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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness 3 Benchmarking Results: Assessment of U.S. Leadership in Chemical Engineering at Large Chapters 3 and 4 present the results of the benchmarking exercise that the Panel undertook in assessing the international competitiveness of U.S. research in chemical engineering. Chapter 3 summarizes the results for chemical engineering at large, while Chapter 4 presents the results for each subarea of chemical engineering. The approach that the Panel followed for the benchmarking exercise was outlined in Section 2.2. The presentation of results in this chapter is structured as follows: Section 3.1 describes the composition of the Virtual World Congress (VWC) for each subarea of chemical engineering and draws conclusions on the leadership of U.S. chemical engineering research at large. The detailed analysis of the VWC composition for each subarea is given in Chapter 4. Section 3.2 summarizes the analysis of chemical engineering publications and citations, while Section 3.3 presents the results of a patent analysis. Section 3.4 examines the distribution of prizes, awards, and other recognitions, and Section 3.5 summarizes the Panel’s assessment of the current health of U.S. research in chemical engineering at large. 3.1 VIRTUAL WORLD CONGRESS Table 3.1 summarizes the results of the Virtual World Congress for all subareas of chemical engineering. The table has three parts (from left to right): The third column of the table presents the total and the relative numbers of U.S. and non-U.S. experts for each subarea.
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness TABLE 3.1 Data for the Virtual World Congress of Chemical Engineering Area Subarea Engineering Science of Physical Processes Transport processes Thermodynamics Rheology Separation Solid particles technology Engineering Science of Chemical Processes Catalysis Kinetics and reaction eng. Polymerization reaction eng. Electrochemical processes Engineering Science of Biological Processes Biocatalysis and protein eng. Cellular and metabolic eng. Bioprocess engineering Systems, computational, and synthetic biology Molecular and Interfacial Science and Engineering Materials: Molecular Design, Morphology, Processing Molecular and Supramolecular Assemblies, Micro-Nanopatterned Surfaces and Thin Films Polymers Inorganic & ceramic materials Composite Nanostructured materials Biomedical Products, Bio-inspired materials, Biomaterials and Biohybrids Energy Drug targeting and delivery systems Biomaterials Materials for cell and tissue engineering Fossil energy extraction and processing Fossil fuel utilization Non-fossil energy Environmental Impact and Management: Safety and Health Air pollution Water pollution Green engineering Aerosol S&E Process Systems Development and Engineering Process development and design Dynamics, control, and operational optimization Safety and operability of chemical plants Computational tools and information technology TOTAL
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness Organizers of Virtual World Congress Virtual World Congress Speakers (including duplications in nominations) Virtual World Congress Speakers (excluding duplications in nominations) No. of Experts Polled U.S. Non-U.S. % U.S. No. of Nominations U.S. Non-U.S. % U.S. No. of Unique Speakers Proposed U.S. Non-U.S. % 7 5 2 71 113 92 21 81 65 50 15 77 11 11 0 100 217 148 69 68 114 70 44 61 8 6 2 75 113 70 43 62 66 34 32 52 9 9 0 100 158 116 42 73 63 41 22 65 6 5 1 83 113 65 48 58 70 36 34 51 7 7 0 100 144 81 63 56 66 33 33 50 8 7 1 88 142 98 44 69 81 51 30 63 11 10 1 91 165 80 85 48 89 39 50 44 5 3 2 60 67 38 29 57 52 26 26 50 7 6 1 86 130 70 60 54 72 30 42 42 8 6 2 75 123 92 31 75 57 43 14 75 7 5 2 71 153 105 48 69 104 65 39 63 9 9 0 100 145 115 30 79 83 65 18 78 15 14 1 93 268 186 82 69 166 105 61 63 20 19 1 95 341 254 87 74 151 102 49 68 14 12 2 86 269 184 85 68 169 106 63 63 10 9 1 90 141 107 34 76 113 79 34 70 14 13 1 93 247 183 64 74 134 88 46 66 11 8 3 73 187 126 61 67 94 60 34 64 10 8 2 80 170 134 36 79 77 62 15 81 6 6 0 100 116 91 25 78 73 55 18 75 4 4 0 100 58 42 16 72 58 42 16 72 8 6 2 75 113 60 53 53 116 65 51 56 6 4 2 67 90 43 47 48 87 43 44 49 7 6 1 86 120 68 52 57 114 65 49 57 7 7 0 100 118 95 23 81 93 78 15 84 10 6 4 60 146 83 63 57 110 74 36 67 5 3 2 60 117 67 50 57 96 57 39 59 16 10 6 63 258 148 110 57 124 73 51 59 12 8 4 67 212 122 90 58 75 49 26 65 11 10 1 91 179 137 42 77 102 70 32 69 7 5 2 71 118 74 44 63 63 41 22 65 296 247 49 83 5051 3374 1677 67 2997 1897 1100 63
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness The fourth column shows the total number and the percentages of U.S. and non-U.S. participants (speakers) in the VWC for each subarea. These numbers include duplications, i.e., if a specific person was recommended by two experts for the same congress, the entry in the totals is 2. The fifth column is based on the same information as the middle section, but each participant has been counted once, even if he/she was proposed by several experts. A total of 296 experts in various areas of chemical engineering were engaged to organize the VWC (see Appendix 3A at the end of this chapter): 83% from the United States and 17% from other countries. For the various subareas the percentage of U.S. organizers ranged from 60% (electrochemical processes; green engineering) to 100% (thermodynamics; separation; catalysis; systems, computational, and synthetic biology; materials for cell and tissue engineering; fossil energy extraction and processing; water pollution), depending on the specific subarea. The preponderance of U.S. names is not surprising given the historical strength of chemical engineering in the United States. The composition of the resulting Virtual World Congresses, overall and for the various subareas, is the outcome of significance for this benchmarking exercise. As Table 3.1 indicates, 2,997 researchers were recommended for inclusion in the VWC: 1,897 (63%) from the United States and 1,100 (37%) from other countries. The 63% overall U.S. representation in the VWC is in line with the fractional U.S. representation in the list of most-cited publications for 2000-2006 (74%, see Table 3.3), which is a metric that also denotes relative quality and impact. Consequently, the overall composition of the VWC suggests that U.S. chemical engineering research, at large, is “Dominant, at the Forefront” of developments in the discipline. When we examine the U.S. fractional representation in the VWC for each subarea, we notice that it varies from 42% (biocatalysis and protein engineering) to 77% (transport processes) of all participants, suggesting that U.S. research in every subarea of chemical engineering is either “Dominant, at the Forefront” (65% or more of participants) or “Among World Leaders” (42% to 65% of participants). In Chapter 4, the specific numbers of Table 3.1 for each subarea are analyzed in conjunction with other information, in order to draw conclusions on the relative position of U.S. chemical engineering research in the corresponding subarea.
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness 3.2 JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS In this section we will discuss the macroscopic trends, on a worldwide basis, of the publications and citations data collected for five time periods from 1980 to 2006 for the field of chemical engineering at large. Appendix 3B lists all the journals that were considered. They were grouped in the following three categories: journals with broad coverage of chemical engineering research journals with broad coverage of sciences and engineering disciplines, in which chemical engineers publish leading journals for each subarea of chemical engineering The total number of papers published was found by searching the Web of Science (http://portal.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi) for all publications during the corresponding period, with the requirement that a co-author had a chemical engineering affiliation in the address field. For the United States, a chemical engineering affiliation is a good indicator that a researcher is involved in chemical engineering research. Recent changes in the affiliation of academic researchers from chemical engineering departments to biological engineering or biomedical engineering departments have been taken into account; biological and biomedical engineering departments populated recently by the transfer of chemical engineers were included in the search and the lists were pruned by eliminating the faculty members in these departments who did not hold a Ph.D. in chemical engineering.. However, for non-U.S. researchers with research activities within the scope of chemical engineering as understood in the United States, the corresponding affiliation is not a very good indicator. Many such researchers are affiliated with departments that do not contain “chemical engineering” in their name. Particular attention on select very active universities in Europe and Japan (e.g. ETH-Zurich and Kyoto University, respectively), was given to include the contributions of the non-U.S. researchers who would qualify as chemical engineers, but the numbers of papers by non-U.S. chemical engineering researchers should be viewed as lower bounds. 3.2.a Summary of the Macro Trends Analysis of publications and citations by chemical engineers in all three groups of journals has revealed the following trends: Trend 1: The relative volume of the U.S.-originated journal publications by chemical engineers, as a fraction of the worldwide total, has been halved over the past 20 years.
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness Trend 2: U.S. publications in chemical engineering continue to exercise academic leadership with strong scientific and technological impact worldwide. The relative degree of leadership has been decreasing over the past 10 years. Trend 3: The relative volume (as a fraction of the total) of U.S.-originated publications in broadly based chemical engineering journals has been reduced by 25%-30% over the past 10-15 years. Trend 4: The fraction of U.S.-originated contributions, in broadly based chemical engineering journals, with research subjects in the classical coreareas of transport processes, thermodynamics, kinetics and reaction engineering, and process systems engineering, has been reduced by more than the overall fraction in Trend-3, i.e., 50%-60% versus 25%-30% reductions. Trend 5: The fraction of the top-cited (in the top 100 most-cited papers) U.S.-originated publications in broadly based chemical engineering journals has been reduced by one-third over the past 10-15 years. Trend 6: The fraction of chemical engineering contributions in broadly based scientific journals, e.g., Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has roughly doubled in the past 5-10 years. Among such contributions U.S.-originated publications represent about 90% of the total. Taken together, the implications from the above trends are clear: Implication 1: The volume of research in chemical engineering around the world, especially in the European Union and Asia has been increasing at a higher (European Union) and frantic (Asia) rate compared to that in the United States, but the quality and impact still trail appreciably that in the United States. Implication 2: Research in U.S. chemical engineering has been driven away from the historical core of chemical engineering toward the periphery, where it meets and overlaps with a variety of other sciences (primarily) and engineering disciplines (secondarily). Implication 3: While the quality and impact of U.S. research in chemical engineering is still dominant and at the forefront of developments, this leadership position has been weakened over the past 10-15 years, especially in the core areas of the discipline. In the following paragraphs we will present the details of the data analysis that led to the formation of the above trends and implications.
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness 3.2.b Analysis of Publications and Citations from All Journals The number of papers from U.S. chemical engineering researchers has dominated the world output over the past 20 years, as Table 3.2 and Figure 3.1 indicate. However, although the number of U.S.-originated publications has increased by a factor of 3.7, its relative contribution to the world total during the past 20 years has been roughly halved from 71% in the period 1980-1984 to 37% in the period 2000-2006 (Trend 1). This is due to a significantly faster growth in the number of publications from chemical engineering researchers across the world. For example, the factor of growth between the 1980-1984 and 2000-2006 periods for various geographic regions is as follows: Asia (China, Korea, Taiwan, India): 35 Central and South America: 23 European Union (25 countries): 15 Japan: 4 The 3.7-fold increase in the volume of U.S. publications is primarily the result of an impressive growth in productivity of U.S. researchers, given the fact that the yearly rate of growth in the number of researchers has not increased by a similar factor (see Chapter 5 for trends in numbers of PhD graduates). In contrast, most of the gains in the growth of Asian and European Union publications have come as a result of a significant yearly rate of growth in the number of researchers. While the relative volume of U.S.-originated chemical engineering publications, as fraction of the world total, has been halved, the academic impact and leadership of the U.S. chemical engineering output has remained at fairly high levels (Trend 2). For example: TABLE 3.2 Number of Published Papers Originated from Researchers with Chemical Engineering Affiliation at Various Geographic Regions 1980-1984 1985-1989 1990-1994 1995-1999 2000-2006 United States 8,933 14,230 17,528 21,334 32,899 European Union 890 1,715 3,470 7,015 13,442 Japan 1,647 2,386 3,209 4,022 6,978 Canada 1,182 1,617 2,234 2,605 4,246 South America 81 121 271 651 1,863 Asia (China, Korea, Taiwan, India) 958 1,837 3,907 9,930 33,124
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness FIGURE 3.1 Number of published papers in chemical engineering from various geographic regions. NOTE: Asia comprises China, Korea, Taiwan, and India, and the European Union is 25 countries. Table 3.3 shows that U.S.-originated publications completely dominated the list of the 100 most-cited publications when the analysis was carried out for the period 1985-1990: 86 of the top 100, 46 of the top 50, 19 of the top 20, and 10 of the top 10. The analysis for the period 2000-2006 indicates a continued but weaker dominance of U.S. publications in the list of the 100 most cited: 73 of the top 100, 37 of the top 50, 13 of the top 20, and 6 of the top 10. It is worth noting that of the 86 most-cited U.S. publications with U.S. chemical engineers as co-authors (period, 1985-1990), 73 had a chemical engineer as the corresponding author, while 13 had a U.S. nonchemical engineer as the corresponding author. In the period 2000-2006, of the 74 most-cited U.S. papers, the corresponding numbers are 50 with a chemical engineer as the corresponding author and 24 with a nonchemical engineer as the corresponding author, indicating an appreciable expansion in interdisciplinary research collaboration. This feature of substantial interdisciplinarity will become more evident later on in this report in Chapter 4. It is also noteworthy that in the period 2000-2006, no
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness TABLE 3.3 Most-Cited Papers by Researchers with Chemical Engineering Affiliation (1985-1990 and 2000-2006) 1985-1990 2000-2006 U.S. EU Canada Japan Australia U.S. EU Canada Switzerland Asia Top 100 86 2 5 5 2 Top 100 73 10 3 1 13 Top 10 10 0 0 0 0 Top 10 6 3 1 Top 20 19 0 1 0 0 Top 20 13 4 1 2 Top 30 28 0 1 1 0 Top 30 20 4 2 1 3 Top 50 46 1 1 1 1 Top 50 37 6 2 1 4 Japanese contributions were in the top 100 and Asian contributions came from Korea and China. Table 3.4 shows the distribution of the most-cited papers among the various subareas, used to characterize chemical engineering for the purposes of this report, thus underlining the shifts in research emphasis during the past 15-20 years. From the entries of the table it is very clear how the research emphasis has shifted from Area-1 to Areas- 3, 5, and 6. Clearly, numbers of citations vary significantly among the various subareas and may cause uncertainty on the validity of the observed trends. However, these trends will be confirmed with additional data in subsequent paragraphs. It is also interesting to see in what journals the most-cited papers were published. Table 3.5 shows the distribution of the most-cited papers among different groups of papers. These trends will be confirmed with additional data in subsequent paragraphs. The graphs in Figures 3.2 and 3.3 show the evolution of the percentages of published papers from each geographic region with more than 200 and 100 citations, respectively, during the last 20 years. The graph of Figure 3.4, percentage of papers with more than 10 citations, shows a relative parity among the various regions, but this is the group of publications of lesser impact. Note: The numbers in Figures 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 are percentages of the total number of papers from a given geographic area that satisfy the corresponding citations thresholds. Clearly, the U.S. dominance in academic impact and leadership, demonstrated by the tables and figures is partly due to historical reasons, that is, to the earlier activity of U.S. researchers compared to that of their Asian and EU counterparts. One would expect that as non-U.S. contributions to archival journals increase, their relative impact will increase as well. Indeed, it noteworthy that of the top 100 most-cited papers, 13 have come from
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness TABLE 3.4 Distribution of 100 Most-Cited Papers Among the Areas of Chemical Engineering Considered in This Report Area Subarea 1985-1990 100 Most-Cited Papers 2000-2006 100 Most-Cited Papers Engineering Science of Physical Processes 1a Transport processes 14 2 1b Thermodynamics 24 10 1c Rheology 7 5 1d Separation 10 5 1e Solid particles technology 2 0 Engineering Science of Chemical Processes 2a Catalysis 12 11 2b Kinetics and reaction eng. 9 4 2c Polymerization reaction eng. 2 6 2d Electrochemical processes 0 0 Engineering Science of Biological Processes 3a Biocatalysis and protein eng. 1 3 3b Cellular and metabolic eng. 0 6 3c Biochemical engineering 3 0 3d Systems, computational, and synthetic biology 0 2 Molecular and Interfacial 4a 10 12 Science and Engineering Materials 5a Polymers 13 7 5b Inorganic and ceramic materials 3 19 5d Composite 2 4 5e Nanostructured materials 1 11 Biomedical Products and Biomaterials 6a Drug targeting and delivery systems 3 3 6b Biomaterials 1 5 6c Materials for cell and tissue engineering 1 7 Energy 7a Fossil energy extraction and processing 0 0 7b Fossil fuel utilization 1 3 7d Non-fossil energy 0 1 Environmental Impact and Management 8a Air pollution 0 0 8b Water pollution 1 0 8c Aerosol science and technology 0 1 8d Green engineering 0 1 Process Systems Development and Engineering 9a Process development and design 0 0 9b Dynamics, control, operational optimization 2 1 9c Safety and operability of chemical plants 0 0 9d Computational tools and information technology 0 0 TOTAL 122 129 OVERLAPa 22 29 a The overlap results from accounting the same paper as separate entry in more than one area/subarea.
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness TABLE 3.5 Distribution of Most-Cited Papers for 1985-1990 and 2000-2006 by Groups of Journals, Indicating Shifts in Direction and Emphasis for Various Subareas of Chemical Engineering Journals 1985-1990 2000-2006 AIChE J., I&EC Research, Chemical Engineering Science 10 4 Science, Nature, PNAS 9 18 J. Chemical Physics, J. Physical Chemistry, Physical Review Letters, Physical Chemistry-Chemical Physics 13 8 Journal of the American Chemical Society, Accounts of Chem Res. 3 10 Analytical Chem., J. Electron Microscopy, J. Optical Society of America 5 0 Chemical Reviews, Molecular Physics, Fluid Phase Equilibria 5 3 Phys. Reviews Letters, J. Applied Physics, Applied Physics Letters 0 6 J. Catalysis, Advances in Catalysis, Surface Science, Catalysis Reviews, J. of Solid State Chemistry 6 2 Macromolecules, Polymer, J. Polymer Science, Polymer Science and Eng. 12 12 J. Fluid Mechanics, Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics, J. Rheology 6 0 Langmuir, J. Colloids and Interfacial Science 4 2 Cancer Research, J. National Cancer Institute 5 0 Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2 0 Nature Biotechnology 0 4 Advanced Materials, Chemistry of Materials 0 5 Biomaterials, Biomacromolecules 0 3 FIGURE 3.2 Percentage of journal articles with 200 or more citations, by region (e.g., 93% of all U.S. publications and 12% of all EU publications during 1980-1984 received more than 200 citations).
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness APPENDIX 3A Experts Who Organized the Virtual World Congress by Nominating Its Keynote Speakers EXPERT (VWC Organizer) AFFILIATION Agassant, Jean-Francois ENSMP (France) Agrawal, Rakesh Purdue University Aizenberg, Joanna Alcatel-Lucent Technologies Allen, David University of Texas-Austin Anseth, Kristi University of Colorado Arastopour, Hamid Illinois Institute of Technology Arendt, Steve ABS Consulting Arkin, Adam LBNL/UC Berkeley Arnold, Frances California Institute of Technology Athanassiou, Kyriacos Rice University Avidan, Amos Bechtel, USA Azapagic, Adisa University of Surrey (UK) Baer, Eric Case Western Reserve University Bakshi, Bhavik Ohio State University Barteau, Mark University of Delaware Basaran, Osman Purdue University Bashir, Rashid Purdue University Bates, Frank University of Minnesota Baxter, Larry Brigham Young University Beer, Janos MIT Bell, Alexis T. UC Berkeley Berger, Scott AIChE Betenbaugh, Michael Johns Hopkins University Bizios, Rena University of Texas-San Antonio Blanch, Harvey UC Berkeley Blankschtein, Daniel MIT Blau, Gary Purdue University Blum, Frank University of Missouri-Rolla Bonvin, Dominique EPF Lausanne Bowman, Chris University of Colorado Brannon-Peppas, Lisa University of Texas-Austin Brinker, Jeffrey Sandia National Labs Buttrey, Douglas University of Delaware Cairns, Elton LBNL/UC Berkeley Caram, Hugo Lehigh University Carberry, John Dupont Chakraborty, Arup MIT Chen, Bingzhen Tsinghua University Chmelka, Bradley UC Santa Barbara Chornet, Esteban Usherbrooke (Canada) Chum, Stepen Dow Chemical Clift, Roland Surrey University, UK
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness EXPERT (VWC Organizer) AFFILIATION Coates, Geoff Cornell University Cohen, Yoram UCLA Cooper, Stuart Ohio State University Coppens, Marc-Olivier Technische Universiteit Delft Corn, John Ohio State University Couvreur, Patrick University of Paris Crowl, Dan Michigan Technological University Dal Pont, Jean-Pierre ESPCI (France) D’Alessio, Antonio University of Naples Dam-Johansen, Kim DTU (Denmark) Davis, Mark California Institute of Technology Dealy, John McGill University (Canada) Debenedetti, Pablo Princeton University Denn, Morton City College of New York dePablo, Juan University of Wisconsin deSmedt, Stefaan University of Ghent DiSalvo, Frank Cornell University Dixit, Ravi Engineering and Process Sciences Doherty, Michael UC Santa Barbara Dordick, Jonathan RPI Drzal, Lawrence Michigan State University Dudukovic, Michael Washington University Dumesic, James University of Wisconsin Eckert, Charles Georgia Tech Edgar, Thomas University of Texas-Austin Edwards, David Harvard University Eldridge, Bruce University of Texas-Austin Fan, L.S. Ohio State University Feinberg, Martin Ohio State University Floudas, Christodoulos Princeton University Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Miretta Tufts University Forrest, Stephen University of Michigan Francis, Lorraine University of Minnesota Frank, Timothy Dow Chemical Fredrickson, Glenn UC Santa Barbara Friedlander, Sheldon K. UCLA Froment, Gilbert Texas A&M Fuller, Gerry Stanford University Gani, Rafique Technical University of Denmark Gasteiger, Hubert University Duesseldorf Genzer, Jan North Carolina State University Georgiou, George University of Texas-Austin Gandhi, Harendra Ford Motor Co Glaborg, Peter DTU (Denmark) Gladden, Lynn Cambridge University Goodenough, John University of Texas-Austin Gooding, Charles Clemson University
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness EXPERT (VWC Organizer) AFFILIATION Gorte, Raymond University of Pennsylvania Gottesfeld, Shimshon MTI MicroFuel Cells Inc. Graham, Mike University of Wisconsin Green, Don University of Kansas Grossmann, Ignacio Carnegie Mellon University Gschwend, Philip M. MIT Gubbins, Keith North Carolina State University Hall, Carol North Carolina State University Haller, Gary Yale University Hammond, Paula MIT Hangleiter, Andreas Technische Universitat Braunschweig Harold, Michael University of Houston Hawker, Craig UC Santa Barbara Haynes, Brian University of Sydney (Australia) Haynes, Charles University of British Columbia (Canada) Hendershot, Dennis Chilworth Technology Heuer, Arthur Case Western Reserve University Hidy, George Envair/Aerochem Hill, Michael University of Massachusetts Hilt, J. Zach University of Kentucky Hines, Melissa Cornell University Hoo, Karlene Texas Tech University Howard, Jack B. MIT Hubbell, Jeffrey Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne Iglesia, Enrique UC Berkeley Israelachvili, Jacob UC Santa Barbara Jachuck, Roshan Clarkson University Jain, Pradeep University of Florida Jimenez, Jose Luis University of Colorado Johansen, Kim Dam Technical University of Denmark Johnston, Keith University of Texas-Austin Jorne, Jacob University of Rochester Kauppinen, Esko I. Helsinki University of Technology (Finland) Keasling, Jay UC Berkeley Khakar, Devang Vipin Indian Institute of Technology Khan, Saad North Carolina State University Kletz, Trevor Loughborough University (UK) Klibanov, Alexander MIT Klimov, Victor LANL Kohlbrand, Henry Dow Chemical Konstantinov, Konstantin Bayer Corp Kopecek, Jindrich University of Utah Krishnamoorti, Ramanan University of Houston Ladisch, Mike Purdue University Lahti, Paul University of Massachusetts Lange, Frederick UC Santa Barbara Langer, Robert MIT
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness EXPERT (VWC Organizer) AFFILIATION Larsen, John Penn State University Laurencin, Cato University of Virginia Leal, Gary UC Santa Barbara Lee, Kelvin Cornell University Lee, L. James Ohio State University Lee, Sang Yup KAIST Lee, Vincent FDA Lesko, Jack Virginia Polytechnic Institute Lewis, Jennifer A. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Liao, James UCLA Linninger, Andreas University of Illinois Lips, Alexander Unilever Liu, Jun PNNL Loy, Doug University of Arizona Luss, Dan University of Houston Macosko, Chris University of Minnesota Madix, Robert Stanford University Maggioli, Victor Feltronics Corp. Mallapragada, Surya Iowa State University Mallouk, Tom Penn State University Malone, Michael University of Massachusetts Maranas, Costas Penn State University Marinan, Mark Dow Chemical Mark, J.E. University of Cincinnati Marlin, Tom McMaster University Marquardt, Wolfgang RWTH-Aachen Marrucci, Guiseppe University of Naples (Italy) McAvoy, Tom University of Maryland McCarty, Perry L. Stanford University McCormick, Alon V. University of Minnesota McLeish, TCB University of Leeds (UK) Meyer, Anne SUNY Buffalo Michaels, James N. Merck and Co. Mikos, Antonios Rice University Mitragotri, Samir UC Santa Barbara Mooney, David Harvard University Morari, Manfred ETH Zurich (Switzerland) Mortensen, Andreas Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Mudan, Krishna MSA Risk Consulting Narasimhan, Balaji Iowa State University Nauman, Bruce RPI Ni, Xiong-Wei Heriot-Watt University (UK) Nielsen, Jens Technical University of Denmark Nienow, Alvin University of Birmingham Norris, David University of Minnesota Ober, Chris Cornell University Ogunnaike, Tunde University of Delaware
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness EXPERT (VWC Organizer) AFFILIATION Okano, Teruo Tokyo Women's Medical College (Japan) Overton, Tim Dow Chemical Ozin, Geoffrey University of Toronto (Canada) Palsson, Bernhard UC San Diego Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Princeton University Pandis, Spyros Carnegie Mellon University Papoutsakis, Terry Northwestern University Paul, Don University of Texas-Austin Pearson, Ray Lehigh University Pekny, Joe Purdue University Pendergast, John Jr. Dow Chemical Penlidis, Alexander University of Waterloo Peper, Jody University of Minnesota Peppas, Nicholas University of Texas-Austin Pereira, Carmo DuPont Petrie, Jim University of Sydney (Australia) Pistikopoulos, Stratos Imperial College (UK) Ponton, Jack University of Edinburgh (Scotland) Pratsinis, Sotiris E. ETH Zurich (Switzerland) Prausnitz, John LBNL/UC Berkeley Prud’homme, Robert Princeton University Rao, Govind University of Maryland-Baltimore Ray, W. Harmon University of Wisconsin Register, Richard Princeton University Reklaitis, Gintaras Purdue University Richon, Dominque CEP/TEP, ENSMP (France) Rochelle, Gary University of Texas-Austin Russel, William Princeton University Russell, Alan University of Pittsburgh Sandler, Stan University of Delaware Schaak, Raymond Texas A&M University Schaffer, David UC Berkeley Schowalter, William Princeton University Schuth, Ferdi MPI für Kohlenforschung (Germany) Scranton, Alec University of Iowa Seal, Sudipta University of Central Florida Seborg, Dale UC Santa Barbara Sefton, Michael University of Toronto (Canada) Sehanobish, Kalyan Dow Automotive Seinfeld, John California Institute of Technology Shafi, Asjad Dow Chemical Shah, Nilay Imperial College (UK) Shirtum, Page RPS Engineering Shuler, Mike Cornell University Siddall, Jon Dow Chemical Sidkar, Subhas NMRL, EPA Sierka, Raymond University of Arizona
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness EXPERT (VWC Organizer) AFFILIATION Siirola, Jeff Eastman Chemical Co. Sinclair Curtis, Jennifer University of Florida Smith, Philip University of Utah Smith, Robin University of Manchester Spannangel, Mary Anne University of Illinois Stephanopoulos, Gregory MIT Stone, Howard Harvard University Stadther, Mark University of Notre Dame Stucky, Galen UC Santa Barbara Stupp, Sam Northwestern University Sundaresan, Sankaran Princeton University Teja, Amyn Georgia Tech Tester, Jefferson MIT Thibodeaux, Louis Louisiana State University Tirrell, David California Institute of Technology Tirrell, Matthew UC Santa Barbara Towler, Gavin UOP (USA) Vaia, Rich AFRL Varma, Arvind Purdue University Vayenas, Constantinos G. University of Patras Velev, Orlin North Carolina State University Virkar, Anil University of Utah Wall, Terry University of Newcastle Wandrey, Christian Institute of Biotechnology (Germany) Wang, Danny MIT Wang, Zhen-Gang California Institute of Technology Wassick, John Dow Chemical Webb, Colin University of Manchester Weber, W.J. Jr. University of Michigan Wei, James Princeton University Weinberg, W. Henry UC Santa Barbara Weitz, David Harvard University Wender, Irving University of Cape Town (South Africa) Wendt, Jost University of Utah West, David Dow Chemical West, Jennifer Rice University Westerberg, Arthur Carnegie Mellon University Westmoreland, Phillip University of Massachusetts White, Ralph E. University of Southern California Whitesides, George Harvard University Wilson, Grant University of Texas-Austin Winey, Karen University of Pennsylvania Wittrup, Dane MIT Xia, Younan Washington University Yager, Paul University of Washington Yang, Hong University of Rochester Yang, Ralph University of Michigan
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness EXPERT (VWC Organizer) AFFILIATION Zaks, Alex Schering-Plough Zasadzinski, Joseph UC Santa Barbara Zhao, Huimin University of Illinois Zheng, Zhipling University of Arizona
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness APPENDIX 3B The List of Journals Examined for Publications and Citations No. Journal 2005 Impact Factor Journals with Broad Coverage of Sciences and Engineering 1 Science 30.927 2 Nature 29.273 3 Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 10.231 4 Physical Review Letters 7.489 5 Journal of the American Chemical Society 7.419 Journals with Broad Coverage of Chemical Engineering Research 6 AIChE Journal 2.036 7 Chemical Engineering Science 1.735 8 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 1.504 9 Chemical Engineering Research and Design 0.792 10 Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 0.574 11 Chemie Ingenieur Technik 0.392 Area-1: Engineering Science of Physical Processes 12 Journal of Physical Chemistry B 4.033 13 Journal of Chemical Physics 3.138 14 Journal of Membrane Science 2.654 15 Journal of Rheology 2.423 16 Journal of Fluid Mechanics 2.061 17 Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2.023 18 Separation and Purification Technology 1.752 19 Separation and Purification Review 1.571 20 Granular Matter 1.517 21 Fluid Phase Equilibria 1.478 22 Rheologica Acta 1.432 23 Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 1.398 24 Molecular Simulation 1.345 25 International Journal of Multiphase Flow 1.306 26 Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 1.268 27 Powder Technology 1.219 28 Separation Science and Technology 0.834 Area-2: Engineering Science of Chemical Processes 29 Angewandte Chemie (International Edition) 9.596 30 Journal of Catalysis 4.780 31 Macromolecules 4.024 32 Applied Catalysis-B 3.809 33 Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 3.027 34 Journal of Power Sources 2.770 35 Applied Catalysis-A 2.728
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness No. Journal 2005 Impact Factor 36 Electrochimica Acta 2.453 37 Catalysis Today 2.365 38 Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2.190 39 Solid State Ionics 1.571 40 Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 1.282 41 International Journal of Chemical Kinetics 1.188 42 Surface and Interface Analysis 0.918 43 Journal of Polymer Engineering 0.312 44 Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis 0.307 Area-3: Engineering Science of Biological Processes 45 Nature Biotechnology 22.738 46 Bioinformatics 6.019 47 Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 4.684 48 Applied and Environmental Microbiology 3.818 49 Protein Science 3.618 50 Metabolic Engineering 2.484 51 Biotechnology & Bioengineering 2.483 52 Biotechnology Progress 1.985 53 Process Biochemistry 1.796 54 Enzyme and Microbial Technology 1.705 55 Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering 0.807 Area-4: Molecular and Interfacial Science and Engineering 56 Journal of Physical Chemistry B 4.033 57 Langmuir 3.705 58 Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2.023 59 Colloids and Surfaces B 1.588 60 Colloids and Surfaces A 1.499 Area-5: Materials 61 Progress in Polymer Science 16.045 62 Nature Materials 15.941 63 Nano Letters 9.847 64 Advanced Materials 9.107 65 Advanced Functional Materials 6.770 66 Chemistry of Materials 4.818 67 Inorganic Chemistry 3.851 68 Acta Materialia 3.430 69 Polymer 2.849 70 Composites Science and Technology 2.184 71 Journal of Materials Research 2.104 72 Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 1.739 73 Journal of the American Ceramic Society 1.586 74 Journal of the European Ceramic Society 1.567 75 Materials Research Bulletin 1.380
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness No. Journal 2005 Impact Factor 76 Polymer Engineering and Science 1.076 77 Composite Structures 0.953 78 Journal of Materials Science 0.901 79 Journal of Ceramic Society of Japan 0.749 80 Polymer Composites 0.628 81 Inorganic Materials. 0.387 82 Journal of Polymer Engineering 0.312 Area-6: Biomedical Products and Biomaterials 83 Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 7.189 84 Biomaterials 4.698 85 Journal of Controlled Release 3.696 86 Biomacromolecules 3.618 87 Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2.916 88 Tissue Engineering 2.887 89 Pharmaceutical Research 2.752 90 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 2.743 91 European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2.347 92 Annals of Biomedical Engineering 1.997 93 Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 1.409 94 Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 1.248 Area-7: Energy 95 Carbon 3.419 96 Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 3.371 97 Combustion and Flame 2.258 98 Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2.002 99 Fuel 1.674 100 Energy and Fuel 1.494 101 Fuel Process Technology 1.171 102 SPE Journal 0.816 103 Combustion Science and Technology 0.774 104 Proceedings Combustion Institute 0 Area-8: Environmental Impact and Management 105 Environmental Science and Technology 4.054 106 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 3.495 107 Water Research 3.019 108 Journal of Geophysical Research 2.784 109 Atmospheric Environment 2.724 110 Tellus B 2.592 111 Journal of Aerosol Science 2.477 112 Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2.414 113 Chemosphere 2.297 114 Journal of Atmospheric Science 2.078 115 Water Resources Research 1.939
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness No. Journal 2005 Impact Factor 116 Aerosol Science and Technology 1.935 117 Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 1.733 118 Ground Water 1.419 119 Journal of Nanoparticle Research 1.699 120 Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 1.317 121 Ecological Economics 1.179 Area-9: Process Systems Development and Engineering 122 INFORMS Journal on Computing 1.762 123 Automatica 1.693 124 SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing 1.509 125 Computers & Chemical Engineering 1.501 126 Mathematical Programming 1.497 127 Journal of Process Control 1.433 128 SIAM Journal on Optimization 1.238 129 Chemical Engineering and Processing 1.159 130 Computational Optimization and Applications 0.886 131 Chemical Engineering Research & Design 0.792 132 Chemical Engineering and Technology 0.678 133 Journal of Global Optimization 0.662 134 Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications 0.612 135 Annals of Operations Research 0.525 136 Process Safety Progress 0.320 137 Optimization and Engineering
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