. "Appendix B Additional Methods for Improving Fuel Consumption." Assessment of Wingtip Modifications to Increase the Fuel Efficiency of Air Force Aircraft. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007.
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Assessment of Wingtip Modifications to Increase the Fuel Efficiency of Air Force Aircraft
swamp areas. Check insulation blankets for condensation which can increase the weight of the blankets significantly—by, for example, more than 1,000 lb in the case of 707 blankets. Consider lighter weight replacement materials for nonstructural items such as floor panels (floors in KC-135s, for example, are plywood). Create a weight maintenance czar to keep aircraft weight as stable as possible over time.
The commercial airline industry has also employed changes when designing new aircraft to improve CG management. Newer designs, such as the Boeing 777 and 787 and the MD-11, have used stability augmentation to allow smaller tail surfaces and to shift the CG aft, reducing trim drag. For an existing aircraft, it is probably not practical to change the design to improve stability or allow smaller tail surfaces. But, as mentioned above, by paying careful attention to payload loading position, an aircraft can be routinely flown near its aft CG limit, often saving a percent or more in trim drag. Commercial airlines have automated their loading processes to make aft loading more routine.