TABLE II.2 Launch, Orbit, and Instrument Specifications for Missions Recommended to NASA

Decadal Survey Mission

Mission Description

Orbita

Instruments

Rough Cost Estimate (FY 06 $million)

2010–2013

 

 

 

 

CLARREO (NASA portion)

Solar and Earth radiation; spectrally resolved forcing and response of the climate system

LEO, Precessing

Absolute, spectrally resolved interferometer

200

SMAP

Soil moisture and freeze-thaw for weather and water cycle processes

LEO, SSO

L-band radar

L-band radiometer

300

ICESat-II

Ice sheet height changes for climate change diagnosis

LEO, Non-SSO

Laser altimeter

300

DESDynl

Surface and ice sheet deformation for understanding natural hazards and climate; vegetation structure for ecosystem health

LEO, SSO

L-band InSAR

Laser altimeter

700

2013–2016

 

 

 

 

HyspIRI

Land surface composition for agriculture and mineral characterization; vegetation types for ecosystem health

LEO, SSO

Hyperspectral spectrometer

300

ASCENDS

Day/night, all-latitude, all-season CO2 column integrals for climate emissions

LEO, SSO

Multifrequency laser

400

SWOT

Ocean, lake, and river water levels for ocean and inland water dynamics

LEO, SSO

Ka- or Ku-band radar

Ku-band altimeter

Microwave radiometer

450

GEO-CAPE

Atmospheric gas columns for air quality forecasts;ocean color for coastal ecosystem health and climate emissions

GEO

High-spatial-resolution hyperspectral spectrometer

Low-spatial-resolution imaging spectrometer

IR correlation radiometer

550

ACE

Aerosol and cloud profiles for climate and water cycle; ocean color for open ocean biogeochemistry

LEO, SSO

Backscatter lidar

Multiangle polarimeter

Doppler radar

800

2016–2020

 

 

 

 

LIST

Land surface topography for landslide hazards and water runoff

LEO, SSO

Laser altimeter

300

PATH

High-frequency, all-weather temperature and humidity soundings for weather forecasting and sea-surface temperatureb

GEO

Microwave array spectrometer

450

GRACE-II

High-temporal-resolution gravity fields for tracking large-scale water movement

LEO, SSO

Microwave or laser ranging system

450

SCLP

Snow accumulation for freshwater availability

LEO, SSO

Ku- and X-band radars

K- and Ka-band radiometers

500

GACM

Ozone and related gases for intercontinental air quality and stratospheric ozone layer prediction

LEO, SSO

UV spectrometer

IR spectrometer

Microwave limb sounder

600

3D-Winds (Demo)

Tropospheric winds for weather forecasting and pollution transport

LEO, SSO

Doppler lidar

650

NOTE: Missions are listed by cost. Colors denote mission cost categories as estimated by the committee. Pink, green, and blue shading indicates large-cost ($600 million to $900 million), medium-cost ($300 million to $600 million), and small-cost (<$300 million) missions, respectively. Detailed descriptions of the missions are given in Part II, and Part III provides the foundation for their selection.

aLEO, low Earth orbit; SSO, Sun-synchronous orbit; GEO, geostationary Earth orbit.

bCloud-independent, high-temporal-resolution, lower-accuracy sea-surface temperature measurement to complement, not replace, global operational high-accuracy sea-surface temperature measurement.



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