UMWA United Mine Workers of America
USBM U.S. Bureau of Mines
USPHS U.S. Public Health Service
WMA Wyoming Mining Association
WMSD Work-related musculoskeletal disorder
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Front Matter ."
Mining Safety and Health Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.