Silver, S., and D. Keach, 1982. Energy-dependent arsenate flux: The mechanism of plasmidmediated resistance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 79: 6114–6118.

Skinner, H.C.W., and A.R. Berger (eds.), 2003. Geology and Health: Closing the Gap. New York, Oxford University Press, 179 pp.

Skinner, H.C.W., M. Ross, and C. Frondel, 1988. Asbestos and Other Fibrous Materials: Mineralogy, Crystal Chemistry and Health Effects. New York, Oxford University Press, 204 pp.

Smedley, P., and D.G. Kinniburgh, 2005. Arsenic in Groundwater and the Environment. Pp. 263–299 in O. Selinus, B.J. Alloway, J.A. Centeno, R.B. Finkelman, R. Fuge, U. Lindh, and P. Smedley (eds.), Essentials of Medical Geology. London, Elsevier Academic Press, 812 pp.

Smith, K., 2001. Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. London, Routledge.

Sobsey, M.D., 1989. Inactivation of health-related microorganisms in water by disinfection processes. Water Science and Technology, 21: 179–195.

Steere, A.C., S.E. Malawista, D.R. Snydman, R.E. Shope, W.A. Andiman, M.R. Ross, and F.M. Steele, 1977. Lyme arthritis: An epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three Connecticut communities. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 20: 7–17.

Stetzenbach, L.D., 2001. Introduction to Aerobiology. Pp 801–813 in C.J. Hurst, R.L. Crawford, G.R. Knudsen, M.J. McInerny, and L.D. Stetzenbach (eds.), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 2nd Ed. Washington, D.C., ASM Press.

Stirzaker, R.J., J.B. Passioura, and Y. Wilms, 1996. Soil structure and plant growth: Impact of bulk density and biopores.Plant and Soil, 185: 151–162.

Stone, R., 2004. Iceland’s doomsday scenario. Science, 306: 1278–1281.

Straub, T.M., I.L. Pepper, and C.P. Gerba, 1992. Persistence of viruses in desert soils amended with anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 58: 636– 641.

Strobel, G., and B. Daisy, 2003. Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 67: 491–502.

Stumm, W., 1990. Chemistry of the Solid-Water Interface—Processes at the Mineral-Water and Particle-Water Interface in Natural Systems. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Stumm, W., and J. Morgan, 1996. Aquatic Chemistry: Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Swan, S.H., K.M. Main, F. Liu, S.L. Stewart, R.L. Kruse, A.M. Calafat, C.S. Mao, J.B. Redmon, C.L. Ternand, S. Sullivan, J.L. Teague, and the Study for Future Families Research Team, 2005. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113: 1056–1061.

Tanser, F.C., B. Sharp, and D. le Sueur, 2003. Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa. Lancet, 362: 972–978.

Tate, R.L., 2000. Soil Microbiology. New York, John Wiley, 508 pp.

Taylor, L.H., S.M. Latham, and M.E. Woolhouse, 2001. Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 356: 983–989.

Thrush, J., 2000. Cadmium in the New Zealand ecosystem. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Tipping, E., 1994. WHAM—A chemical equilibrium model and computer code for waters, sediments, and soils incorporating a discrete site/electrostatic model of ion-binding by humic substances. Computers and Geosciences, 21: 973–1023.

Tipping, E., 1998. Humic Ion-Binding Model VI: An improved description of the interactions of protons and metal ions with humic substances. Aquatic Geochemistry, 4: 3–48.

Tipping, E., 2002. Cation Binding by Humic Substances. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement