F
Contents of the Report to the President and the U.S. Congress Under Public Law 109-58, The Energy Policy Act of 2005: The Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force Report1

CONTENTS

Executive Summary

vii

1

Introduction

1

 

1.1

Background

1

 

 

1.1.1

Understanding the Need to Protect and Secure Radioactive Sources

1

 

 

1.1.2

Understanding the Regulatory Framework for Radioactive Materials

3

 

1.2

Overview of Task Force Activities

7

 

1.3

Stakeholder Interactions

8

 

1.4

Report Layout

8

2

Radiation Source Usage

9

 

2.1

IAEA Code of Conduct Use Categories

9

 

2.2

Panoramic and Underwater Irradiator

11

 

2.3

Self-Shielded Irradiators

12

 

2.4

Gamma-Knives

12

1

Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force. 2006. The Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force Report. Report to the President and the U.S. Congress Under Public Law 109-58, The Energy Policy Act of 2005. Washington, D.C. Available online at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/congress-docs/correspondence/2006/president-08-15-2006.pdf. Accessed February 23, 2007.



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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism F Contents of the Report to the President and the U.S. Congress Under Public Law 109-58, The Energy Policy Act of 2005: The Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force Report1 CONTENTS Executive Summary vii 1 Introduction 1   1.1 Background 1     1.1.1 Understanding the Need to Protect and Secure Radioactive Sources 1     1.1.2 Understanding the Regulatory Framework for Radioactive Materials 3   1.2 Overview of Task Force Activities 7   1.3 Stakeholder Interactions 8   1.4 Report Layout 8 2 Radiation Source Usage 9   2.1 IAEA Code of Conduct Use Categories 9   2.2 Panoramic and Underwater Irradiator 11   2.3 Self-Shielded Irradiators 12   2.4 Gamma-Knives 12 1 Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force. 2006. The Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force Report. Report to the President and the U.S. Congress Under Public Law 109-58, The Energy Policy Act of 2005. Washington, D.C. Available online at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/congress-docs/correspondence/2006/president-08-15-2006.pdf. Accessed February 23, 2007.

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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism   2.5 Teletherapy 13   2.6 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators 13   2.7 Radiography 14   2.8 Well-Logging 14   2.9 Source Manufacture 15 3 Radioactive Source Lists 16   3.1 Background 16   3.2 Radioactive Source Lists 16     3.2.1 IAEA Code of Conduct 16     3.2.2 DOE Radiological Threat Reduction Program 18     3.2.3 DOE/NRC Radiological Dispersal Devices Report 20     3.2.4 U.S. Import/Export Controls 21     3.2.5 National Source Tracking System 21     3.2.6 NRC Security Orders 22     3.2.7 NRC Standards for Protection Against Radiation 23     3.2.8 DOE Occupational Radiation Protection 24     3.2.9 DOT Transportation Rules 24   3.3 Conclusions 26   3.4 Summary of Recommendations 27 4 Security and Control of Radioactive Sources 28   4.1 Introduction 28   4.2 Current Programs for Security and Control of Radioactive Material 29     4.2.1 Nuclear Regulatory Commission Program 30     4.2.2 Department of Energy Program 37     4.2.3 Department of Defense Program 42     4.2.4 Department of Homeland Security Program 44     4.2.5 Federal Bureau of Investigations Program 46     4.2.6 Department of Transportation Program 46   4.3 Discussion 46   4.4 Conclusions 51   4.5 Summary of Recommendations 51 5 Transportation Security of Radioactive Sources 53   5.1 Overview of Radioactive Material Transport Safety Program 53     5.1.1 Overview of the Domestic Transport Safety Program 53     5.1.2 Overview of the International Transport Safety Program 54   5.2 Overview of Federal Radioactive Material Transport Security Programs 54

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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism     5.2.1 DOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Transport Security Program 54     5.2.2 DOT Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Transport Security Program 55     5.2.3 DOT Federal Railroad Administration Transport Security Program 57     5.2.4 DOT Federal Aviation Administration Transport Security Program 58     5.2.5 Transportation Security Administration 58     5.2.6 U.S. Coast Guard Transport Security Program 59     5.2.7 NRC Transport Security Program 60   5.3 Discussion 61   5.4 Conclusions 65   5.5 Summary of Recommendations 66 6 Background Checks 67   6.1 Introduction 67   6.2 Types of Background Checks and Investigations 67   6.3 Summary of Current Programs 68     6.3.1 Department of Energy Program 68     6.3.2 Department of Homeland Security Program 68     6.3.3 Federal Bureau of Investigation Program 69     6.3.4 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Program 70   6.4 Stakeholder Interactions 70   6.5 Discussion 70   6.6 Conclusions 74   6.7 Summary of Recommendations 75 7 Storage of Radioactive Sources 75   7.1 Background 75   7.2 Summary of Storage Requirements 75     7.2.1 NRC Requirements Regarding Storage 75     7.2.2 DOE Requirements Regarding Storage 77   7.3 Descriptions of Storage Conditions 78     7.3.1 Sterilization (wet, panoramic) Irradiator 78     7.3.2 Self-Shielded Irradiator 79     7.3.3 Gamma-Knives 80     7.3.4 Teletherapy 80     7.3.5 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators 80     7.3.6 Radiography 81     7.3.7 Well-Logging 81     7.3.8 Manufacturers and Distributors 82     7.3.9 Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility 82

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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism     7.3.10 Off-Site Source Recovery Project 83     7.3.11 Other DOE Facilities 83     7.3.12 Storage Time Limits 83   7.4 Conclusions 84   7.5 Summary of Recommendations 84 8 National System for Recovery of Lost and Stolen Sources 85   8.1 Introduction 85   8.2 Regulatory Framework 85     8.2.1 Scope of the Problem—Radioactive Source Loss and Theft 85     8.2.2 Loss and Theft Notification Requirements 86     8.2.3 Law Enforcement Investigations—Lost or Stolen Sources Involving Terrorism or Criminal Intent 87     8.2.4 Illicit Trafficking Interdiction 88     8.2.5 Orphan Radioactive Materials 88     8.2.6 Additional Controls for Small Quantities 89   8.3 Federal Outreach, Training, and Awareness 89   8.4 Programs for Radioactive Material Recovery 90     8.4.1 Regulatory Roles 90     8.4.2 Proactive Radioactive Source Recovery 90   8.5 Lost and Stolen Sources Response 92     8.5.1 NRC Emergency Response Protocol to Lost and Stolen Sources 92     8.5.2 Federal Radiological Response Assets 93   8.6 Conclusions 94   8.7 Summary of Recommendations 94 9 National System to Provide for the Proper Disposal of Radioactive Sources 95   9.1 Introduction 95   9.2 Current Disposal System 96     9.2.1 Laws Governing the Disposal of Sealed Sources 96     9.2.2 Disposal Requirements for Commercial (NRC- or Agreement State-Licensed) Sealed Sources 101     9.2.3 Disposal Requirements for DOE Sealed Sources 102     9.2.4 Relevance of IAEA Categorizations to NRC Disposal Requirements 102     9.2.5 Available Disposal Options 102     9.2.6 DOE Initiative to Develop Disposal Capability for GTCC LLRW 106     9.2.7 Disposal Initiatives for Lower-Activity Sealed Sources 106

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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism     9.2.8 Financial Assurance to Ensure Proper Disposal of Disused Sealed Sources for Which Recycling, Reuse, or Return Is Not an Option 106   9.3 Discussion 107   9.4 Conclusions 111   9.5 Summary of Recommendations 111 10 Import and Export Controls for Radioactive Sources 112   10.1 Background 112   10.2 Summary of Current Programs 113     10.2.1 NRC Radioactive Source Import/Export Program 113     10.2.2 DOE Radioactive Source Import/Export Program 115     10.2.3 Stakeholder Interactions 115   10.3 Discussion 116   10.4 Conclusions 119   10.5 Summary of Recommendations 120 11 National Source Tracking System 121   11.1 Background 121     11.1.1 Summary of the NSTS Program 122     11.1.2 Additional Stakeholder Interactions 124   11.2 Discussion 124   11.3 Conclusions 126   11.4 Summary of Recommendations 126 12 Alternative Technologies 127   12.1 Background 127   12.2 Sources and Alternative Technologies 128     12.2.1 Industrial and Research Irradiators 128     12.2.2 Industrial Radiography 128     12.2.3 Medical Uses 130     12.2.4 Power Sources 131     12.2.5 Measuring Devices 131   12.3 Summary of Current Programs on Alternative Technologies 132     12.3.1 Department of Energy 132     12.3.2 Department of Health and Human Services 132     12.3.3 Department of Homeland Security 133     12.3.4 Department of State 133     12.3.5 Environmental Protection Agency 134     12.3.6 Nuclear Regulatory Commission 135     12.3.7 National Academy of Sciences Study 136   12.4 Discussion 136   12.5 Conclusions 141

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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism   12.6 Summary of Recommendations 141 13 Conclusions, Recommendations, and Actions 142   13.1 Conclusions 142   13.2 Summary of Recommendations and Actions 143 14 Bibliography 147 Appendices     A Acronyms and Abbreviations A-1   B Glossary B-1   C Task Force Charter C-1   D Task Force Membership D-1   E Public Comment E-1 Tables 1.1 Energy Policy Act Topics 7 2.1 IAEA Category 1-3 Common 10 3.1 Code of Conduct Sources (Annex I of the Code) 17 3.2 IRTR/Code of Conduct Comparison 19 3.3 Code of Conduct High-Risk Radionuclides for Domestic Shipments Comparison 26 4.1 Comparison of Category 2 Threshold and 10 CFR 30.72 Schedule C Values 35 6.1 Summary of Current Background Check Elements 71 8.1 Summary of NRC Regulatory Requirements for Radioactive Material Loss and Theft Reports 86 8.2 Types of Radioactive Sources Recovered and Stored by OSRP 91 9.1 Key U.S. Laws Concerning Sealed Source Disposal 98 9.2-A U.S. Commercial LLRW Definitions 99 9.2-B DOE Radioactive Waste Definitions 99 12.1 Comparison of Industrial Radiography with Alternative Technologies 129 12.2 Applications and Numbers of Devices Using NRC-Regulated Radioactive Sources 132 13.1 Regulatory Change Recommendations 143 13.2 Other Recommendations 143 13.3 Actions 144

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U.S.–Russian Collaboration in Combating Radiological Terrorism Figures 2.1 Commercial Irradiator 11 2.2 Self-Shielded Irradiator 12 2.3 Gamma-Knife Device 13 2.4 Radiography Camera 14 2.5 Well-Logging Device 14 8.1 Summary of Radioactive Sealed Sources Recovered by OSRP 92 9.1 Summary of Available Disposal Options for Disused Commercial Sealed Sources 97 9.2 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Compact Membership 100 9.3 Location of Commercial LLRW Disposal Facilities, DOE LLRW Disposal Facilities, and DOE Defense Transuranic Waste Disposal Facility 103

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