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Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States C Selected List of Operating and Planned Rare-Isotope Facilities Worldwide TABLE C.1 Selected List of Rare-Isotope Beam Facilities: Existing and Near-Term Capabilities in Asia, Europe, and North America Facility Region Country Type Driver BFRIB Asia China ISOL 100 MeV, 200 µA cyclotron HIRFL at IMP Asia China IF HI cyclotrons and storage ring and cooler RARF at RIKEN Asia Japan IF HI linac and K540 cyclotron and K70 AVF cyclotron RIBF at RIKEN Asia Japan IF Cascade of K520, K980, and K2500 HI cyclotrons to 440 (LI) and 350 (very HI) MeV/A TRIAC at KEK-JAEA Asia Japan ISOL 40 MeV, 3 µA tandem VEC-RIB Asia India ISOL K130 cyclotron to 400 keV/A CRC Europe Belgium ISOL 30 MeV H− cyclotron to 300 µA DRIBS at Dubna Europe Russia IF and ISOL U400 and U400M and U200 HI cyclotrons 100 MeV/A EURISOL Europe European Union ISOL Linac providing 1 GeV protons with up to 5 MW and multiple 100 kW targets
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Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States Accelerated Rare-Isotope Beams Status Comments SC linac proposed Construction from 2003 Up to 10 MeV/A for RIB Operating driver 1100 MeV/A for 12C and 540 MeV/A for 238U driver Operating Provides intense A < 60 RIBs Phase II includes degraders, a gas catcher, e-RI collider, polarized RI beams, etc. Construction Goal of up to 100 kW of U on target, Phase I operational in 2007, Phase II proposed 18 GHz (CB-ECR) and SC RFQ and IH and SC linacs Operating Low-energy RNBs up to 1.1 MeV/A are currently available; RNBs from 5 to 8 MeV/A are planned HI RFQ linac to 86 keV/A; IH linacs to 400 keV/A Cyclotron exists, RFQ prototype operational, funded project Photofission option for producing neutron-rich RIB under consideration; Phase 2 proposal for acceleration up to 2 MeV/A submitted K110–Cyclone cyclotron Operating Up to 9 kW on target and RIBs accelerated from 0.2 to 12 MeV/A RIB can be accelerated in U400 cyclotron. Operating Also uses photofission technique with the MT25 microtron SC linac 4-year design study funded in 2005. Continuous energies between keV/A and 100 MeV/A for m < 130
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Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States Facility Region Country Type Driver EXCYT at LNS Europe Italy ISOL HI SC k = 800 cyclotron up to 1.3 kW on target FAIR at GSI Europe Germany IF Uranium to 2 GeV/A for fragmentation GSI Europe Germany IF Uranium to 1 GeV/A ISOLDE at CERN Europe European Union ISOL 1.4 GeV synchrotron with up to 2 µA average MAFF Europe Germany ISOL Munich Research Reactor FRM-II SPES Europe Italy ISOL 100 MeV proton beam on UC x target SPIRAL at GANIL Europe France ISOL/ IF HI cyclotrons producing up to 95 MeV/A SPIRAL 2 at GANIL Europe France ISOL SC linac produces 40 MeV and 5 mA deuterons; and 1 mA HI up to 14.5 MeV/A HRIBF at ORNL North America United States ISOL 42 MeV ORIC cyclotron ISAC-I North America Canada ISOL 100 µA, 500 MeV cyclotron ISAC-II North America Canada ISOL Accelerates ISAC-I beams NSCL at MSU North America United States IF HI coupled SC cyclotrons 80 to 160 MeV/A for LI and 90 MeV/A for U RIA North America United States ISOL/ IF 400 kW linac providing 400 MeV/A HI and LI or 900 MeV p NOTE: BFRIB—Beijing Facility for Rare Isotope Beams; HIRFL—Heavy Ion Research Facility; IMP—Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; RARF—RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility; RIBF at RIKEN—Rare-Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN; TRIAC at KEK-JAEA—Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization-Japan Atomic Energy Agency; VEC-RIB—Variable Energy Cyclotron Radioactive Ion Beam; CRC—Centre de Recherche du Cyclotron; DRIBS—Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams; EURISOL—European Isotope Separator On-Line; EXCYT—Exotic Nuclei Production with Cyclotron and Tandem; LNS—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud; FAIR—Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research; GSI—Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung; ISOLDE—On-Line Isotope Mass Separator; CERN—European Organization for Nuclear Research; MAFF—Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments; SPES—Study and Production of Exotic Species; SPIRAL— Système de Production d’Ions Radioactifs en Ligne; GANIL—Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds; HRIBF—Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility; ORNL—Oak Ridge National Laboratory; ISAC—Isotope Separator and Accelerator; NSCL at MSU—National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University; RIA—Rare Isotope Accelerator; ISOL— Isotope Separator On-Line; SC—superconducting; RIB—rare-isotope beam; IF—in-flight; IH—interdigital H-mode; HI—heavy ion; RFQ—radio-frequency quadrupole; AVF—azimuthally varying field; LI—light ion; RI—rare isotope; CB-ECR—charge-breeding electron cyclotron resonance; RFQ—radio-frequency quadrapole; RNB—radioactive nuclear beam; REX—Radioactive Beam Experiment; ORIC—Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron.
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Scientific Opportunities with a Rare-Isotope Facility in the United States Accelerated Rare-Isotope Beams Status Comments 15 MV tandem Operating Negatively charged RIBs can be accelerated to ~0.2 to 8 MeV/A. Synchrotrons Construction to start in fall 2007. Increase RIB intensity by up to 10,000 and energy by factor of 15 over present facility scheduled for completion in 2014 Operating REX-ISOLDE linac at 3.1 MeV/A Operating Accelerator upgraded to 3.1 MeV/A (5 MeV/A planned) and up to 4 kW on target REX-ISOLDE concept with 3.7 to 5.9 MeV/A Planned ISOL using reactor neutrons as primary driver beam SC linac to >20 MeV/A Proposed 1013–1014 particles per second for mass region 80–160; A/q = 1–3 CIME Cyclotron for 1.7 to 25 MeV/A with A < 80 and 1.7 to 10 MeV/A for A~100-150 Operating ISOL accelerated to E < 25 MeV/A with A < 80; IF produces RIB with A < 100 having E < 100 MeV/A CIME Cyclotron for 1.7 to 25 MeV/A with A < 80 and 1.7 to 10 MeV/A for A~100-150 Construction phase Operation planned for 2011-2012; budgeted for 130 million euros 25 MV tandem Operating Actinide targets used to produce neutron-rich beams Linac to 2.0 MeV/A Operating Routinely operates with 35 kW primary beam power at target SC linac brings energy to 6.5 MeV/A for A < 150 Construction 4.3 MeV/A begins operation in 2006; 6.5 MeV/A scheduled for 2009 Operating Gas catcher for slow beams operational, includes A1900 separator Linac chain Proposed E < 20 MeV/A for reaccelerated RIBs with A < 60, 12 MeV/A for A < 240, and >20 MeV/A for in-flight RIBs
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