FIGURE 1 A highly simplified diagram of the mammalian auditory pathway. Adapted from Casseday et al., 2002; LeDoux, 1997; Oertel, 2002; Rauschecker and Tian, 2000; and Young, 1998.

The basic model-building began in 1998 and continued through 2002, just when personal computers crossed the 1 GHz mark, which meant that, for the first time in history, it was possible to build working, real-time models of real brain-system components, in software, on consumer computer platforms. Early demonstrations in 2001 and 2002 included high-resolution, real-time displays of the cochlea; binaural spatial representations, such as interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs); high-resolution, event-based

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