8. B.N. Tran, J.C. Joseph, J.P. Ferris, P. Persans, and J.J. Chera, “Simulation of Titan Haze Formation Using a Photochemical Flow Reactor: The Optical Properties of the Polymer,” Icarus 165: 379-390, 2003.

9. D.W. Clarke and J.P. Ferris, “Titan Haze: Structure and Properties of Cyanoacetylene and Cyanoacetylene-acetylene Photopolymers,” Icarus 127: 158-172, 1997.

10. P. Coll, D. Coscia, N. Smith, M.C. Gazeau, S.I. Ramirez, G. Cernogora, G. Israel, and F. Raulin, “Experimental Laboratory Simulation of Titan’s Atmosphere: Aerosols and Gas Phase,” Planetary and Space Science 47: 1331-1340, 1999.

11. See, for example, D.W. Clarke and J.P. Ferris, “Titan Haze: Structure and Properties of Cyanoacetylene and Cyanoacetylene-acetylene Photopolymers,” Icarus 127: 158-172, 1997.

12. See, for example, J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lornez, and W.K. Hartmann, “Some Speculations on Titan’s Past, Present, and Future,” Planetary and Space Science 46: 1099-1107, 1998.

13. C.A. Griffith, T. Owen, and R. Wagener, “Titan’s Surface and Troposphere, Investigated with Ground-based, Near-infrared Observations,” Icarus 93: 362-378, 1991.

14. C.A. Griffith, T. Owen, T.R Geballe, J. Rayner, and P. Rannou, “Evidence for the Exposure of Water Ice on Titan’s Surface,” Science 300: 628-630, 2003.

15. D.B. Campbell, G.J. Black, L.M. Carter, and S.J. Ostro, “The Surface of Titan: Arecibo Radar Observations,” EOS Transactions AGU 84(46), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract P42B-08, 2003.

16. D.B. Campbell, G.J. Black, L.M. Carter, and S.J. Ostro, “Radar Evidence for Liquid Surfaces on Titan,” Science 302: 431, 2003.

17. F. Raulin, P. Coll, D. Coscia, M.C. Gazeau, R. Sternberg, P. Bruston, G. Israel, and D. Gautier, “An Exobiological View of Titan and the Cassini-Huygens Mission,” Advances in Space Research 22: 353-362, 1998.

18. G. Israel, M. Cabane, P. Coll, D. Coscia, F. Raulin, and H. Niemann, “The Cassini-Huygens ACP Experiment and Exobiological Implications,” Advances in Space Research 21: 319-331, 1999.

19. E.R. Stofan, C. Elachi, J.I. Lunine, R.D. Lorenz, B. Stiles, K.L. Mitchell, S. Ostro, L. Soderblom, C. Wood, H. Zebker, S. Wall, M. Janssen, R. Kirk, R. Lopes, F. Paganelli, J. Radebaugh, L. Wye, Y. Anderson, M. Allison, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W.T.K. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D. Muhleman, P. Paillou, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu. S. Shaffer, S. Vetrella, and R. West, “The Lakes of Titan,” Nature 445: 61-64, 2007.

20. Y.L. Yung and W.B. DeMore, Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.

21. R.E. Johnson, R.W. Carlson, J.F. Cooper, C. Paranicas, M.H. Moore, and M.C. Wong, “Radiation Effects on the Surface of the Galilean Satellites,” pp. 485-512 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere (F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, and W.B. McKinnon, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2004.

22. R.E. Johnson, T.I. Quickenden, P.D. Cooper, A.J. McKinley, B. Selby, and C. Freeman, “The Production of Oxidants in Europa’s Surface,” Astrobiology 3: 823-850, 2003.

23. L.M. Lara, R.D. Lorenz, and R. Rodrigo, “Liquids and Solids on the Surface of Titan: Results of a New Photochemical Model,” Planetary and Space Science 42(1): 5-14, 1994.

24. L.M. Lara, E. Lellouch, J.J. López-Moreno, and R. Rodrigo, “Vertical Distribution of Titan’s Atmospheric Neutral Constituents,” Journal of Geophysical Research 101(E10): 23261-23284, 1996.

25. Y.L. Yung, M. Allen, and J.P. Pinto, “Photochemistry of the Atmosphere of Titan—Comparison Between Model and Observations,” Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 55: 465-506, 1984.

26. L.M. Lara, W.-H. Ip, and R. Rodrigo, “Photochemical Models of Pluto’s Atmosphere,” Icarus 130: 16-35, 1997.

27. D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, F. Herbert, and B. Sandel, “The Photochemistry of Methane in the Atmosphere of Triton,” Geophysical Research Letters 17: 1729-1732, 1990.

28. S. Leboinnois, D. Toublanc, F. Hourdin, and P. Rannou, “Seasonal Variations of Titan’s Atmospheric Composition,” Icarus 152: 384-406, 2001.

29. See, for example, H. Imanaka, B.N. Khare, E.L.O. Bakes, M.A. Cannady, C.P. McKay, D.P. Cruikshank, J.E. Elsila, R.N. Zare, S. Sugita, and T. Matsui, “Titan’s Organic Haze and Condensation Clouds,” 35th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Division on Planetary Sciences, Abstract 10.04, 2003. Available at http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v35n4/dps2003/356.htm. Last accessed January 19, 2007.

30. G. Schubert, J.D. Anderson, T. Spohn, and W.B. McKinnon, “Interior Composition, Structure, and Dynamics of the Galilean Satellites,” pp. 281-306 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere (F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, and W.B. McKinnon, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2004.

31. See, for example, R. Greeley, C.F. Chyba, J.W. Head III, T.B. McCord, W.B. McKinnon, R.T. Pappalardo, and P. Figueredo, “Geology of Europa,” pp. 329-362 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere (F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, and W.B. McKinnon, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2004.

32. J.B. Dalton, “Infrared Spectra of Extremophile Bacteria Under Europan Conditions and Their Astrobiological Significance,” Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 33: 1125, 2001.

33. R.N. Clark, “The Surface Composition of Europa: Mixed Water, Hydronium, and Hydrogen Peroxide Ice,” EOS Transactions AGU 84(46), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract P51B-0445, 2003.

34. See, for example, National Research Council, Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006, pp. 17-21.

35. H. Imanaka, B.N. Khare, E.L.O. Bakes, M.A. Cannady, C.P. McKay, D.P. Cruikshank, J.E. Elsila, R.N. Zare, S. Sugita, and T. Matsui, “Titan’s Organic Haze and Condensation Clouds, 35th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Division on Planetary Science, Abstract 10.0405, 2003. Available at http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v35n4/dps2003/356.htm. Last accessed January 19, 2007.



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