IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF ENGINES FOR LARGE NONFIGHTER AIRCRAFT

Committee on Analysis of Air Force Engine Efficiency Improvement Options for Large Non-fighter Aircraft

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF ENGINES FOR LARGE NONFIGHTER AIRCRAFT Committee on Analysis of Air Force Engine Efficiency Improvement Options for Large Non-fighter Aircraft Air Force Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant F49620-01-1-0269 between the U.S. Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10399-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10399-1 Limited copies are available from: Air Force Studies Board National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3111 (800) Additional copies are available from: The National Academies Press Box 285 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft COMMITTEE ON ANALYSIS OF AIR FORCE ENGINE EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS FOR LARGE NON-FIGHTER AIRCRAFT KENNETH E. EICKMANN, Chair, U.S. Air Force (retired) NATALIE W. CRAWFORD, Vice Chair, The RAND Corporation DILIP R. BALLAL, University of Dayton, Ohio MEYER J. BENZAKEIN, Ohio State University JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology DAVID E. (ED) CROW, University of Connecticut ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology FRANK C. GILLETTE, JR., Independent Consultant WILFRED GOODSON, STR, L.L.C. JEFFREY W. HAMSTRA, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company S. MICHAEL HUDSON, Independent Consultant CLYDE KIZER, Airbus Service Company, Inc. NEIL E. PATON, Liquidmetal Technologies JONATHAN PROTZ, Duke University RENE G. RENDON, Naval Postgraduate School ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University (emeritus) RAYMOND VALEIKA, Independent Consultant ALAN VAN WEELE, Northrop Grumman FRANCIS VELDMAN, The Boeing Company OBAID YOUNOSSI, The RAND Corporation Staff JAMES C. GARCIA, Study Director DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Associate Program Officer MARTA VORNBROCK, Associate Program Officer LaNITA R. JONES, Program Associate LINDSAY D. MILLARD, Research Associate DIONNA ALI, Anderson Commonweal Intern

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, Chair, Titan Corporation (retired) TAYLOR W. LAWRENCE, Vice Chair, Raytheon Company FRANK J. CAPPUCCIO, Lockheed Martin Corporation THOMAS DARCY, EADS North America Defense Company STEVEN D. DORFMAN, Hughes Electronics (retired) PAMELA A. DREW, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems KENNETH E. EICKMANN, U.S. Air Force (retired) JOHN V. FARR, Stevens Institute of Technology RAND H. FISHER, Titan Corporation JACQUELINE GISH, Northrop Grumman KENNETH C. HALL, Duke University WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology LESLIE KENNE, LK Associates DONALD J. KUTYNA, U.S. Air Force (retired) GREGORY S. MARTIN, GS Martin Consulting DEBASIS MITRA, Bell Laboratories CHANDRA N. KUMAR PATEL, University of California ROBERT F. RAGGIO, Dayton Aerospace, Inc. GENE W. RAY, GMT Ventures LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA, University of Maryland MARVIN R. SAMBUR, Headquarters, U.S. Air Force (retired) LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (retired) EUGENE L. TATTINI, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Staff MICHAEL A. CLARKE, Director JAMES C. GARCIA, Senior Program Officer DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Program Officer CARTER W. FORD, Associate Program Officer MARTA VORNBROCK, Associate Program Officer DETRA BODRICK-SHORTER, Administrative Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate LaNITA R. JONES, Program Associate LaSHAWN N. SIDBURY, Program Associate WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Senior Program Associate

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft Preface and Acknowledgments This study was requested by the Secretary of the Air Force and the Commander of the Air Force Materiel Command to identify opportunities to address the impact of rapidly increasing aircraft fuel costs. The committee sincerely hopes that this report—the culmination of an extremely focused effort on a short schedule—will enable the Air Force to make informed decisions on improving fuel efficiency for the large nonfighter aircraft inventory. We applaud the committee members for their commitment and diligence, which enabled us to complete the task successfully. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: James L. Bettner, Propulsion Consultant Pierre Chao, Center for Strategic and International Studies Lawrence J. Delaney, Private Consultant Jack L. Kerrebrock, Massachusetts Institute of Technology James O’Connor, Pratt & Whitney (retired) Frank Pickering, GE Aircraft Engines (retired) Charles F. Tiffany, The Boeing Company (retired) Robert C. Turnbull, T.K. Engineering Associates, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William G. Agnew, General Motors (retired), NAE. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee acknowledges and appreciates the contribution of the members of the Air Force Studies Board (AFSB) of the NRC for developing the study statement of task in concert with the Air Force sponsor. The AFSB was established in 1996 by the National Academies at the request of the United States Air Force. The AFSB brings to bear broad military, industrial, and academic scientific, engineering, and management expertise on Air Force technical challenges and other issues of importance to senior Air Force leaders. The board discusses potential studies of interest, develops and frames study tasks, ensures proper project planning, suggests potential committee members and reviewers for reports produced by fully independent ad hoc study committees, and convenes meetings to examine strategic issues. The board members listed on page vi were not asked to endorse the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they review the final draft of this report before its release, although board members with appropriate expertise may be nominated to serve as formal members of study committees or as report reviewers. The committee is very grateful to the Air Force for its dedicated support throughout the study and for the efforts of National Research Council staff members Michael Clarke, Jim Garcia, Daniel Talmage, Carter Ford, Marta Vornbrock, Detra Bodrick-Shorter, LaNita Jones, LaShawn Sidbury, Bill Campbell, Lindsay Millard, and Dionna Ali. Kenneth E. Eickmann, Chair Natalie W. Crawford, Vice Chair Committee on Analysis of Air Force Engine Efficiency Improvement Options for Large Non-fighter Aircraft

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   7      Study Origin,   7      Overview of Air Force Fuel Consumption and Cost Structure,   7      Lessons Learned from Previous Re-engining Programs,   11      Commercial Re-engining Programs,   11      Military Re-engining Programs,   11      Complexity of Re-engining Aircraft,   11      Program Schedule and Cost,   12      Potential for Future Re-engining Programs,   12      Force Structure for Future Study,   13      Additional Context,   13      Previous Re-engining Studies,   13      Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Study on Technology Options for Improved Air Vehicle Fuel Efficiency,   14      Summary,   17      References,   17 2   SELECTION OF CANDIDATES   18      Determining Factors,   18      Fleet Size,   18      Length of Service in Inventory,   18      Fuel Consumption Rate,   20      Aircraft Utilization Rate,   20      Maintenance and Support Costs,   21

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft      Plausibility of Significant Improvements,   22      Treatment of Additional Operational Benefits,   23      List of Candidate Aircraft and Methodology for Selection,   23      Summary Candidates for Study,   25      References,   25 3   PROPOSED ENGINE MODIFICATIONS AND RE-ENGINING   26      KC-135 R/T Aircraft,   26      C-130 Aircraft,   29      B-1 Aircraft,   33      Modification,   33      Re-engining,   33      Fuel Consumption,   36      KC-10 Aircraft,   36      Background,   36      Technology Infusion Benefits,   36      High-Pressure Turbine Upgrades,   37      Commonality Considerations for the Air Force Engine Fleet,   37      Commonality Issues for the Commercial Engine Fleet,   37      Summary,   38      C-17 Aircraft,   38      References,   39 4   TF33 SERIES POWERED AIRCRAFT   40      Introduction,   40      E-8C JSTARS Weapons System,   41      E-3 AWACS Platform,   45      B-52 Aircraft,   48      KC-135 Aircraft,   50      References,   53 5   RECURRING AND NONRECURRING COST ESTIMATIONS   55      Analysis Approach,   55      Nonrecurring Costs,   56      Recurring Costs,   56      Costs and Benefits to Operations and Support,   56      Maintenance and Fuel Savings,   57      Methodology and Basis for the Estimate,   57      Fuel Consumption,   58      Engine Repair Cost,   59      Assumptions, Inputs, and Data,   59      Net Present Value Analysis,   63      Summary,   65      References,   68

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft 6   OTHER CONSIDERATIONS   69      Aerodynamic Modifications,   69      Winglets,   69      Laminar Flow Nacelles,   72      Airframe Modifications for Fuel Savings Unique to the C-130,   72      Optimization of Operations,   73      Maintenance Practices,   74      On-Wing Programs,   76      Engine Maintenance Programs,   77      Information, Data Requirements, and Organizational Structure,   77      Operational Practices,   78      Aircraft Weight Management,   79      Other Benefits of Re-engining,   80      Operational Benefits,   80      Environmental Considerations and Implications,   83      References,   85 7   ALTERNATIVE FUELS   87      Background,   87      Synthetic Fuel Properties, Specifications, and Re-engining,   88      Challenges to Producing Domestic Alternative Fuels,   90      Strategy for Qualifying Alternative Fuels,   93      Coal-to-Liquid Fuel Technology Promotion Act,   94      Summary,   95      References,   95 8   TECHNOLOGY PREPAREDNESS AND INSERTION   96      Introduction,   96      Turbine Engine Science and Technology Overview,   97      Potential for Specific Fuel Consumption Improvement,   99      Component Improvement and Engine Model Derivative Programs,   100      Turbine Engine Science and Technology Funding,   103      References,   104 9   ACQUISITION, FINANCING, AND SUPPORT   106      Introduction,   106      Overview of Options,   107      Options in Group 1,   107      Option 1: Maintain All Commercial Derivative Engines to FAA Standards,   109      Option 2: Compete All Maintenance Contracts,   110      Option 3: Create a Line Item in the Defense Budget,   111      Option 4: Implement a Fuels Savings Performance Contract Strategy,   111      Options in Group 2,   113      Option 5: Re-engine Air Force Aircraft with Commercial Engines and Lease or Resell the Engines When the Airframe Is Retired,   113      Option 6: Create a Spare Engine and Parts Pool,   116

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft      Option 7: Lease Engines on a Long-Term Basis,   116      Option 8: Lease Engines on a Short-Term Basis,   117      Options in Group 3,   119      Option 9: Sale and Leaseback on a Long-Term Basis,   119      Option 10: Sale and Leaseback on a Short-Term Basis,   120      References,   122     APPENDIXES          A  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   125      B  Meetings and Speakers   133      C  Key Recommendations from Previous Studies   138      D  Background Information on Re-engining Requirements   152      E  Background Information on Lessons Learned from Previous Re-engining Programs   159      F  Background Information on Re-engining the C-130   165      G  Sensitivity Analysis   169

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft Acronyms AAFRF assured aerospace fuels research facility AD airworthiness directive ADANS Airlift Deployment Analysis System AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AFSAB Air Force Scientific Advisory Board AFTOC Air Force Total Ownership Cost ALBEN augmented load-balanced exhaust nozzle AMC Air Mobility Command APU auxiliary power unit ATOW average time on wing AWACS Advanced Warning and Control System BMW/RR Bavarian Motor Works/Rolls-Royce CAIG Cost Analysis Improvement Group CALCM Conventional Air Launched Cruise Missile CAMPS Consolidated Air Mobility Planning System CCI capability-to-cost index CER cost-estimating relationship CIP component improvement program CO2 carbon dioxide CRAF Civil Reserve Air Fleet CTL coal to liquid DER Designated Engineering Repair DESC Defense Energy Support Center DLR depot-level reparable

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft DoD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DSB Defense Science Board ECM electronic countermeasure EGT exhaust gas temperature EMDP Engine Model Derivative Program EOC engine overhaul costs EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESPC Energy Savings Performance Contract FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAR Federal Acquisition Regulation FCF functional check flight FOB free on board FOFSD follow-on full-scale development FSD full-scale development FSPC Fuel Savings Performance Contract FT Fischer-Tropsch (process) GSA General Services Administration HPT high-pressure turbine ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IHPTET Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology IPT integrated product team JSTARS Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System L/D lift/drag LCC life-cycle cost LPT low-pressure turbine LRS long-range strike ManTech Manufacturing Technology (DoD program) MDS mission design series (designator) MQT military qualification test NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NECPA National Energy Conservation Policy Act NOx nitrogen oxide NPV net present value NRC National Research Council NRE nonrecurring engineering

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Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft O&S operating and support OEM original equipment manufacturer OEW operating empty weight ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense P&W Pratt & Whitney PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PMA Production Manufacturing Authority R&D research and development RFI request for information ROI return on investment RR Rolls-Royce S&T science and technology SAF/US Secretary of the Air Force/United States SFC specific fuel consumption SiS Share in Savings SLEP service life extension program SPR Strategic Petroleum Reserve STOL short takeoff and landing T/W thrust to weight ratio TACC Tanker Airlift Control Center TER total engine removal TOW takeoff weight TRL Technology Readiness Level TSFC thrust-specific fuel consumption UAS unmanned aircraft system UEET ultraefficient engine technology USAF United States Air Force VAATE Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine WE weight empty

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