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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real F Biographical Sketches of Committee Members Robert E. Schafrik, Chair, is currently the general manager of the Materials and Process Engineering Department at GE Aviation. He is responsible for the development of advanced materials and processes used in GE’s aeronautical turbine engines and their marine and industrial derivatives. He oversees materials application and engineering activities supporting design engineering, manufacturing, and field-support activities worldwide. He also operates a state-of-the-art laboratory for advanced materials development, characterization, and failure analysis. Before joining GE in November 1997, Dr. Schafrik served in two concurrent positions within the National Research Council, which he joined in 1991: director of the National Materials Advisory Board and director of the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design. He also served in the U.S. Air Force. His career highlights there included research metallurgist, manufacturing technologist, materials application engineer, manager of F-16 engine programs, and headquarters manager of air superiority weapons programs. Dr. Schafrik has a Ph.D. in metallurgical engineering from Ohio State University, an M.S. in information systems from George Mason University, an M.S. in aerospace engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology, and a B.S. in metallurgy from Case Western Reserve University. Martin A. Crimp is a professor of chemical engineering and materials science at Michigan State University. He is an expert in the development and use of a variety of advanced characterization and imaging tools. His research applies a variety of innovative analysis tools to describe and illustrate the design, performance, and failure of advanced materials. Some examples include the creative use of scanning
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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real electron microscopy to image atomic-scale features through electron channeling contrast imaging; the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy to study environmental and radiation effects on carbon nanotubes; and the use of advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques such as convergent-beam electron diffraction to study the growth of nanowires and nanostructures. Dr. Crimp has a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University and M.S. and B.S. degrees from Michigan Technological University. Charles B. Duke is professor of physics at the University of Rochester. At the end of 2005 he retired as vice president and senior research fellow in the Xerox Innovation Group. Prior to holding that position, he was deputy director and chief scientist of the Pacific Northwest Division of the Battelle Memorial Institute and affiliate professor of physics at the University of Washington. From 1972 to 1988 he held various technical and management positions at the Xerox Research Laboratories in Webster, New York, and was an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Rochester. During the years 1969-1972, he was a professor of physics and member of the Materials Research Laboratory and Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, following 6 years as a staff member of the General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center in Schenectady, New York. He received his Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University in 1963, following a B.S. summa cum laude with distinction in mathematics from Duke University in 1959. He is a fellow and an honorary member of the American Vacuum Society, a fellow of the American Physical Society, a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a member of the Materials Research Society, and a life member of Sigma Xi. In 1977, Dr. Duke received the Medard W. Welch Award in Vacuum Science and Technology. He served as president of the American Vacuum Society in 1979, on its board of directors for 7 years, and as a trustee during 2003-2005. In 1981 he was named one of the ISI 1000 internationally most cited scientists. During the period 1985-1986 he served as founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of Materials Research, and from 1992 to 2001 he was editor-in-chief of Surface Science and Surface Science Letters. He served on the council of the Materials Research Society for 7 years, serving as treasurer in 1991-1992. In 1993 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering and in 2001 to the National Academy of Sciences. During the period 1995 to 1999 he served on the council and executive board of the American Physical Society. In 2006 he was awarded the George E. Pake prize of the American Physical Society. From 1997 to 2000 he served as general chairman of the Physical Electronics Conference. He served on the governing board of the American Institute of Physics for 11 years and on its corporate associates advisory committee for nearly 20 years. During 2004-2005 he served as chair of a National Research Council study of Network Science. He has written more than 370 papers on surface science, materials research, semiconduc-
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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real tor physics, and the electronic structure of molecular solids; several patents on the use of feedback in the design of digital imaging and printing systems; and he has written a monograph on electron tunneling in solids and has edited three books: Surface Science: The First Thirty Years (1994), Color Systems Integration (1998), and Frontiers in Surface and Interface Science (2002). Alan H. Goldstein is a professor of biomaterials and holds the Fierer Chair of Molecular Cell Biology at Alfred University. His work focuses on structure-function studies of protein binding to materials surfaces, including both biochemical and molecular modeling approaches. Dr. Goldstein has published extensively on the topic of converging technologies in biology, nanotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences, and his research ranges from protein engineering to biomimetic materials to mineral phosphates. Specific projects include the biochemistry of interactions between glass fibers and the extracellular matrix; molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics modeling to simulate the adsorption to materials surfaces; and the application of electrophoretic methods to study protein adsorption layers on glass and ceramic surfaces. Dr. Goldstein holds a B.Sc. from New Mexico State University in agronomy and a Ph.D. in genetics from the University of Arizona. He received the Biotechnology Faculty Research Award in 1995 from the California State University Program for Education and Research in Biotechnology. Elizabeth A. Holm is a distinguished member of the technical staff in the Computational Materials Science and Engineering Department at Sandia National Laboratories. She is a computational materials scientist with a longstanding interest in bringing materials modeling to industrial practice. Over her 14 years at Sandia, she has worked on simulations to improve processes to make materials for advanced lighting, on prediction of microcircuit aging and reliability, and on the processing of innovative bearing steels. Her research areas include the theory and modeling of microstructural evolution in complex polycrystals, the physical and mechanical response of microstructures, and the wetting and spreading of liquid metals. Dr. Holm obtained her B.S.E. in materials science and engineering from the University of Michigan, an S.M. in ceramics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a dual Ph.D. in materials science and engineering and scientific computing from the University of Michigan. She has received several professional honors and awards, is a fellow of ASM International, and serves on the National Materials Advisory Board and the board of directors of the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society. Dr. Holm has authored or coauthored more than 90 publications. Pradeep K. Khosla is currently the dean of the College of Engineering and the Philip and Marsha Dowd Professor in the College of Engineering and School of
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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. Dr. Khosla’s research interests are in the areas of real-time embedded systems, secure embedded software, biometrics, and intelligent systems. He is the recipient of several awards and honors, including the McDowell Award from the IEEE Computer Society, the ASEE Westinghouse Award for Education in 1999, and the Siliconindia Leadership Award. Dr. Khosla is a fellow of IEEE, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. Dr. Khosla is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He is a consultant to several companies and venture capitalists, has served on the technology advisory boards of many start-up companies, and currently serves on several advisory boards, including iNetworks, ITU Ventures, iPolicy, and Alcoa Chief Information Officer’s Advisory Board. He has served as a member of the Strategy Review Board for the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan; the information technology advisory committee, Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; the Council of Deans of the Aeronautics Advisory Committee, NASA; and Senior Advisory Group, DARPA Program on Joint Unmanned Combat Air Systems. Dr. Khosla has coauthored two books and is the author or coauthor of more than 300 publications. He received a B.Tech. from the Indian Institute of Technology in Kharagpur, India, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Carnegie Mellon University. Carolyn R. Mercer is an aerospace engineer at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Her research interests include the development of optical instrumentation to measure fluid and surface behaviors. She is currently responsible for developing technologies for integrated vehicle health management and has managed projects in adaptive propulsion systems, intelligent propulsion controls, and instrumentation systems for aerospace ground testing. Dr. Mercer’s specific experience includes using optics to measure the flow inside engines to test designs for improving fuel economy, using structured laser illumination to measure the shape of solid surfaces for manufacturing processes, and devising a liquid-crystal device to measure fluid temperature, density, or concentration for microgravity science. Dr. Mercer has a bachelor’s degree in aeronautic and astronautic engineering from Ohio State University, an M.S. degree in physics from Cleveland State University, and a Ph.D. in optical science from the University of Arizona. She has published more than 30 papers, holds two patents, and has edited a book entitled Optical Metrology for Fluids Combustion and Solids (2003). Stephen M. Pollock is an emeritus professor at the University of Michigan and an international scholar in the mathematical modeling of systems, sequential decision analysis, and operations research. His work in understanding how to make critical trade-offs in complex decision-making processes has been applied to such diverse problems as military search and detection, manufacturing process monitoring, and
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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real design of adaptive radiation treatment plans. He has a B.Eng.Phys. from Cornell University and an M.S. in physics and Ph.D. in physics and operations research from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Pollock has been involved in teaching and applying a wide variety of operations research methods, with the aim of understanding and influencing operational phenomena in industrial and military settings, as well as in the public sector, medicine, and biology. He has authored more than 60 technical papers, has coedited two books, and has served as a consultant to more than 30 industrial, governmental, and service organizations. He has been associate editor and area editor of Operations Research, senior editor of IIE Transactions, associate editor of Management Science, and on the editorial boards of other journals. He has served on advisory boards for the National Science Foundation, as a member of the Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics of the National Research Council (NRC), and as a member of the Army Science Board. He was president of the Operations Research Society of America in 1986, was awarded the 2001 Kimball Medal by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), and was named a founding INFORMS Fellow in 2002. Dr. Pollock is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Arthur J. Ragauskas is a fellow of the International Academy of Wood Science and the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). His research program at the Georgia Institute of Technology is directed at understanding and exploiting innovative sustainable lignocellulosic materials. This multifaceted program seeks to develop new and improved applications for nature’s premiere renewable biopolymers, including cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Dr. Ragauskas has been a Luso-American Foundation teaching fellow at the Universidade da Beira Interior, Portugal; an invited guest teaching professor at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and the South China University of Technology. He has authored more than 185 papers, patents, and conference proceedings. He is an associate editor for the Journal of Pulp and Paper Science, Holzforschung, Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, and has served on several advisory boards and review panels including those for the European Commission Research Directorate, J. Paul Getty Trust, TAPPI, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Energy. Dr. Ragauskas obtained his honors B.Sc. degree in chemistry in 1980 and his Ph.D. in 1985 from the University of Western Ontario. John A. Rogers is Founder Professor of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with appointments in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chemistry, and Mechanical Science and Engineering. His research interests are in the field of unconventional material patterning techniques for photonics and electronics. This work
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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real combines fundamental studies with forward-looking engineering efforts in a way that promotes positive feedback between the two. Some highlights of his work include the first flexible displays and gigahertz electronics on plastic, tunable microfluidic optical fiber, stretchable forms of single-crystal silicon, and techniques for large-area, three-dimensional nanofabrication. Dr. Rogers received degrees in physics and in chemistry from the University of Texas at Austin and a Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In addition to more than 150 publications, he has nearly 60 patents and patent applications in areas ranging from acoustics to neural networks to nanofabrication to fiber optics and organic electronics. More than 30 of these are licensed or in active use. Dr. Rogers has received many awards for his research, including, most recently, recognition from MIT’s Technology Review magazine as inventor of one of the top 10 most significant technologies for 2005 (stretchable silicon) and from Scientific American as one of the top 50 research leaders for 2005. Barton Rubenstein creates indoor and outdoor sculpture with and without water for public and private spaces, including corporate, commercial, and academic institutions as well as private residences. He typically works with bronze, stainless steel, stone, and glass. Dr. Rubenstein has received several awards for his artwork, lectures frequently about his work, and has been featured in numerous newspaper articles across the country. He has worked with various art forms throughout his career, including lithography, etching, woodcuts, architectural drawing, and sculpture. He trained in physics and mechanical engineering at Haverford College, Pennsylvania, and then completed his M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, studying the brain and visual sciences. This research in neuroscience focused on how people visually perceive the world. His research attempted to elucidate various anomalies of visual perception, such as camouflage and, more generally, the processes at work within the visual system. Published work of his research has appeared in Science, Journal of the Optical Society of America, and Scientific American, as well as in Time Magazine and on National Public Radio. He is the principal of Rubenstein Studios. Michael A. Smith is the director of research and university alliances at France Telecom R&D, San Francisco. He is a specialist in video content analysis and the author of numerous papers and a book on the subject. His research interests include visualization and indexing for multimedia libraries; multimodal audio and video processing; media interfaces between people and machines for mobile and fixed platforms; and e-learning for disadvantaged communities. His innovations include patented video analysis and summarization technology, which is licensed by media management companies. Before joining France Telecom, Dr. Smith founded AVA Media Systems and worked as a visiting professor in the Computer Vision Research
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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real Center at the University of Texas at Austin. He has worked as a visiting professor at Morehouse College in Atlanta and at the University of Campinas in Brazil and as a guest lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Smith is on several advisory boards that support developing nations such as Trinidad and South Africa through digital media technology. He is also the director for an NSF program on broadening participation by underrepresented students pursuing graduate degrees in computer science. Dr. Smith holds a Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Carnegie Mellon University, an M.S. in electrical engineering from Stanford University, and a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from North Carolina A&T University and Tuskegee University. Gary K. Starkweather received his B.S. in physics from Michigan State University in 1960 and a master’s degree in optics from the University of Rochester in 1966. He has spent more than 40 years in the imaging sciences and holds more than 44 patents in the fields of imaging, color and hard-copy devices. From 1962 to 1964, he worked for Bausch & Lomb, Inc., in Rochester, New York. From 1964 until 1988 he was employed by Xerox Corporation, where he became a senior research fellow. While at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), he invented the laser printer. Dr. Starkweather has received a number of awards for this work, including the Xerox President’s Achievement Award (1977), the Johann Gutenberg Prize from the Society for Information Display (1987), and the David Richardson Medal from the Optical Society of America (1991). From 1988 until 1997, he was employed by Apple Computer as an Apple Fellow involved in publishing and color imaging products and research. In 1994, he received a Technology Academy Award for his consulting work with Lucasfilm and Pixar on color film scanning. In 2002, he was inducted into the Technology Hall of Fame at COMDEX. He has recently retired from Microsoft research as an architect working on displays and information processing. He has published many papers and has written a book chapter entitled “High Speed Laser Printers” for Academic Press. He continues to serve on several technical committees involved in display and color-related imaging issues and has lectured at both Stanford University and the University of California at Los Angeles. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Dennis J. Trevor is technical manager of the Optical Materials Group of OFS Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, formerly part of Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories. He led the development and assisted in the implementation of the first commercial Sol-Gel process used in optical-fiber preform manufacture. Currently he is developing new applications using this technology in related fields of photonics. His additional work in material growth methods includes chemical reaction studies of metal clusters, active oxygen source growth of high-Tc super-conductor films, and very low pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon and
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A Path to the Next Generation of U.S. Banknotes: Keeping Them Real germanium alloys. In his 15 years at Bell Laboratories, Dr. Trevor has also developed experimental methods to improve our understanding in a wide range of fields, from semiconductor plasma processing to surface diffusion in electrochemical corrosion. He received his B.S. in chemistry at the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1975 and his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of California at Berkeley in 1980. He has more than 50 publications and holds several patents.