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B Biographical Information for Committee Members and Staff RICHARD A.ANTHES, Co-chair, is president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. His research has focused on the understanding of tropical cyclones and mesoscale meteorology and on the radio occultation technique for sounding Earth’s atmosphere. Dr. Anthes is a fellow of the AMS and the AGU and is a recipient of the AMS Clarence I.Meisinger Award and the Jule G.Charney Award. In 2003, he was awarded the Friendship Award by the Chinese government, the most prestigious award given to foreigners, for his contributions to atmospheric sciences and weather forecasting in China. His National Research Council (NRC) service includes chairing the National Weather Service Modernization Committee from 1996 to 1999 and the Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition of Research to Operations in 2002–2003. BERRIEN MOORE III, Co-chair, is professor and director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space at the University of New Hampshire. A professor of systems research, he received the university’s 1993 Excellence in Research Award and was named University Distinguished Professor in 1997. His research focuses on the carbon cycle, global biogeochemical cycles, global change, and policy issues in global environment. He has served on several NASA advisory committees and in 1987 chaired the NASA Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Moore led the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling, before to serving as chair of the overarching Scientific Committee of IGBP (1998–2002) where he served as a lead author in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report (2001). He chaired the 2001 Open Science Conference on Global Change and is one of the four architects of the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. Dr. Moore has served as chair of the NRC Committee on International Space Programs and was a member of the Board on Global Change (1987–1992) and the Committee on Global Change Research (1995–1998). Dr. Moore currently serves on the Science Advisory Board of NOAA and the Advisory Board of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. JAMES G.ANDERSON is the Philip S.Weld Professor in the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, and the Division of Engineering and Applied
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Sciences at Harvard University. His interests include chemistry, dynamics, and radiation of Earth’s atmosphere in the context of climate; experimental and theoretical studies of the kinetics and photochemistry of free radicals; and the development of new methods for in situ and remote observations of processes that control chemical and physical coupling within Earth’s atmosphere. He has served on the NRC Committee on Global Change Research (1996–2002), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry (1992–1995), and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (1986–1989). SUSAN K.AVERY joined the University of Colorado faculty in 1982. In 2004 she was asked to serve as interim vice chancellor for research and dean of the Graduate School, a position to which she has returned after serving for 16 months as interim provost. Prior to this position, she served as director of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) for 10 years. She is a professor of electrical and computer engineering and also serves as a fellow in CIRES. Her interdisciplinary interests include radar studies of atmospheric circulations and precipitation, climate information and decision support, and science communication. The author or co-author of over 80 articles in the refereed literature, she is a fellow in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the American Meteorological Society (AMS), of which she also served as president. University of Colorado awards include the Robert L. Stearns Award, recognition for exceptional achievement and/or service; the Elizabeth Gee Memorial Lectureship Award for scholarly contributions, distinguished teaching, and advancing women in the academic community; and the Margaret Willard Award for outstanding contributions to the University of Colorado at Boulder. The University of Illinois recently recognized her by awarding her the Distinguished Ogura Lectureship and the LAS Alumni Achievement Award. Dr. Avery’s NRC service includes the Committee on NOAA NESDIS Transition from Research to Operations (vice chair, 2002–2004) and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (1997–2001). She serves as a member of the Committee on Strategic Guidance for the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Support of the Atmospheric Sciences. ERIC J.BARRON is dean of the Jackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas at Austin, where he holds the Jackson Chair in Earth System Science. Prior to this appointment, he was dean of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Barron’s research interests are climatology, numerical modeling, and Earth history. During his career, he has worked diligently to promote the intersection of the geological sciences with the atmospheric sciences and the field of earth system science. Dr. Barron chaired the Science Executive Committee for NASA’s Earth Observing System and NASA’s Earth Science and Applications Advisory Committee (ESSAC). He has also served as chair of the USGCRP Forum on Climate Modeling, the Allocation Panel for the Interagency Climate Simulation Laboratory, the U.S. National Committee for PAGES and the NSF Earth System History Panel. For the NRC, Dr. Barron has served on the Climate Research Committee (chair, 1990–1996); In 1997, he was named co-chair of the Board on Atmospheric Sciences (co-chair, 1997; chair, 1999-present); the Committee on Global Change Research, the Assessment of NASA Post-2000 Plans, Climate Change Science, the Human Dimensions of Global Change, the Panel on Grand Environmental Challenges, and the Committee on Tools for Tracking Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Releases in the Atmosphere: Implications for Homeland Security. Dr. Barron is a fellow of AGU, AMS, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). In 2002, he was named a fellow of the National Institute for Environmental Science at Cambridge University. In 2003, he received the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal. SUSAN L.CUTTER is the director of the Hazards Research Laboratory and a Carolina Distinguished Professor of Geography at the University of South Carolina. Dr. Cutter has worked in the risk and hazards fields for more than 25 years. She has provided expert advice to numerous government agencies in the hazards
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and environmental fields, including NASA, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and NSF. She has also written or edited 11 books and more than 75 peer-reviewed articles and book chapters. In 1999, Dr. Cutter was elected a fellow of AAAS and was president of the Association of American Geographers in 1999–2000. Dr. Cutter currently serves on the NRC Geographical Sciences Committee, the Committee on Disaster Research in the Social Sciences, and the Panel on Social and Behavioral Science Research Priorities for Environmental Decision Making. RUTH DeFRIES is a professor at the University of Maryland, College Park, with joint appointments in the Department of Geography and the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center. Her research investigates the relationships between human activities, the land surface, and the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that regulate Earth’s habitability. She is interested in observing land-cover and land-use change on regional and global scales with remotely sensed data and exploring the implications for ecological services, such as climate regulation, the carbon cycle, and biodiversity. Dr. DeFries is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). She is currently serving as a chair of the NRC Committee on Earth System Science for Decisions about Human Welfare: Contributions of Remote Sensing, and as a member of the Geographical Sciences Committee and the U.S. National Committee’s Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment. Dr. DeFries has taught at the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay. She is a fellow of the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program. WILLIAM B.GAIL is director of Strategic Development within Virtual Earth at Microsoft Corporation, with responsibility for expanding the capabilities of Virtual Earth and its use throughout the community. He was previously vice president of the Mapping and Photogrammetric Solutions Division at Vexcel Corporation (acquired in 2006 by Microsoft), where he directed a global organization responsible for a range of Earth information systems and services. Before joining Vexcel, he was director of Earth Science Advanced Programs at Ball Aerospace, where he led the development of space-borne instruments and missions for Earth science and meteorology. Dr. Gail received his undergraduate degree in physics and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University, focusing his research on wave-particle interactions in Earth’s magnetosphere. During that period, he spent a year as a cosmic ray and upper atmospheric field scientist at South Pole Station. Dr. Gail is on the board of directors of Peak Weather Resources, Inc., is a member of the editorial boards for Imaging Notes magazine and the Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, and is the director of industry relations for the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. He has served on the following NRC studies: the Committee on Earth Studies (2002–2005), the Task Group on Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2001–2003), the Committee on NASA-NOAA Transition from Research to Operations (2002–2003), the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (2003), and the NASA Earth Science and Applications from Space Strategic Roadmap Committee (2005). BRADFORD H.HAGER is the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Earth Sciences in the Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He is best known for his research on the physics of geologic processes. He has focused his work on applying geophysical observations and numerical modeling to the study of mantle convection, the coupling of mantle convection to crustal deformation, and precision geodesy. From 1980 until he joined MIT, he was a professor of geophysics at the California Institute of Technology. Dr. Hager has chaired or been a member of several NRC committees concerned with solid-Earth science. These include the U.S. Geodynamics Committee, the Geodesy Committee, the Committee for Review of the Science Implementation Plan of the NASA Office of Earth Science, and the Committee to Review NASA’s Solid-Earth Science Strategy. Dr. Hager is a fellow of AGU. He was the 2002 recipient of the Geological Society of America’s Woollard Award in recogni-
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tion of distinctive contributions to geology through the application of the principles and techniques of geophysics; he also received AGU’s James B. Macelwane Award for his contributions to understanding of the physics of geologic processes. ANTHONY HOLLINGSWORTH1 joined the staff of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in 1975. He was appointed head of research in 1991, deputy director in 1995, and in 2003 became ECMWF’s coordinator for global Earth-system monitoring. Dr. Hollingsworth received the 1999 Jule G. Charney award of the AMS for “penetrating research on four-dimensional data assimilation systems and numerical models.” He was a fellow of the AMS and the Royal Meteorological Society and a member of the Irish Meteorological Society. Dr. Hollingsworth served on the NRC Panel on Model-Assimilated Data Sets for Atmospheric and Oceanic Research (1989–1991). ANTHONY C.JANETOS is director of the Joint Global Change Research Institute, part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, with research-affiliate status at the University of Maryland. Earlier, he was a senior research fellow at the H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics, and the Environment. In 1999, he joined the World Resources Institute as senior vice president and chief of program. Previously, he served as senior scientist for the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Program in NASA’s Office of Earth Science and was program scientist for the Landsat 7 mission. He had many years of experience in managing scientific research programs on a variety of ecologic and environmental topics, including air-pollution effects on forests, climate change impacts, land-use change, ecosystem modeling, and the global carbon cycle. He was a co-chair of the U.S. National Assessment of the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change and an author of Land-Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (an IPCC special report) and Global Biodiversity Assessment Dr. Janetos recently served on the NRC Committee for Review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan and was a member of the Committee on Review of Scientific Research Programs at the Smithsonian Institution (2002). KATHRYN A.KELLY is a principal oceanographer at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of the University of Washington (UW) and a professor (affiliate) in the School of Oceanography. She is the former chair of the Air-Sea Interaction/Remote Sensing (AIRS) Department at APL. Before joining UW, Dr. Kelly worked at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), where she was part of the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) Science Working Team and began working with altimetric data. She is a member of the NASA Ocean Vector Wind Science Team and the NASA Ocean Surface Topography Science Team. At WHOI, she concentrated on the dynamics and thermodynamics of western and eastern boundary currents. Dr. Kelly’s current scientific interest is primarily in the applications of large data sets, particularly from satellite sensors, to problems of climate, atmosphere-ocean interaction, and ocean circulation. She works in collaboration with numerical modelers and scientists who make in situ measurements to understand the ocean better and to improve the quality of satellite data. Dr. Kelly has served on numerous NASA advisory committees and was a member of the NRC Panel on Statistics and Oceanography (1992–1993). NEAL F.LANE is the Edward A. and Hermena Hancock Kelly University Professor at Rice University. He also holds appointments as senior fellow of the James A.Baker III Institute for Public Policy, where he is engaged in matters of science and technology policy, and in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and he previously served as university provost. Dr. Lane is a nationally recognized leader in science and technology policy development and application. He has served as assistant to the president for science 1 The committee notes with deep regret Anthony Hollingsworth’s death on July 29, 2007.
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and technology, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, director of the National Science Foundation, and chancellor of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Dr. Lane is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the AAAS, and the Association for Women in Science. He serves as chair of the NRC Committee on Transportation of Radioactive Waste and is a member of the Policy and Global Affairs Committee. DENNIS P.LETTENMAIER is a professor in the Department of Civil Engineering and the director of the Surface Water Hydrology Research Group at the University of Washington. Dr. Lettenmaier’s interests cover hydroclimatology, surface water hydrology, and GIS and remote sensing. He was a recipient of American Society of Civil Engineers’s Huber Research Prize in 1990, is a fellow of the AGU and the AMS, and is the author of over 100 journal articles. He is chief editor of the AMS Journal of Hydrometeorology. Dr. Lettenmaier is a member of the NRC Committee on Hydrologic Science: Studies of Strategic Issues in Hydrology. He has served on other NRC committees and panels, including the Committee on Hydrologic Science: Studies in Land-Surface Hydrologic Sciences (2002–2004) and the Committee on the National Ecological Observatory Network (2003–2004). BRUCE D.MARCUS is retired from TRW, where he was chief scientist and manager of Advanced Programs for the Space and Laser Programs. Dr. Marcus’s professional interests include space and Earth sciences. His research background includes heat and mass transfer, heat pipes, thermosiphons, spacecraft thermal control, and thermomechanical design of telescopes. Dr. Marcus and Aram Mika (former NRC Committee on Earth Studies member) were the key authors of the 2000 NRC report The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs. Dr. Marcus was also a key consultant on technology issues related to the potential to use the NPOESS weather satellite for climate research, the subject of several recent NRC reports. Dr. Marcus’s background also includes extensive experience in space systems program management. He served on the NRC Committee on Earth Studies (2003–2004 and 1995–1999), the Space Studies Board (2000–2004), the Task Group on Principal Investigator-Led Earth Science Mission (2000–2003), the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (2003), and the Task Group on Technology Development in NASA’s Office of Space Science (1999–2000). WARREN M.WASHINGTON is a senior scientist and head of the Climate Change Research Section in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at NCAR. After completing his doctorate in meteorology at Pennsylvania State University, he joined NCAR in 1963 as a research scientist. Dr. Washington’s expertise is in atmospheric science and climate research, and he specializes in computer modeling of Earth’s climate. He serves as a consultant and adviser to a number of government officials and committees on climate-system modeling. From 1978 to 1984, he served on the President’s National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. In 1998, he was appointed to NOAA’s Science Advisory Board. In 2002, he was appointed to the Science Advisory Panel of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy and the National Academies’ Coordinating Committee on Global Change. Dr. Washington’s NRC service is extensive and includes membership on the Board on Sustainable Development (1995–1999), the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources (1992–1994), and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (1985–1988), and his service as chair of the Panel on Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (1986–1987). He is chair of the National Science Board. MARK L.WILSON is a professor of epidemiology, director of the Global Health Program, and professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Michigan. His research and teaching cover ecology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. After earning his doctorate from Harvard University in 1985,
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he worked at the Pasteur Institute in Dakar Senegal (1986–1990), was on the faculty at the Yale University School of Medicine (1991–1996), and then joined the University of Michigan. Dr. Wilson’s research addresses the environmental determinants of zoonotic and arthropodborne diseases, the evolution of vector-host-parasite systems, and the analysis of transmission dynamics. He is an author of more than 120 journal articles, book chapters, and research reports and has served on numerous government advisory groups concerned with environmental change and health. Dr. Wilson has served on the NRC Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century (2001–2003), the Committee on Review of NASA’s Earth Science Applications Program Strategic Plan (2002), and the Committee on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases, and Human Health (1999–2001). MARY LOU ZOBACK is vice president, Earthquake Risk Applications, with Risk Management Solutions, a provider of products and services for the quantification and management of catastrophe risks. She was formerly a senior research scientist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Team, Menlo Park, California. Dr. Zoback is a geophysicist who has worked on the relationship between earthquakes and states of stress in Earth’s crust. From 1986 to 1992, she created and led the World Stress Map project, an effort that actively involved 40 scientists in 30 countries with the objective of interpreting a wide variety of geologic and geophysical data on the present-day tectonic-stress field. Dr. Zoback was awarded the AGU Macelwane Award in 1987 for “significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by a young scientist of outstanding ability” and a USGS Gilbert Fellowship Award (1990–1991). She is a former president of the Geological Society of America and AGU’s Tectonophysics Section, and she was a member of the AGU Council. Dr. Zoback is a member of the NAS and has extensive National Academies service and currently serves on the NAS Council and the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. She served as a member of the Board on Radioactive Waste Management (1997–2000) and the Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources (1998–2000). Consultant STACEY W.BOLAND received her Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the California Institute of Technology in 2005. She is currently a systems engineer and mission architect in the Earth Mission Concepts group at California Institute of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dr. Boland has led numerous pre-Phase A Earth mission architecture studies, and has assisted in creating consensus summaries and reports from aerosol and air quality science community workshops. Recently, Dr. Boland provided systems engineering support to the OOI Project office in support of the NSF ORION in situ ocean observatory, and provided coordination and strategic planning assistance for International Polar Year efforts. Staff ARTHUR CHARO, study director, received his Ph.D. in physics from Duke University in 1981 and was a postdoctoral fellow in chemical physics at Harvard University from 1982 to 1985. Dr. Charo then pursued his interests in national security and arms control at Harvard University’s Center for Science and International Affairs, where he was a fellow from 1985 to 1988. From 1988 to 1995, he worked in the International Security and Space Program in the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). He has been a senior program officer at the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the NRC since OTA’s closure in 1995 and supports the work of the Committee on Solar and Space Physics and the Committee on Earth Studies. Dr. Charo has directed some 30 studies, including the first NRC decadal survey in solar and space physics. He is a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Security (1985–1987) and was the
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American Institute of Physics congressional science fellow from 1988 to 1989. He is the author of research papers in molecular spectroscopy, reports on arms control and space policy, and the monograph Continental Air Defense: A Neglected Dimension of Strategic Defense (University Press of America, 1990). THERESA M.FISHER is a senior program assistant with SSB. During her 25 years with the Academies, she has held positions in the executive, editorial, and contract offices of the National Academy of Engineering and positions with several NRC boards, including the Energy Engineering Board, the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and the Marine Board. NORMAN GROSSBLATT is a senior editor at the National Academies. Before joining the NRC Division of Medical Sciences in 1963, he worked as an analyst in information storage and retrieval at Documentation Incorporated and as a technical editor at the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. Nuclear Power Department in Washington, D.C. He received a B.A. in English from Haverford College. Mr. Grossblatt is a diplomate editor in the life sciences and was the founding president of the Board of Editors in the Life Sciences. He is a fellow of the American Medical Writers Association and a recipient of its President’s Award. He is a member of the Council of Science Editors and the European Association of Science Editors. Since 1997 he has been the manuscript editor for Science Editor. At the National Academies, he has edited more than 300 reports. CATHERINE A.GRUBER is an assistant editor with SSB. She joined SSB as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has worked as an outreach assistant for the NAS-Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. EMILY McNEIL, an SSB 2006 winter space policy intern, graduated from Middlebury College with a B.A. in physics and astronomy. She has presented her undergraduate research at the American Astronomical Society meeting, the Posters on the Hill session on Capitol Hill, and two Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium conferences. In 2007 she began her doctoral work in astrophysics at the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Australian National University in Canberra.
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