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Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services C Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Definitions ACBM: Advisory Committee for Biology and Medicine ACERER: Advisory Committee for Energy-Related Epidemiological Research ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry BEIR: Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (NRC) Bias: Factors that influence the outcome of data collection, such as causing certain measurements to have a greater chance of being included than others BSC: Board of Scientific Counselors CAB: Citizens’ Advisory Board CAREs: Communities Against a Radioactive Environment Case-control study: Epidemiologic study in which people with disease and a similarly composed control group are compared in terms of exposures to a putative causative agent CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (DOE) CEHIC: Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control (CDC) CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; CERCLA provides a federal “Superfund” to clean up uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment CHE: Coalition for a Healthy Environment
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Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services CI (confidence interval): Interval estimate of an unknown parameter such as a risk; 95% CI, as an example, is constructed from a procedure that is theoretically successful in capturing the parameter of interest in 95% of its applications. Confidence limits are the end points of a confidence interval CIC: Community Involvement Committee (LANL) CLL: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia COWG: Communications and Outreach Workgroup (Oak Ridge) DOE: U.S. Department of Energy Dose: Short name for absorbed dose (1 Gy = 1 J/kg) and also for equivalent dose, effective dose, and weighted dose (1 Sv = 1 J/kg) EEOICPA: Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act EPA: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Epidemiology: Study of the determinants of the frequency of disease in humans.The two main types of epidemiologic studies of chronic disease are cohort (or follow-up) studies and case-control studies EPR: Electron paramagnetic resonance ERDA: Energy Research and Development Administration ERR: Estimated excess relative risk. The rate of disease in an exposed population divided by the rate of disease in an unexposed population minus 1.0. ES&H: Office of Environment, Safety and Health (DOE) ETTP: East Tennessee Technology Park Exposure: Condition of having contact with a physical or chemical agent FACA: Federal Advisory Committee Act FWMSP: Former Worker Medical Surveillance Program (DOE) HCHP: Hanford Community Health Project HEDR: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project HEHF: Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. HERB: Health-Related Energy Research Branch (NIOSH) HES: Health Effects Subcommittee HETA: Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance HHE: Health Hazard Evaluation HHES: Hanford Health Effects Subcommittee HHIN: Hanford Health Information Network HHS: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HTDS: Hanford Thyroid Disease Study I-131: Iodine-131 ICD: International Classification of Diseases ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection: Independent inter-
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Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services national organization that provides recommendations and guidance on protection against ionizing radiation IDA: Individual Dose Assessment Project (Hanford) Incidence (also incidence rate): Rate of occurrence of a disease within a specified period of time, often expressed as a number of cases per 100,000 individuals per year INL: Idaho National Laboratory IOM: Institute of Medicine Ionizing radiation: Radiation sufficiently energetic to dislodge electrons from an atom, thereby producing an ion pair; ionizing radiation includes X- and gamma radiation, electrons (beta radiation), alpha particles (helium nuclei), and heavier-charged atomic nuclei. Neutrons ionize indirectly by first colliding with components of atomic nuclei LAHDRA: Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment LANL: Los Alamos National Laboratory LET: Linear energy transfer Linear (L) model or relationship (also linear dose-effect relationship): A special case of the linear-quadratic model, with the quadratic coefficient equal to zero; this model expresses the effect (e.g., cancer, mutation) as proportional to dose (linear function of the dose) Linear-quadratic (LQ) model (also linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship): This model expresses the effect (e.g., cancer) as the sum of two components, one proportional to the dose (linear term) and one proportional to the square of the dose (quadratic term). The linear term predominates at low doses; the quadratic term, at high doses LLNL: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LNT model: Linear no-threshold dose-response for which any dose greater than zero has a positive probability of producing an effect (e.g., mutation, cancer); the probability is calculated either from the slope of a linear (L) model or from the limiting slope, as the dose approaches zero, of a linear-quadratic (LQ) model LOAEL: Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level MED: Manhattan Engineering District Meta-analysis: Analysis of epidemiologic data from several studies based on data included in publications Minimal risk level (MRL): Estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure MMP: Medical Monitoring Program Model: Schematic description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that accounts
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Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services for its known or inferred properties and may be used for further study of its characteristics Mortality (rate): Frequency at which people die from a disease (e.g., a specific cancer), often expressed as the number of deaths per 100,000 population per year NAHH: National Alliance for Hispanic Health NAS: National Academy of Sciences NBS: National Bureau of Standards (now National Institute of Standards and Technology) NCEH: National Center for Environmental Health NCRP (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements): U.S. council commissioned to formulate and disseminate information, guidance, and recommendations about radiation protection and measurements NER: National Exposure Registry (ATSDR) NIOSH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NNMCAB: Northern New Mexico Citizens’ Advisory Board NOAEL: No-observed-adverse-effect level NPCR: National Program of Cancer Registries (CDC) NPL: National Priorities List; a list of national priorities among the known releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants throughout the United States and its territories NRC: National Research Council NTS: Nevada Test Site OEHS: Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance (DOE) OERP: Occupational Energy Research Program (NIOSH) OMB: Office of Management and Budget OR (Odds ratio): the odds of being exposed among diseased persons divided by the odds of being exposed among nondiseased persons ORAU: Oak Ridge Associated Universities OREPA: Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance ORERP: Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project ORNL: Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORO: Oak Ridge Operations Office ORR: Oak Ridge Reservation ORRHASP: Oak Ridge Reservation Health Agreement Steering Panel ORRHES: Oak Ridge Reservation Health Effects Subcommittee ORRLOC: Oak Ridge Reservation Local Oversight Committee ORRSSAB: Oak Ridge Reservation Site Specific Advisory Board OTA: Office of Technology Assessment
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Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services PCB: Polychlorinated biphenyl PHA: Public Health Assessment PHEP: Public Health Education Program PHS: Public Health Statement; the first chapter of ATSDR’s Toxicological Profiles PNNL: Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a contractor at the Hanford Site Pooled analysis: An analysis of epidemiologic data from several studies based on original data from the studies PSR: Physicians for Social Responsibility RAC: Radiological Assessment Corporation (later, Risk Assessment Corporation) Rad: A special unit of absorbed dose, now replaced by the SI unit gray; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy = 100 erg/g Radiation: Energy emitted in the form of waves or particles by radioactive atoms as a result of radioactive decay or produced by artificial means, such as X-ray generators Radiogenic: Caused by radiation Radionuclide: Radioactive species of an atom characterized by the constitution of its nucleus Rem (rad equivalent man): A special unit of dose equivalent, now replaced by the SI unit sievert; 1 rem = 0.01 Sv REMS: Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (DOE) RERP: Committee on the Department of Energy Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs (NRC) RfD: Reference dose (DOE) Risk: Chance of injury, loss, or detriment; a measure of the deleterious effects that may be expected as the result of an action or inaction Risk assessment: Process by which the risks associated with an action or inaction are identified and quantified Risk estimate: Increment of the incidence or mortality rate projected to occur in a specified exposed population per unit dose for a specified exposure regime and expression period RL: Richland Operations Office (DOE) SENES: Specialists in Energy, Nuclear and Environmental Studies Sievert (Sv): Special name of the SI unit of dose equivalent; 1 Sv = 1 J/kg = 100 rem SI units: International System of Units as defined by the General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960; these are the base units, such as meter (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), and their combinations, which have special names
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Review of the Worker and Public Health Activities Program Administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of Health and Human Services (e.g., the unit of energy 1 J = 1 kg m2/s2, or of absorbed dose 1 Gy = 1 J/kg = 1 m2/s2) SPEERA: Secretarial Panel for the Evaluation of Epidemiological Research Activities (DOE) SRS: Savannah River site SSAB: Site-Specific Advisory Board (DOE) Standardized morbidity ratio or standardized mortality rate (SMR): Rate (multiplied by 100) of mortality from a disease in the population being studied divided by the comparable rate in a standard population; ratio is similar to a relative risk times 100 TAG: Technical Assistance Grant TCA: Trichloroethane TCE: Trichloroethylene TDH: Tennessee Department of Health Threshold hypothesis: Assumption that no injury occurs below a specified dose TSCA: Toxic Substances Control Act TSP: Technical Steering Panel composed of independent scientists and members of the public created to oversee and direct HEDR Uncertainty: Range of values within which the true value is estimated to lie; a best estimate of possible inaccuracy due to both random and systemic errors: Random Errors: Errors that vary in a nonreproducible way around a limiting mean; these can be treated statistically by use of the laws of probability Systemic Errors: Errors that are reproducible and tend to bias a result in one direction; their causes can be assigned, at least in principle, and they can have constant and variable components; generally, these errors cannot be treated statistically UNSCEAR: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation X-rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation, usually produced by bombarding a metallic target with fast electrons in a high vacuum YDI: Youth Development, Inc.
Representative terms from entire chapter: