Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH

Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Committee to Review the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program

Committee on Earth Resources

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Committee to Review the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program Committee on Earth Resources Board on Earth Sciences and Resources NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was requested by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and supported by Contract Nos. 200-2000-00629 (Task Order #0033) and 200-2005-10881 (Task Order #0004). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations contained in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10342-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10342-8 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. 2007. Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH. Committee to Review the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program. Rpt. No. 2, Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE NIOSH MINING SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH PROGRAM RAJA V. RAMANI, Chair, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park DAVID BEERBOWER, Peabody Energy Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri JEFFEREY L. BURGESS, University of Arizona, Tucson JAMES W. DEARING, Kaiser Permanente, Denver, Colorado FRANCIS S. KENDORSKI, Agapito Associates, Inc., Lombard, Illinois MICHAEL K. MCCARTER, University of Utah, Salt Lake City DAVID ORTLIEB, United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union, Nashville, Tennessee SUSAN B. PATTON, Montana Tech of the University of Montana (retired), Butte ROBERT G. PELUSO, Independent Consultant, Moon Township, Pennsylvania PRAMOD THAKUR, CONSOL Energy, Inc., Morgantown, West Virginia JEFFREY S. VIPPERMAN, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAMES L. WEEKS, Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc., Germantown, Maryland National Research Council Staff SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Study Director PEGGY TSAI, Research Associate JARED P. ENO, Senior Project Assistant

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Independent Report Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Elizabeth Chamberlin, CONSOL Energy, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Susan E. Cozzens, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta William Ford, National Stone, Sand, and Gravel Association, Alexandria, Virginia Joseph Main, United Mine Workers of America, Spotsylvania, Virginia Richard McKinley, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio John N. Murphy, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Thomas Novak, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia Lynn Elinson, WESTAT, Inc., Rockville, Maryland Gavriel Salvendy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lee W. Saperstein, University of Missouri, Rolla Paul D. Stolley, University of Maryland, Baltimore Stanley C. Suboleski, Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission (retired), Midlothian, Virginia Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Jonathan G. Price, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno, and M. Donald Whorton, WorkCare, Inc., Alameda, California. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Preface The single most valuable asset in any organization, including organizations within the mining industry, is its human resources. The ingenuity of employees leads to effective and efficient utilization of all other resources and to achievement of the economic and social goals of the organization. Protection of employees from hazards in the occupational environment is important both from the humanitarian point of view and for the overall welfare of the organization. It is fundamental for sound management, for the health and safety of the miners, and for the survival of the company in a competitive world. An often-quoted saying states: “The safest mine is the most profitable mine.” The enhancement of mining workplace health and safety requires the recognition that mining remains hazardous and that vigilance in addressing the hazards can never be relaxed. Miner health and safety are major concerns for mine management, labor organizations, and government. This concern has manifested itself in four control mechanisms: (1) regulatory control through the passage of laws and regulations; (2) legal and social control through compensation laws for occupation-related injuries and health deterioration; (3) medical control through periodic examinations; and (4) engineering control through the design and operation of mines according to the best recommended practices. An important aspect of all these approaches is the search for new tools and techniques that will further enhance hazard control. Ultimately, to create safe mining environments, improved tools and techniques must be successfully integrated and applied in the industry.

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health The evaluation of research contributions by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Mining Research Program is the focus of this report. The National Academies was asked to evaluate the research activities of the NIOSH Mining Program in terms of relevance, the impact of the program on the health and safety of workers, and the significance of research to emerging issues in mining. In response to this request, the Committee to Review the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program was formed, composed of experts from industry, academia, and labor organizations. The committee comprises recognized experts in surface and underground mining, coal mining, metal and nonmetal mining, mining health and safety, mining research, industrial hygiene, technology transfer, rock mechanics, and acoustical engineering. The committee reviewed extensive documentation provided by NIOSH on Mining Program research; held both open- and closed-session meetings; visited multiple NIOSH research facilities; heard from representatives of industry, government, labor, manufacturers, and consultants; and requested and reviewed written input from stakeholders. This report finds that good progress has been made in the improvement of mine worker health and safety, with continuous decreases in the incidence and severity of diseases, disasters, and fatal and non-fatal accidents. The NIOSH Mining Program has identified and conducts research in seven areas of greatest need: respiratory disease prevention; noise-induced hearing loss prevention; cumulative musculoskeletal injury prevention; traumatic injury prevention; mine disaster prevention and control; ground failure prevention; and surveillance, training, and intervention effectiveness. Despite a sharp decrease in available funds between 1998 and 2005, the NIOSH Mining Program has made major contributions to the engineering control of hazards in the workplace and the development and transfer of new knowledge to the mining industry. Yet miners continue to experience diseases, disasters, fatalities, and injuries. As recent coal mine disasters have shown, safety concerns of mine operations require constant monitoring and control. Mine safety and health research by the federal government should continue to be an important component of efforts to make mines safer in the future. The development of an appropriate balance between addressing currently known problems and preparing for emerging problems is essential for a research agency. The more challenging mining environments expected in the future (e.g., deeper deposits, multiple seams, mining seams beneath previously mined-out seams) will require enhanced health and safety research. The changing workforce demographics and the changing nature of the work itself require adequate resources for the technology transfer and training program development necessary to create a more knowledgeable workforce in which evidence-based innovations are implemented

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and sustained. Given the impending critical shortage of trained manpower at all levels in the mining industry, there is an immediate need to find and train replacement personnel. Raja V. Ramani Commitee Chair

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 12   REVIEW OF MINE DISASTER PREVENTION AND CONTROL RESEARCH   142      Strategic Goals and Objectives,   142      Review of Inputs,   146      Review of Activities,   147      Review of Research Outputs,   148      Review of Transfer Activities,   149      Review of Intermediate Outcomes and Causal Impact,   149      Review of End Outcomes,   152      Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   153      Progress in Targeting New Research,   153 13   REVIEW OF GROUND FAILURE PREVENTION RESEARCH   156      Strategic Goals and Objectives,   156      Review of Inputs,   157      Review of Activities,   161      Review of Research Outputs and Transfer Activities,   161      Review of Intermediate Outcomes and Causal Impact,   165      Review of End Outcomes,   171      Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   171      Progress in Targeting New Research,   172 14   REVIEW OF SURVEILLANCE, TRAINING, AND INTERVENTION EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH   173      Strategic Goals and Objectives,   173      Review of Inputs,   176      Review of Activities,   177      Review of Research Outputs,   182      Review of Transfer Activities,   183      Review of Intermediate Outcomes and Causal Impact,   184      Review of End Outcomes,   185      Review of Other Outcomes,   185      Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   186      Progress in Targeting New Research,   186 REFERENCES   188

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health APPENDIXES     A   Framework for the Review of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health   195 B   Information Provided by the NIOSH Mining Safety and Health Research Program   239 C   NIOSH Mining Ergonomics Research Program Review Barbara Silverstein, Washington State Department of Labor and Industries   243 D   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   256 E   Committee on Earth Resources Roster   262 F   Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Roster   263

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES 1-1   Distribution of Mining Workforce by Commodity and Number of Contractors Employed in 2005,   19 1-2   Number of Mines by Commodity and Employment, 1996 and 2005,   20 2-1   Causes of Mining Fatalities (2000-2004),   28 2-2   Distribution of NIOSH Mining Program Funding and FTEs Among the Strategic Goals,   31 2-3   Changes in Funding and FTEs in 2005 in Relation to 1998 Levels,   32 3-1   Elements of the Ideal Mining Safety and Health Research Program,   50 3-2   Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Mining Health Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,   53 3-3   Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Injury Prevention Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,   54 3-4   Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Disaster Control Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,   55 3-5   Committee Assessment of the Level of Importance of Ground Failure Prevention Research Issues by Commodity Group, Location, and Type of Activity,   56

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 8-1   Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of the Respiratory Disease Prevention Program and Committee Comments,   92 8-2   Respiratory Disease Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   95 9-1   Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of NIHL Prevention Research and Committee Comments,   110 9-2   Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   114 10-1   Illness and Non-Fatal Days Lost Data for Mine Operators from 1993 to 2002,   121 10-2   Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of the Reduction of Repetitive and Cumulative Musculoskeletal Injuries and Committee Comments,   122 10-3   Comparison of Total Reported Illness and NFDL Injury Data for 1996 and 2005,   123 10-4   Cumulative Musculoskeletal Disorder Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   126 11-1   Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Traumatic Injury Prevention Research and Committee Comments,   133 11-2   Traumatic Injury Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   136 11-3   Research Outputs Related to the Traumatic Injury Prevention Research Compared to the NIOSH Mining Program (1996-2005),   138 12-1   Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Mine Disaster Prevention and Control Research and Committee Comments,   144 12-2   Mine Disaster Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   150 13-1   Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Ground Failure Prevention Research and Committee Comments,   158 13-2   Coal and Metal or Nonmetal Mining Fatalities Related to Ground Failure,   160 13-3   Ground Failure Prevention Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   162 13-4   Summary of Ground Failure Prevention Outputs (1998-2005),   165

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 13-5   Outputs and Intermediate Outcomes Related to Ground Failure Prevention Research Outcomes,   166 14-1   Intermediate Goals and Performance Measures of Surveillance, Training, and Intervention Effectiveness Research and Committee Comments,   174 14-2   Surveillance, Training, and Intervention Effectiveness Research Projects and Committee Assessment of Relevance and Impact,   178 FIGURES 1-1   Flow chart for evaluation of NIOSH research programs,   17 1-2   Chart showing distribution of U.S. mining establishments by worker population, and distribution of mining workforce by size of mining establishment as of March 2004,   19 1-3   Mining deaths in the United States, 1910-2004,   21 1-4   Numbers of deaths, crude mortality rates, and age-adjusted mortality rates for U.S. residents aged 15 or older, with coal worker’s pneumoconiosis recorded as an underlying or contributing cause on the death certificate, 1968-1999,   22 2-1   Number of hours worked by operators and contract workers in the mining industry from 1984 to 2004,   45 8-1   Trends in prevalence of CWP (≥ Category 1/0) over time (1987-2001), 105 C-1 Components of a work system,   245 BOXES S-1   Five-Point Scales Used for the Rating of Relevance and Impact,   4 S-2   Overarching Recommendations,   13 4-1   Five-Point Scales Used for the Rating of Relevance and Impact as Defined by the Framework Committee,   59

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Abbreviations and Acronyms AHSEM Analysis of Horizontal Stress Effects in Mines (software) AIHA American Industrial Hygiene Association ALPS Analysis of Longwall Computer Stability (software) ANFO Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (blasting agent) ANSI American National Standards Institute ARMPS Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar Stability (software) ARTBA American Road and Transportation Builders Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BCOA Bituminous Coal Operators of America BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics CAP Crewstation Analysis Programs CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFR Code of Federal Regulations CMR Construction, maintenance, and repair CMRR Coal mine roof rating CO Carbon monoxide COLD Chronic obstructive lung disease CWP Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health dBA Decibels (the sound level in decibels after applying the A-weighting filter) DHHS Department of Health and Human Services DO Designated operation DPM Diesel particulate matter DRDS Division of Respiratory Disease Studies (NIOSH) DSHEFS Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies (NIOSH) EC Elemental carbon EFSI Electrical Safety Foundation International FACE Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (NIOSH) FTE Full-time equivalent HASARD Hazardous Areas Signaling and Ranging Device HHE Health Hazard Evaluation HLP Hearing loss prevention HLPU Hearing Loss Prevention Unit HPD Hearing protection device ICP Inductively coupled plasma ISMSP International Society of Mine Safety Professionals ISO International Organization for Standardization LHD Load-haul-dump LLL Lake Lynn Laboratory (NIOSH Mining Program) MESA Mine Enforcement and Safety Administration MHRAC Mine Health Research Advisory Committee MIS Mining-induced seismicity MRS Mobile Roof Support MSD Musculoskeletal disorder MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration MSHRAC Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee MTS Missile Test Site MVSSA Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa NDL No days lost NFDL Non-fatal days lost

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NFPA National Fire Protection Association NIHL Noise-induced hearing loss NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NMA National Mining Association NO2 Nitrogen dioxide gas NORA National Occupational Research Agenda NORA-2 National Occupational Research Agenda (second decade) NPPTL National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory NRR Noise reduction rating NSPE National Society of Professional Engineers NVLAP National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSH Act Occupational Safety and Health Act PART Performance Assessment Rating Tool PBS Personal bolter screen PDM Personal dust monitor PEL Permissible exposure limit PIB Public Information Bulletin (MSHA) PMF Progressive massive fibrosis PPE Personal protective equipment PRL Pittsburgh Research Laboratory psf Pounds per square foot r2p Research to practice REL Recommended Exposure Limit SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SCSR Self-contained self rescuer SME Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration SRL Spokane Research Laboratory STE Statement of Test and Evaluations (MSHA) STOP Support Technology Optimization Program (software) SX-EW Solvent extraction-electrowinning TC Total carbon TRAM Training Resources Applied to Mining Conference TTG Technology Transfer Group (USBM)

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Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health UMWA United Mine Workers of America USBM U.S. Bureau of Mines USPHS U.S. Public Health Service WMA Wyoming Mining Association WMSD Work-related musculoskeletal disorder