purpose, 147 Baldwin effect, 57, 58 developmental constraints, 65 Bananas, 206, 211, 212 dimensionality, 28 Barley, 206, 209, 212, 213, 214 diversity, 27-28 Bat wing evolution, 55-56, 73-74, 75 hierarchical levels, 105-107 Baumania cicadellinicola, 175, 176, 177 information content–function Beall, Cynthia M., 184, 239-255 relationship, 27 Beavis effect, 211 measuring, 150-151 Bees, 50, 146, 148, 149, 152, 153, 154, 157, modeling emergent events, 26, 42-43 159-160, 161, 162, 172 natural selection and, 16-17, 54, 55, 68, Beetle horn diversification 69, 73, 85, 93, 95-96 allometry, 257, 258, 262, 271, 272, 275, nonadaptive forces, 90-95 277-279, 281 origins and evolution of, xvii, 42, 83, 84, axis of outgrowth, 265-270, 275-276, 280 93-95, 103 comparative studies, 277 of purpose, 147 developmental model, 258, 275-280

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Index /  quantifying, 25, 27-28; see also Clark University, vii Functional information Ceroplophana modiglianii, 259 structural, 27 Chafers (rutelinae), 259, 260 symbiosis and, 171-172 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 131, 132, 135 symbolic, 27-28 Christian fundamentalism, 286-287, 295, Biodiversity, xiii, 16, 83 297 Bioinformatics, 220, 221 Chromophores, 188, 190, 199-201 Biological sciences Curriculum study, 287 Cicadas, 173 Biopolymers, 25, 26, 40-41, 42 Cichlid fishes, lake Malawi, 62 Bird, Wendell, 297, 299 Cis-regulatory elements (Cres). See also Bliss, Dick, 293 Transcription-factor binding sites Blochmannia, 177 altered gene expression, 61, 62 bmp gene, 62 cooption, 114, 123 Bone morphogenic protein (Bmp), 49, 61, evolutionary significance, 111 62, 73-74 and fitness penalties, 118-120 Bovine rhodopsin, 199-200, 200, 204 functional conservation of, 111, 115 Bowtie effect, 60 modularity, 110, 111 Bradley, Walter, 298 and novelty, 114-117, 120 Bricolage, 68, 69, 70, 73. See also transcription factor interactions with, evolutionary tinkering 120-122 Bridgewater Treatises, 9-10 Climate change, 226 Briscoe, Adriana D., 187-204 Coadaptation, 166, 171, 179, 180 Britten, roy h., 23, 66 Cockroaches, 174 Bryan, William Jennings, 286 Coevolution Buchner, Paul, 173-174, 176 regulatory changes and, 46, 52, 53, 54, Buchnera, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180 56, 61, 62 Buell, Jon, 297, 298 symbiotic associations, 169, 170-171 Busk, George, 12 Colobopsis ants, 150 Butterflies. See also Color vision in Color vision in butterflies butterflies absorbance spectra, 191-194 wing morphology, 124, 125, 279 bovine rhodopsin model compared, 199-200, 200, 204 branch-site models of selection, 195, C 197, 198-199, 203-204 character mapping of l opsin λmax Cajal bodies, 94 values, 187, 195-196, 197 Calmodulin signaling, 61, 62, 73 chromophore binding pocket, 188, 190, Cambrian geological period, 16, 48, 50 194 Carothers, James M., 23, 25-43 epimicrospectrophotometry, 187, 191- Carpenter ants, 174, 177 192, 193, 201 Carroll, sean B., 86, 88, 105, 109-127 homology modeling, 188, 199-201, 204 Carsonella rudii, 178, 179 humans compared, 200-201 CD44, 71 l opsin sites, 188, 199-201 Cell–cell signaling, 49, 59, 61, 95, 110 McDonald-Kreitman test for selection, Cell death. See Apoptosis 194-195, 196, 202-203 Cell proliferation, 58, 59, 74, 80, 265, 267, nymphalid model, 190, 191-195 268, 269, 272-273, 274, 275, 276-277, opsin sequences, 191-194 279, 280 papilonid, 195 Cell specialization, 49, 106, 107, 129, 131- parallel and/or convergent evolution, 133, 134, 137-139, 140-142, 150, 165, 187, 190, 196-198, 199, 201, 203 174. See also Multicellular organisms PCr, cloning, and sequencing, 187, Center for science and Culture, 288 202-203

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 / Index phylogenetic reconstruction, 187, 189, Darrow, Clarence, 286 195, 197, 198, 203 Darwin, Charles, 188, 289 pierid, 195 beetle collection, 184-185 primates compared, 183, 187, 188-190, on domestication, 183-184, 207-209 194, 200-201 evidence of evolution, 5-6, 13, 46, 61, 132 red–green, 190, 193 and evolutionary tinkering concept, 68 sample collecting, 202 natural selection theory, xvi, xvii, 3, 5, 6, Compartmentation, regulatory, 49, 51, 59-60 10-12, 13-16, 21, 68, 86, 146, 151, 153, Competitive systems, 32, 170, 209 169, 226, 235 Complexity. See Biocomplexity Origin of Species, 5-6, 12-15, 132, 183, 207 Conserved core components and processes Paley’s influence, xv, 6, 10, 14, 146 adaptability, 51, 54, 55-56, 60, 61, 62, 63 and phenotypic variation, 46, 56, 57, appendage and limb formation, 50, 55- 183-184 56, 115, 269 scientific method, 146 complexity, 54-55 on sexual selection, 163, 254, 258, 260, exploratory behavior, 45, 51, 54-55, 60, 281 63 superorganism view, 151, 153 and facilitated variation, 45-46, 48-51 Darwinian revolution, xvii, 3, 4 functional information, 36-37, 51, 61-62, Davidson, eric, 23, 66, 74 80 Davis, Percival William, 298-299 genetic change and, 60-61 Dawkins, richard, 293 genetic networks, 79, 80 Decapentaplegic gene, 268, 269, 277 and genome analysis, 50 Dembski, William, 288, 289, 290, 293, 296, origins and evolution of, 48-51, 62-63 298, 301 in pigmentation patterns, 113, 116, 122 Dictyostelium, 168 and regulation of gene expression, 24, Diptera, 112-114, 124, 125, 126, 172. See also 111, 115 Drosophila regulatory compartmentation and, 49, Discovery institute, 288, 303 51, 59-60, 63, 122 Divergence. See also Morphological robustness, 51, 54, 55-56, 60, 61, 62, 63 evolution state selection, 52-53, 60 acquisition of foreign genes and, 168 weak regulatory linkages and, 51-54, 60, beetle horns, 257, 262, 279 63 functional, 199 Convergent evolution, 79, 187, 189, 190, of Galapagos finches, 46, 63, 73 194, 195, 196-198, 199 obligate nutritional symbionts of Copernican revolution, xvii, 3, 4-5 insects, 177, 178 Copernicus, nicolaus, xvii, 4 rate of, 262 Creation myths, 68 regulatory elements and, 110, 111, 112, Creation science movement, 285, 287, 288, 114, 116, 124, 125, 127, 135, 136 293-302 silent-site level of, 91 Cretaceous, 154 of sticklebacks, 61, 73, 74-76, 119 Cuerna sayi, 175 tradeoffs and, 234 Cuevas, Cristina i., 187-204 tryptophan pathways, 167 Cyanobacteria, 170 DnA sequences Cytoplasmic P bodies, 94 changes in, see Genetic variation noncoding, 111 nonfunctional intergenic, 90, 172 D nontranscribed, 47 Dobzhansky, Theodosius, xiii, xiv, xviii Dalrymple, G. Brent, 296 Drosophila Danaus plexippus (Monarch butterfly), 191, cis-regulatory evolution, 114, 115-117, 197 118, 119, 121, 124-125

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Index /  Eudorina elegans, 131, 132 compartmentation, 60 eukaryotes conservation of DnA sequences, 50, 57- conserved sequences, 50 58, 60, 269 genome architecture, 86, 90, 91, 92, 98 demographic models, 217 horizontal gene transfer, 165, 166, 168 fitness, 118 multicellular, 90, 91, 93, 102, 132, 165, gene loss, 172 166, 171-172 haltere development, 124-126 number of genes, 51 hox proteins, 121, 124-125 symbiosis, 171-172 imaginal discs, 266, 268, 269, 276 unicellular, 51, 90, 91, 93, 168 insulin sensitivity, 278 eukaryotic cells, 49, 50, 94, 102, 130, 147, kikkawai, 121 171 larval hairs, 119 eusocial insect colonies melanogaster, 114, 120-122 castes, 150, 159, 160, 161 patterning genes, 268, 269, 276 complexity, 26, 145, 148, 150-151, 163 Pax6 gene, 70 cooperation and common purpose, 106, phenotypic variation, 57-58, 61, 213 145, 147, 148-149, 152, 163 pigmentation patterns, 114-117, 118, 121, cross-purpose and conflicts, 106, 145- 124-125 146, 147-148, 158, 159-161, 162, 163 regulatory networks, 61, 70 dance language, 152 selection testing, 213, 217-218 dispersion, 153 willistoni, 121 division of labor, 148-150, 151-152, Dung beetles (scarabaeinae), 259, 260, 267, 154-155 269 fortress defenders, 145, 155-157, 159 haplodiploid hypothesis, 106, 154-155 E kin selection theory, 155-158, 159, 162, 163 education. See Public school evolution kinship ties, 106, 145, 147-148, 153-154, education 157, 161 embryonic development life insurers, 145, 155, 157, 159 cell differentiation, 58 mobility, 150, 151 compartmentation, 59, 60 multicellular organism compared, and facilitated variation, 62 149-152 forelimb development, 73 origins of sociality, 154 phylotypic stage, 59-60 parental care, 155 placenta and, 16-17 queenless, 157, 161 embryonic induction, 53 queens, 145, 148, 149, 150, 153, 155, 157, emlen, Douglas J., 185, 257-281 158, 159-161, 162 enhancer binding proteins, 53 reproductive altruism, 106, 148, 154, environmentally induced change. See 155, 157 also high-altitude adaptation; sex ratio conflict, 154, 158, 159, 163 Temperature adaptation success of, 152-153 persistence of traits, 57; see also superorganism view of, 147, 149-152, heritibility; natural selection 153, 158, 159 sex differentiation, 54 worker reproduction and policing, 161- epistasis, 87, 95-100. See also Genetic 162, 163 networks evolution. See also humans; Phenotypic erythropoietin, 246, 252-253 variation Escherichia coli, 50, 184 acceptance of theory, 302-304 horizontal gene transfer, 168 adaptive, 73-76, 83, 84, 95, 98, 101- tradeoffs in temperature adaptation, 103, 135, 184, 187-204, 226; see also 225, 227-238 Divergence

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0 / Index behavioral, 54, 57, 95, 101, 106, 148, 149, evolvability, 83, 100-102, 103, 130 161, 240 ewen-Campen, Ben, 185, 257-281 of complexity, xvii, 42, 83, 84 exploratory processes, 54-55, 91 conserved core processes, 48-51, 62-63 eye. See also Color vision in butterflies convergent, 79, 187, 189, 190, 194, 195, butterfly, 191, 192, 201 196-198, 199 complexity argument, 7-8, 9, 146 Darwin’s evidence, 13 dioptric distortion, 7-8 directionality, 83, 85, 87, 88-89 evolutionary tinkering, 70 diversification (cladogenesis), 14, 17; see fruit fly, 70 also Beetle horn diversification image-resolving, 188 education, see Public school evolution molluscan, 17-18, 183, 188 education rhabdom structure, 191, 201 genetic variation and, 47, 54, 86, 118, 258 stepwise evolution, 16, 17-18, 70, 132, 183 geographic evidence, 11 gradualness, 54, 75 F interval vs. external forces, 88-89 lamarckism, 56-5763 Facilitated variation, theory of metaphors, 67-69 compartmentation, 59-60 microevolutionary scale, 24, 65, 76-80, conserved core processes and, 45-46, 85, 86, 123, 294-295 48-56 misconceptions about, 84, 85-86 and evolution, 62-63 Modern synthesis, 57, 86 experimental evidence, 60-62 molecular reconstruction of, 17, 85, 176 exploratory processes, 54-55 morphological changes, see favorable sources and paths, 56-59 Morphological evolution steps, 47-48 mutations and, 15, 54, 83, 85, 87, 88-89, weak regulatory linkages and, 48, 51-54 90-92 Falciprum malaria, 254 natural selection and, 14-15, 84, 85, 87, Finches, beak morphology, 46, 61-62, 73, 92, 93, 95, 118 74, 75 network perspective, 66, 67-69 Fish. See also stickleback fish neutral model, 90-92, 195 cis-regulatory evolution, 119 nonadaptive forces, 83, 86-87; see also facilitated variation, 61, 62 Genetic drift; Genetic recombination; functional adaptations, 7 Mutations placental, 17 parallel, 56, 60, 79, 174, 176, 178, 188, sex determination, 54 190, 194, 196-198, 199, 201, 203-204, vision, 188 209, 223 Fitness. See also reproductive s pre-Darwinian theories, 11 artificial life models, 35, 37 population genetic environment and, cis-regulatory elements and, 118-120 24, 83, 84-88 components, 133-134 predictions of alternative trajectories, covariance effect, 140-142 24, 65 Darwinian fitness coefficient, 254 process, 3-4, 15, 18, 129 heritability, 130, 133 theory of, 5-6, 21, 62 horizontal gene transfer and, 170 tradeoffs, 68, 129, 130, 133-134, 137-143, reorganization of, 130, 134 225-238 sociality and, 155-157 transitions, 129-143, 174 symbiotic associations and, 170 evolutionary tinkering temperature adaptation in E. coli and, concept, 68-69 225, 227-238 in functional adaptation, 239, 255 tradeoffs, 129, 130, 133-134, 137-138, molecular constraints on, 51, 69-73 139, 140-142, 143, 225, 226, 227-238 morphological, 68

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Index /  Flax, 223 conserved, 79, 269 Flower beetles (Cetoniinae), 259, 260 enhancer/silencer units, 71-72 Forelimb evolution, 88, 90, 146 evolutionary metaphors and, 67-69 Formica exsecta, 158 evolutionary process, 75-76 Forrest, Barbara, 301 and experimental research, 73-76 Fossil record, 20, 86, 153, 174, 176, 294 feedback loops, 77 Foundation for Thought and ethics, forcing structure, 77 297-298 functional connectivity patterns, 76-77 Foxtail millet, 214 general properties, 76-77 Frentiu, Francesca D., 183, 187-204 modularity, 65, 70-72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79- Functional information 80, 81, 83, 85, 92, 94, 95-100, 135-136, applications, 42-43 268, 269, 270, 275, 292 of Avida populations, 26, 28, 30, 33-40, and mutational events, 69, 71, 72 41, 42, 43 and natural selection, 72, 86, 95-96 and biopolymers, 25, 26, 28, 30, 33, 40- passive emergence, 95-100 41, 42 pathways, 77, 78-79 calculation, 28-30 predictive capability, 65, 67, 76-80 conserved sequences, 37 regulatory, 66, 71-72, 78, 92, 95-100, 105- defined, 23, 25 106, 109 discontinuities, 36-40 schematic, 71 in higher-dimensional systems, 41-42 in systems biology, 66 of letter sequences, 25, 26, 28, 30-33, 37, Genetic recombination, 86, 87, 88, 93, 102, 40, 42 103, 127, 178, 179, 180, 216, 217 in statistically random systems, 39 Genetic variation. See also Mutations in adaptive traits, 215, 218, 234, 255 cis-regulatory changes, 47 G and complex morphological changes, 123-126, 258 Gain of function, 77-78, 90, 114 and evolution, 47, 54, 86, 118, 258 Galileo, xvii, 4 and gene regulation, 47 Gammaproteobacteria, 168, 175, 176 lethality, 48, 56, 61 Gaut, Brandon s., 184, 205-223 nonadaptive mechanisms in, 86, 90, 101 Genes and phenotypic variation, 45, 46-47, 56, cooption/recruitment, 69-70, 71, 75, 105, 58, 59, 60-61, 205-223 115, 116, 122, 123, 129, 134, 135, 136, in protein regulatory regions, 48 142, 189 sources, 15, 47 duplication, 82, 86, 94, 96-97, 98, 99, 111, at transcription sites, 47-48 124, 126, 168, 172, 189, 190, 193, 201 Genome analysis, xvi interactions, 24, 87; see also Genetic artificial life, see Avida populations networks bacteria, 50, 170 loss, 50, 165, 166, 167, 169, 172 comparative sequencing, 50, 166, 169, subfunctionalization, 92, 94, 97, 98, 100, 176-177 123 Genomes regulation, 24; see also Genetic networks evolution of, 90-92 transfer, see horizontal gene transfer mobile elements, 88, 90, 92, 94, 102 Genetic assimilation, 57-58 plasticity, 179-180 Genetic drift, 24, 79, 83, 85, 86-87, 89, 90, 91, Genomic imprinting, 148 96, 99, 103, 127, 194, 214 Gerhart, John, 24, 45-63, 81, 84 Genetic networks, 24 Gish, Duane, 295 analysis, 67 God, xv, 6-7, 9-10, 293, 294, 301 complex morphological traits, 65, 268 Gompel, nicolas, 105, 109-127 conceptual framework, 66, 57-59 Gonium pectoral, 131, 132

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2 / Index Gould, stephen Jay, 296 hypoxic ventilator response, 243, 245, Graphocephala atropunctata, 177 251, 252-253 Gray, Asa, 12 mitochondrial volume, 241-242, 249, Griffin, Patrick l., 23, 25-43 250, 252-253, 254 myoglobin gene, 254 nitric oxide synthesis, 248, 250, 252-253, H 254 offspring survival, 239, 248, 254 hamilton, W. D., 153-154 oxygen diffusion rates, 241, 246-250, 254 Hamiltonella defensa, 179 oxygen dissociation from hemoglobin, haplodiploid hypothesis, 106, 154-155 249 haplotype blocks, 212 points of, 242-250 hapMap project, 223 pulmonary hypertension, 248, 250, 252- hazen, robert M., 23, 25-43 253, 254 Hedgehog gene, 268, 277 quantitative genetic approach, 239, 250- Heliconius erato, 191 251, 252-253 Heliconius sara, 197 Tibetan-Andean population differences, hemoglobin, 240, 244-246, 250, 252-253 184, 240-241, 244-255 heritability uteroplacental oxygen delivery, 248 of adaptations, 57 ventilation, 243-244, 245, 251, 252-253 defined, 100 high-throughput analysis, 220 of fitness-related traits, 130, 133-134 histidine, 177 genetic variance and, 101 hitchhiking effect, 88, 222 of high-altitude adaptation, 239-340, Homalodisca coagulata, 176 250-255 Homo sapiens, 19 of phenotypic variations, 46, 57, 60-61 homology modeling, 188, 199-201, 204 of regulatory change, 45, 53 honey bees, 50, 146, 148, 149, 152, 159-159, of symbiotic associations, 106, 165, 169, 162, 172 179-180 honeypot ants, 150 herschel, John, 11 hooker, Joseph, 11 high-altitude adaptation horizontal gene transfer arterial oxygen, 246, 247, 250, 252-253 in bacteria, 167, 168, 170-171, 172, 179 basal metabolic rate, 242, 243 barriers to, 168, 170-171, 172 blood flow rates, 246-250, 254 in eukaryotes, 165, 166, 168, 172-173 blood oxygen levels, 241, 244-246, 250, evolutionary motivation, 166-167 251, 254 and fitness, 170 candidate gene approach, 239, 254-255 and novelty, 106, 166, 168 capillary density, 249, 250, 252-253 in plants, 168 Darwinian fitness coefficient, 254 in prokaryotes, 106, 165, 167-168, 170 effect size, 250 rates, 168 energy production, 242-243 symbiotic associations and, 166, 169, erythropoietin concentrations, 246, 170-171, 172-173, 178-179 252-253 vectors, 170 evolutionary tinkering, 239 hox genes, 60 genetic admixture analysis, 239, 251 hox proteins, 110, 121, 122, 124, 125 h1F1 transcription factor, 254-255 human genome, 172 hemoglobin concentration, 246, 252-253 humans hemoglobin oxygen saturation, 240, color vision, 200-201 244-246, 250, 252-253 oxygen transport cascade, 241-242 heritability, 239-340, 250-255 selection testing, 217-218 hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, hume, David, xv-xvi 247-248 hymenoptera, 154, 155

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Index /  hypoxia. See high-altitude adaptation Paley’s Natural Theology, xv, 6-8, 9, 10, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, 146, 294 247-248 scientific failure of, xviii, 286, 288, 289- hypoxic ventilator response, 243, 245, 251, 290, 291, 292-293, 296, 304 252-253 special creation, 295-296 “teach the controversy” strategy, 303-304 I textbooks, 298-299 Wedge Document, 288 imaginal discs, 266, 268, 269, 271, 272, 273, introns, 90, 91, 92, 94, 102, 193, 202 275, 276, 277, 278 invertebrates, 91, 94, 173, 290, 295 immune system, 50, 133, 285 irreducible complexity argument, 9-10, 13, Inachis io, 197 288-289, 293, 294 individuality Ishikawaella capsulata, 178 cost of reproduction and, 136-140 covariance effect, 140-142 fitness tradeoffs and, 134, 137 J group size and, 129, 131, 136 origins, 147 Jacob, Francois, 68, 69, 93 reproductive altruism and, 134-136 Junonia coenia, 195, 197, 198, 199 information theory, xvii Jurassic, 261, 276 insects. See also Beetle horn diversification; Color vision in butterflies; Drosophila K apoptosis in, 279 colonies. See eusocial insect colonies Kansas Board of education, 296 compartmentation, 59 Kauffman, s., 66, 77, 103 eye, 189 Kenyon, Dean, 298-299 fat bodies, 272 Kepler, Johann, xvii, 4 fossil record, 153, 174, 176 Kin selection limb and appendage development, 60, in behavioral evolution, 101 266, 268, 269, 271, 272, 273, 275, 276, in eusocial insect colonies, 106, 145, 147- 277, 278, 279 148, 155-158, 159, 162, 163 symbiotic associations, 165, 173-178 and individuality, 130, 143 institute for Creation research, 287, 295 King, Mary-Claire, 23 insulin sensitivity, 272, 277-279, 280 Kirschner, Marc, 24, 45-63, 81, 84 intelligent design, 102 arguments for, xvii, 9-10, 12, 13, 146, 288-290, 292, 293, 294 L artifact analogy, 5, 9, 289-293 and common ancestry of humans and lamarckism, 56-57, 63 apes, 295-296 lavine, laura Corley, 185, 257-281 creation science movement and, 285, leafhoppers, 173-175 287, 288, 293-302 lenski, richard e., 183, 225-238 and educational policy, xviii, 285, 296- Leptothorax ants, 152 297, 299, 302-304 life-history emergence of, 287, 296-302 evolution, 130, 143, 226 landmark court decisions, 287-288, 291, theory, 140 296-297, 298-299, 301, 302 tradeoff genes, 129, 134, 135, 136, 137, microevolution/macroevolution 139, 140, 142 distinction, 294-295 Limenitis spp., 187, 191-204 modern proponents, xviii, 286, 288-289, limpets, 17, 18 294, 295-296, 301 lingula, 12, 15

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 / Index linnean society of london, 11-12 Monte Carlo simulations, 42 Liostenogaster flavolineata, 159 Moran, nancy, 42, 106-107, 165-181 living fossils, 12, 15 Morowitz, harold, 296 lizards and salamanders, 94, 149 Morphological evolution, 68, 94. See also loss of function traits, 69, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, Divergence; Pigmentation patterns 100, 114, 118, 167, 178 bat wings, 55-56, 73-74, 75 lyell, Charles, 11, 146 beetle horns, 257, 260, 261, 262-265, 266, lynch, Michael, 24, 83-103 273, 275-277, 279, 280, 281 developmental system drift, 96 finch beaks, 46, 61-62, 73, 74, 75 M gains and losses of traits, 122-123 genetic networks, 65, 96 Maize, 206, 209, 210, 211, 213, 217, 218, 219, genetic variation, 118, 123-126, 258 220, 221, 222, 223 insect wing, 113, 279 Malthus, Thomas, 146 novelty, 50, 80, 105, 112 Mammals pleiotropy and, 119 coat colors, 16, 66 regulatory evolution and, 105-106, 110, ear, 68 111, 112-114, 115, 118-119, 120-126 evolutionary tinkering, 68 sexual dimorphism, 257, 260, 261, 262- immune system, 285 263, 266, 273, 275, 280 placenta, 16-17, 248 simplification, 84 relatedness and helping behavior, 157 tinkering, 68 vision, 183, 188, 189, 190 Morrell, Peter l., 184, 205-223 Manduca sexta, 203 Morris, henry M., 287, 295, 299 Marsupials, 16, 79 Mouse genome, 50 Matzke, nicholas J., 185, 285-304 Müller, h. J., 66, 173 May and June beetles (Melolonthinae), 259, Müller’s ratchet, 67 260 Multicellular organisms MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor) gene, 16 complexity, 27, 106, 150-151 McDonald-Kreitman test for selection, 194- conflict mediation, 133 195, 196, 202-203 conflicts and cross-purposes, xvii, 133, Mclean, Bill, 296 147 Melipona, 160 conserved functional components and Metazoa, 172 processes, 49 Methanogenesis, 167 cooperation and, xvii, 133, 135 Michigan state University, Digital division of labor, 133, 149 evolution laboratory, 43 eusocial insect colony analogy, 149-152 Michod, richard e., 106, 129-143 fitness tradeoffs, 106, 129, 134, 136-140, Microevolutionary theory, 24, 65, 76-80, 85, 142 86, 123, 294-295 genome complexity, 90-92, 102 Microtubules, 49, 54-55 germ soma specialization, 131-132 Miller, Kenneth r., 293 group formation, 129, 142 Mitochondria, 147, 165, 168, 171, 172, 241- hallmarks of, 94-95 242, 249, 250, 252-253, 254 horizontal gene transfer, 165, 166 Molecular biology. See also DnA sequences; individuality trait, 129, 131, 132, 142-143 Genes interactions of systems, 105 reconstruction of evolutionary history, kinship relationships, 101, 106, 131-132, 17, 85 133, 142, 153 technology, 87 life-cycle stages, 27 Molecular clock, 67 modular gene structure, 94, 96-98 Mollusks, 9 mutation rates, 91, 93 eye evolution, 17-18, 183, 188

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Index /  nonadaptive evolutionary forces, 85, 86, natural selection 90-92, 93-98, 102 adaptation, 3, 6, 13, 18, 101 origins, 93-95, 132 artificial selection analogy, 183-184, reproductive altruism, 106, 129, 133, 207-209 134-136, 142 Baldwin effect, 57, 58 specialization of cells, 49, 106, 107, 129, branch-site models, 195, 197, 198-199, 131-133, 134, 137-139, 140-142, 150, 203-204 165, 174 color vision, 189, 194-203 structure, 149 and complex design, 16-17, 54, 55, 68, symbioses, 106-107, 165, 166, 171-180 69, 73, 85, 93, 95-96 transition from unicellularity, 106, as creative process, 4, 16, 18, 20-21, 57 129-143 Darwin’s discovery, xvi, xvii, 3, 5, 6, 10- unicellular organisms compared, 91, 92, 12, 13-16, 21, 86, 146, 151, 153, 169, 102 226, 235 Murex, 17 and evolution, 14-15, 84, 85, 87, 92, 93, Mutations 95, 118 accumulation, 19, 94, 126, 194, 212, and genetic modularity, 72, 86, 95-96, 98 235-236 homology modeling, 188, 199-201, 204 bias, 88, 89 important features, 18 complexity-increasing, 19, 61, 135 levels of selection, 72, 100-102 degenerative, 86, 90, 92, 96, 97, 98, 99 MK test, 194-195, 196, 202-203 deleterious, 85, 87, 90, 93 mutations and, 3, 13, 15-18, 19, 20-21, and evolution, 15, 54, 83, 85, 87, 88-89, 85, 86 90-92 opportunism vs. design, 19-20 examples, 15-16 and reproductive success, 11, 13, 14, 17, fixation, 89, 194, 195 20, 120 gain of function, 77-78, 90, 123 stepwise process, 13, 16, 17, 166 and genetic network modules, 69, 71, 72 symbiosis and, 169 in life-history traits, 139 Wallace’s discovery, 11-12 loss of function, 77, 79, 100, 118, 122-123 Nautilus, 12, 15, 17 molecular evidence of evolution, 17 nematodes, 93, 94, 172, 180 and natural selection, 3, 13, 15-18, 20-21, nerve growth factor, 55 85, 86, 194, 195 networks. See also Genetic networks; neutral, 194 neural networks and phenotypic changes, 166 biological importance, 66 process, 15, 21 evolutionary dynamics, 66 randomness, 20-21 graph theory analyses, 66 rates, 89, 90, 93, 101, 102 scale-free, 66 and regulatory evolution, 115, 122-123, neural crest cells, 50, 58-59, 62 124, 126 neural networks, biological, 26, 37, 54, 55, selective breeding, 13 56 single-gene, 16, 139 neuronal transmission, 52-53 Mutualism, 179-180 new World monkeys, 190, 194, 200-201 Myoglobin gene, 254 new york University, vii Myrmica, 160 newton, isaac, xvii, 4 Mystery of Life’s Origin, 298 newtonian dynamics, 28 Myxobacteria, 132 nitric oxide synthesis, 248, 250, 252-253, 254 no Child left Behind Act, 302 N nonsense-mediated decay pathway, 94 norm of reaction, 57 natural laws, 3, 4-5, 14, 21

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 / Index novelty. See also Beetle horn diversification; Papilio xuthus, 197 Phenotypic variation Parallel evolution, 56, 60, 79, 174, 176, 178, conserved core processes and, 50 188, 190, 194, 196-198, 199, 201, 203- cooption and, 114-117, 275 204, 209, 223 gene duplication and, 111 Peking University, viii horizontal gene transfer and, 106, 166 Permian, 174 morphological, 50, 80, 105, 112 Pest resistance to pesticides, 15, 16 natural selection and, 16 Phenotypic variation. See also Facilitated origins of, 58, 83, 105, 107, 109 variation pigmentation patterns, 114-117 characterization, 46 recruitment from available components, constraints on, 24 117 genetic components, 23-24; see also regulatory evolution and, 58, 109, 112, Facilitated variation; Genes; Genetic 114-117, 120, 126-127 drift; Genetic variation; Mutations; symbiotic associations and, 107 Population genetics nucleotide sequences growth-related, 80, 279 conservation, 90 measuring, see Functional information functional information, 28-29, 30, 33, 40, and natural selection, 54, 55 41, 42, 195 nutrition-related, 257, 270-273, 275, mutations, 91, 98, 196, 254 277-279 reconstruction, 195, 197, 198-199, origins of, 57 203-204 paths of change, 46, 53-54, 56-59, 61, 63 silent-site substitutions, 92 pigmentation-related, 80 Nymphalis antiopa, 197 plasticity, 55, 58, 59, 61, 270-272, 278-279 symbiotic associations and, 107, 169-170 Photoperiod sensitivity, 209, 213 O Photopigments, 184, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191- 194, 197, 199, 201 octopus, 17, 18 Photoreceptors, 18, 188, 189, 191, 192, 200 Of Pandas and People, 298, 299-301 Photosynthesis, 20, 132, 135, 170, 171, 209 olsen, roger B., 298 Phototrophy, 167, 171 Onthophagus spp., 261, 263, 264, 265, 266, Phylogenetic 267, 269, 271, 277, 278, 279, 280 reconstruction, 17, 176, 187, 189, 195, ontogeny. See Morphological evolution; 197, 198, 203, 260, 261-262 regulatory evolution variation, xvi, 101-102, 171, 173-174 operons, 90, 92, 94 Phylogeographic methods, 207 opsin genes and proteins, 187-204 Pieris rapae, 197 organelles. See Mitochondria; Plastids Pigmentation patterns. See also organisms, characteristics of, 149 Photopigments origin of life, 84 abdominal, 120-123, 126 otoferlins, 50 black, 114, 120 and body plan diversification, 112, 123-126 P conserved components in, 80, 116, 122 eye, 17, 18 Paley, William, 162 and fitness, 118-120 argument against chance, 5, 8-9 gene cooption and, 122 argument from design, xv, 5, 6-8, 10, 14, insect wings, 112-122, 126 293, 294 and phenotypic variation, 80 biological knowledge, 7, 9 and regulatory evolution, 112-122 influence on Darwin, xv, 6, 10, 14, 146 sexual dimorphism in, 121-122 irreducible complexity argument, 9, 146 yellow, 114-117, 118, 119, 120-122, 123 Natural Theology, xv, 6-8, 9, 10, 146, 294 Pitx1 gene, 74, 75 Palm trees, 206, 211, 212

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Index /  Placenta, evolution of, 16-17, 248 natural selection and, 57 Plant domestication polyploidy and, 222 analogy to natural selection, 183-184, standards of inquiry, 103 207-209 symbiotic associations, 170 approaches to finding adaptive genes, Primates, 16, 19, 183, 187, 188-190, 201 184, 207, 209-223 Proagoderus (Onthophagus) lanista, 271 artificial vs. natural selection, 183-184, Probe Ministries, 297 207-209, 221, 223 Prosimians, 190 bottlenecks, 215, 216, 219 Prokaryotes crops, 205-206, 209 cell architecture, 93, 94 demographic considerations, 215, conserved core processes, 49, 50 216-218 genetic drift, 91 domestication syndrome, 208-209, 223 genomic architecture, 86, 90, 91 empirical ranking of genes, 218-220 horizontal gene transfer, 106, 165, 167- genetic history, 214-216, 221 168, 170 genome-wide association studies, 213 microbial consortia, 170-171 genotype-phenotype association, 212, origins of multicellularity, 93, 95 213, 214, 220-221 symbiotic associations, 171 linkage disequilibrium mapping, 184, tryptophan pathway inactivation, 167 209, 210, 212-214, 215, 221, 222, 223 Protists, 50, 132, 167, 170 methodical selection, 208 Prud’homme, Benjamin, 71, 105, 109-127 phenotypic changes, 208-209 Prudic, Kathleen l., 187-204 phylogeographic methods, 207 Psyllids, 174, 178 population genetic analyses, 205, 209, Public school evolution education 210, 215-221 bans on, 286-287 quantitative trait loci mapping, 184, 205, history of fundamentalist opposition, 209, 210-212, 213, 214, 218, 221, 222, 286-287 223 intelligent design and, 297-298, 302-304 testing hypotheses, 215-216 legislative attempts to promote iD, transgenic analyses, 210, 221 302-303 unconscious selection, 205, 208, 209, 215 Pulmonary hypertension, 248, 250, 252-253, Planthoppers, 173 254 Plants. See also Plant domestication desert adaptations, 19-20 Q genome evolution, 92 horizontal gene transfer, 168 Queller, David C., 42, 106, 145-163 Plastids, 165, 168, 171, 172 Pleiotropy, 59, 60, 98, 119-120, 214, 235-236 Pleodorina californica, 131, 132 R Pocket mice (Chaetodipus intermedius), 16 Poeciliopsis, 17 ray, John, xvi, 6 Polistes wasps, 159 red Queen hypothesis, 67 Polybia wasps, 152 regA gene, 134-136, 139, 143 Polyploidy, 222 regulatory evolution. See also Cis- Popper, Karl, 76 regulatory elements; Conserved core Population genetics, xvii, 83. See also components and processes; Genetic Genetic drift; Genetic recombination; networks Mutations compounding of changes, 123-126 artificial life models, see Avida defined, 110 populations experimental systems, 111-112 epistasis, 87, 95-100, 101, 212 gains vs. losses of traits, 122-123 and evolution, 24, 83, 84-88

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 / Index and morphological evolution, 105-106, sAnD-like domain, 135-136 109, 110, 111, 112-114, 123-126 scale insects, 174 pigmentation patterns as models, Schwarziana quadripunctata, 160 112-117 scientific revolution, 3, 4 principles, 109-110, 126-127 scopes Monkey Trial, 286 research needs, 127 scott, eugenie C., 185, 285-304 transcription factor–Cre interactions, sCPP proteins, 50 120-122 sea anemone (Nematostella), 50 regulatory linkages and networks. See also self-regulating processes, 52, 56, 99, 100 Genetic networks selfish genetic elements, 135, 148 accumulation of, 117 sex chromosomes, 92 bowtie effect, 60 sex differentiation, 53-54 compartmentation, 49, 51, 59-60, 122 sexual dimorphism, 185 and novelty, 58, 105, 122 apoptosis and, 279 opportunism in, 120, 122 in beetle horn morphology, 257, 260, plug-in modules, 74 261, 262-263, 266, 273, 275, 280 stabilization, 59 in insect wing morphology, 279 weak, 48, 51-54, 58 in pigmentation patterns, 121-122 reproductive regulatory processes, 60, 121-122 altruism, 106, 129-131, 133, 134-136, 142, sharpshooters, 174-176, 177, 178 148, 152, 164, 155, 157 signal transduction pathways, 52, 70, 74, isolation, 180 272 success, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 118-120, 239, Siproeta stelenes, 195, 197 248, 254; see also Fitness sison-Mangus, Marilou P., 187-204 reptiles, 54, 68 social amoebas, 41 reverse genetic methodologies, 220, 221 social behaviors, xvii. See also eusocial rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells, 189 insect colonies rhinoceros beetles (Dynastinae), 259, 260, chemical signaling, 42 269-270, 274 social evolution, 130, 134, 143 rhodopsins, 199-200, 201, 202 social genes, 136 ribozymes, 40 Solenopsis, 160 rice, 206, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214, 220, 222, sorghum, 222, 223 223 special creation, 295-296 rnA, 105, 107 species aptamers, 25, 26, 28, 30, 33, 40-41, 42 diversification, 6, 15, 17, 60, 110, 111, functional, 49, 51 113, 120, 123-126, 167, 160, 187, 201, GTP-binding, 41 257-281 interference methods, 221, 270 evolvability, 100-102 messenger (mrnA), 62, 92, 191, 192 extinction, 19, 20, 21, 79, 83, 153, 294 micrornA processing, 48 inventory, 19 regulatory regions, 45, 47-48 specified complexity argument, 288-289, ribosomal (rrnA), 87, 177 290, 294 sequences/sequencing, 40, 87, 177 spittlebugs, 173 ross-ibara, Jeffrey, 184, 205-223 spliceosomes, 92, 102 squid, 17, 200 stag beetles (lucanidae), 259, 260 S stenogastrine wasp, 157, 159 stickleback fish, 61, 73, 74-76, 119 sackler, Arthur M., vii-viii. See also Arthur stinkbugs, 174, 178 M. sackler colloquia strassmann, Joan e., 42, 106, 145-163 sackler, Jillian, vii, viii Sulcia, 174, 175-178 Salmonella typhimurium, 289 sulfur fixation, 178

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Index /  sunflower, 214 at 40°C, 184, 225, 228-231, 232-233 superorganisms, 147, 149, 150-152, 153, analyses, 238 158, 159 antagonistic pleiotropy and, 235-236 switch proteins, 52, 54, 66, 80 experimental measurements, 237-238 symbiosis generality of tradeoff effect, 225, 226, in arthropods, 180 227, 231 bacteria, 167, 170-171, 172, 174-179 genetic basis, 235 bacteriophage and, 170 historical thermal environment and, cell and organ specialization, 107 226, 227, 228-229, 234-235, 238 and coadaptation, 165-166, 169-170, 171, mutation accumulation and, 235-236 180 nature of tradeoffs, 234, 235-236 coevolved associations, 170-171 power of experimental approach, 236 cooperation in, 42 qualitative aspects of tradeoff and eukaryotic adaptation and hypothesis, 231-233 complexity, 171-172 quantitative relationships in magnitude function topologies, 37, 42 of fitness, 226, 227, 232, 233-234 gene loss and deterioration, 165, 167, study organisms, 230, 236-237 169, 172, 178 tradeoffs, 184, 226-227 and genome plasticity, 179-180 universality of tradeoff effect, 225, 227, genome sequencing, 176-177 231-232, 233 genomic decay, 177-179 Teosinte, 211, 217, 218, 219, 220 heritability, 106, 169, 171, 172, 173-174, Termites, 149, 153, 154, 155 TGF-β, 73, 74 179-180 horizontal gene transfer, 166, 169, 170, Thaxton, Charles B., 298 171, 178-179 Theodosia viridaurata, 259 insects, 165, 172-179, 180 Thermal stress, 179. See Temperature intergenerational transmission, 107, 165, adaptation in E coli 172, 173, 176, 178, 179 Thrips, 155 metabolic interdependencies, 170-171 Tomato, 210, 221 microbial consortia, 170-171 Trans-regulatory landscape, 115-117 multipartite, 165-166, 174-176 Transcription-factor binding sites, 53, 69, mutualism, 179-180 90, 96, 97, 114, 115, 123 nutritional, 173-179 Transcription factors obligate, 107, 165, 169-170, 171-172, 174, allele-specific utilizations, 96, 97, 99 177-179, 180 B, 99 and phenotypic novelty, 107, 165, compartmentation of regulation, 59 169-170 conserved, 60, 110, 122 reproductive isolation, 180 demographic model, 218 systems biology, xvii down regulation, 74 artificial life models, see Avida engrailed, 115, 122 populations evolution of, 49 and evolutionary biology, 66-67 gene recruitment event, 69, 116 szostak, Jack W., 23, 25-43 h1F1, 254-255 hox proteins, 110, 120-122 interactions between Cres and, 105, T 117, 120-122, 124-125 loss of function, 69, 74, 114 Tajima’s D, 216, 218, 219, 220 and morphological evolution, 111, 112, Tbx genes, 60 114, 116 Tel Aviv University, vii network modules, 69-70 Temperature adaptation in E. coli Ubx, 124-125 at 20°C, 184, 225, 227-229

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0 / Index Transcriptional limb development, 266, 279, 290 networks, 66 neural crest cells, 58-59 regulation, 52, 59 nonadaptive processes in evolution, 91, Transposons, 148 93-94 Treehoppers, 173 regulatory linkages, 53 Triassic, 153 sex determination, 54 Trypoxylus [Allomyrina] dichomata, 274 vision. See Color vision in butterflies; eye Tryptophan biosynthesis, 167, 168, 178 Vitreochlamys, 132 Tsetse flies, 174 volvocine groups Tufts University, vii colony size, 136, 137, 139, 142 Turbulent flows, functional information of, conflict mediation, 133 26, 42 fitness tradeoffs, 129, 136-142 flagellation constraint, 137 group formation, 132-133 U individuality, 131, 132, 142-143 motility, 136-137, 139-140, 141 Ubiquitin signaling pathway, 94 palintomy, 137 Ubx protein, 124-126 reproductive altruism, 134-135 Unicellular organisms Volvox aureus, 131 fitness tradeoffs, 137 Volvox carteri, 129, 131, 134-135, 139 transition to multicellularity, 129-143 Uniformitarianism, 146 University of Cambridge, 10 W University of Texas at Austin, 139 Waddington, C. h., 56, 57, 66 Wallace, Alfred russel, 11-12, 207-208 V Wasps, 149, 157, 159, 179 Wells, Jonathan, 301 Vanessa atalanta, 191 Wheat, 206, 209, 211, 213, 214 Vanessa cardui, 191, 197 Whiteflies, 174, 178 vasculogenesis, 56 Wilder-smith, A. e., 294, 299 vertebrates Wilkins, Adam s., 24, 65-81 blood clotting cascade, 290 Wilson, Allan, 23 compartmentation, 59, 60 Wilson, e. o., 150, 151 conserved core processes, 50 Wingless gene, 268, 269, 277, 281 eye evolution and color vision, 17, 189, Wolbachia, 180 199, 201 Wright, sewell, 59, 66, 67 immune system, 64, 290 Wright–Fisher model, 216 insulin receptor pathway, 272