INDEX

A

Adaptative radiation, 89, 2528, 29

Age

of Earth, 17, 19, 2021, 38, 51

of universe, 1920, 38, 51

Amniotic eggs, 89

Amphibians, 23

Anthropology, 17

Archaeopteryx, 23

Arkansas laws, 44

Armadillos, 23, 27, 28

Artificial selection, 5, 6

Artiodactyls, 32

Atomic theory of matter, 11, 12

Australopithecus afarensis, 33, 34, 35

B

Bacteria, 1, 4

age of, 21

antibiotic-resistant, 7, 39

DNA, 31

flagellum, 40

generations per million years, 7

Bats, 24, 27

“Big Bang,” 1819, 20, 51

Birds, 3, 8, 9, 23, 26, 41

Blood circulation and clotting, 12, 41

Bonobos, 35

Brain size, 9, 3334

Brown University, 15

C

Cell theory, 11

Central Conference of American Rabbis, 13

Chimpanzees, 24, 30, 31, 33, 35

Chromosomes, 29

Clergy Letter Project, 14

Collins, Francis, 15

Comparative anatomy, 2426, 30

Computed axial tomography, 38

Copernicus, 18

Coyne, George, 15

Creationism.

See also Intelligent design creationism books on evolution-creationism controversy, 5859

“old Earth,” 3738

in public schools, xixiii, 4345, 52, 53

views of proponents, 3739, 5253

“young Earth,” 37, 39, 5253

Cyanobacteria, 21

Cystic fibrosis, 30

D

Darwin, Charles, xiii, 12, 2223, 28, 32, 38, 39

Darwin, Erasmus, 2223

Dinosaurs, 3, 9, 23, 26, 38

Divergence from ancestral form, 8, 9

DNA

comparisons, 2931, 33

defined, 4

evidence of evolution, xii, xiii, 17, 2832, 58

gene duplication, 41

microarray technology, 5

mutations, 4, 28

and recency of common ancestry, 2931

sequencing, xii, 28

Dolphins, 2526, 32

Domestication of species, 5, 6

Dorudon, 32

Drosophila species, 26, 27, 29, 30

E

Earth

age of, 17, 19, 2021, 38, 51

origin of, 57

Education. See Public school science curriculum

Edwards v. Aguillard, 44

Epperson v. Arkansas, 44

Evolution.

See also Humans

acceptance vs. belief, 4950

analogous structures, 2526

anatomical homologies, 2425

behavioral commonalities, 17, 24, 25

books on, 5659

compatibility with religious faith, xii, 1215, 49, 54

continuing nature of, 18, 39

defined, 4

DNA evidence, xii, 17, 2832, 58

as fact, xiii, 3, 11, 12

fossil record, xi, xii, xiii, 13, 9, 11, 17, 21, 2223, 32, 3335, 3839, 4243

geographic evidence, 17, 2628

last common ancestors, 8, 24, 25

natural selection and, 50

predictions from findings, 3, 11, 38

in public school education, xixiii, 4345, 47, 52

recency of common ancestry, 24, 30

scientific disputes about mechanisms of, 5051

scientific understanding of, xi, xii, 1012, 39, 4950

theory, 3, 11, 12, 51

Evolutionary biology

agricultural applications, 6

industrial applications, 9

medical applications, 5

practical value, xi, 56, 47



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indeX D Darwin, Charles, xiii, 12, 22–23, 28, 32, 38, 39 Darwin, Erasmus, 22–23 A Dinosaurs, 3, 9, 23, 26, 38 Adaptative radiation, 8–9, 25–28, 29 Divergence from ancestral form, 8, 9 Age DNA of Earth, 17, 19, 20–21, 38, 51 comparisons, 29–31, 33 of universe, 19–20, 38, 51 defined, 4 Amniotic eggs, 8–9 evidence of evolution, xii, xiii, 17, 28–32, 58 Amphibians, 23 gene duplication, 41 Anthropology, 17 microarray technology, 5 Archaeopteryx, 23 mutations, 4, 28 Arkansas laws, 44 and recency of common ancestry, 29–31 Armadillos, 23, 27, 28 sequencing, xii, 28 Artificial selection, 5, 6 Dolphins, 25–26, 32 Artiodactyls, 32 Domestication of species, 5, 6 Atomic theory of matter, 11, 12 Dorudon, 32 Australopithecus afarensis, 33, 34, 35 Drosophila species, 26, 27, 29, 30 B E Bacteria, 1, 4 Earth age of, 21 age of, 17, 19, 20–21, 38, 51 antibiotic-resistant, 7, 39 origin of, 57 DNA, 31 Education. See Public school science curriculum flagellum, 40 Edwards v. Aguillard, 44 generations per million years, 7 Epperson v. Arkansas, 44 Bats, 24, 27 Evolution. See also Humans “Big Bang,” 18–19, 20, 51 acceptance vs. belief, 49–50 Birds, 3, 8, 9, 23, 26, 41 analogous structures, 25–26 Blood circulation and clotting, 12, 41 anatomical homologies, 24–25 Bonobos, 35 behavioral commonalities, 17, 24, 25 Brain size, 9, 33–34 books on, 56–59 Brown University, 15 compatibility with religious faith, xii, 12–15, 49, 54 C continuing nature of, 18, 39 Cell theory, 11 defined, 4 Central Conference of American Rabbis, 13 DNA evidence, xii, 17, 28–32, 58 Chimpanzees, 24, 30, 31, 33, 35 as fact, xiii, 3, 11, 12 Chromosomes, 29 fossil record, xi, xii, xiii, 1–3, 9, 11, 17, 21, 22–23, Clergy Letter Project, 14 32, 33–35, 38–39, 42–43 Collins, Francis, 15 geographic evidence, 17, 26–28 Comparative anatomy, 24–26, 30 last common ancestors, 8, 24, 25 Computed axial tomography, 38 natural selection and, 50 Copernicus, 18 predictions from findings, 3, 11, 38 Coyne, George, 15 in public school education, xi–xiii, 43–45, 47, 52 Creationism. See also Intelligent design creationism recency of common ancestry, 24, 30 books on evolution-creationism controversy, scientific disputes about mechanisms of, 50–51 58–59 scientific understanding of, xi, xii, 10–12, 39, 49–50 “old Earth,” 37–38 theory, 3, 11, 12, 51 in public schools, xi–xiii, 43–45, 52, 53 Evolutionary biology views of proponents, 37–39, 52–53 agricultural applications, 6 “young Earth,” 37, 39, 52–53 industrial applications, 9 Cyanobacteria, 21 medical applications, 5 Cystic fibrosis, 30 practical value, xi, 5–6, 47 Science, evolution, and creationiSm 67

OCR for page 67
I Evolutionary developmental biology, xii, 30 Ichthyosaurs, 26 Eye, complexity of, 40, 41 Ichthyostega, 3 F Immune system, 40, 41 Fishes, 1, 2-3, 4-5, 7, 23, 24, 26, 30, 41 Intelligent design creationism Fossil record, xi, xii, xiii irreducible complexity argument, xiii, 40–41, 53 consistency of, 38–39 landmark court decisions, xii–xiii, 44–45, 52 creationists’ view of, 38 in public school curriculum, xi–xiii, 44–45, 52 dating, 17 religious nature, xiii, 43–45 earliest, 21, 23 scientific failings, 40–43, 45 hominids, 33–35 Interacademy Panel on International Issues, 49 intermediate/transitional species, 1–3, 9, 11, 22, J 23, 38, 39 John Paul II, 13 sedimentary rock, 22, 38, 42–43 Fundamentalism, 37 K Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, xiii, 44, 45 G Galaxies, 19, 51 L General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 13 Lemaître, Georges, 18 Genes, 4, 29, 32, 39 Leptin, 31 duplication, 41 Life on Earth highly conserved, 6, 30, 31 earliest, 21 similarity among organisms, 30, 31 origins of, 18, 21–22 Genetic variability, 4 Limb evolution, 3, 9, 30, 31–32, 34 Genetics, 4 Genomics, and evolution, 58 M Gorillas, 31 Mammals, 30 Gravitational theory, 11, 12, 51 fossil record, 38 geographic distribution, 27–28 H marine cetaceans, 32 Hawaiian Islands, drosophilid flies, 26–27, 29 transition from reptiles, 9 Heliocentric theory, 11, 12, 18 Meteorites, 21 Heredity, xiii, 4, 5, 12, 29. See also DNA; Mutations Mice, 26, 30, 32 Hominids Microarray technology, 5 fossil record, 33–35 Microevolutionary changes, 6–7 Laetoli footprints, 33, 34 Milky Way galaxy, 20, 51 Homo erectus, 34, 35 Miller, Kenneth, 15 Homo habilis, 34, 35 Molecular biology. See also DNA; RNA Homo sapiens, 35 evidence of evolution from, 28–32 Homologies, 24–25 Moon, 21 Horses, 5, 23, 27 Mosquitoes, insecticide resistance, 39 Hox genes, 30, 41 Mutations, 4–5, 28–29, 40, 50 Hubble Space Telescope, 19 Human Genome Project, 15 N Humans National Human Genome Research Institute, 15 ancestral species, 8, 33–35 Natural selection, xiii, 4, 40. See also Artificial selection chimpanzee compared, 24, 30, 31, 33, 35 applications outside biology, 9 DNA changes, 29–30, 31, 33 defined, 5, 50 evolution of, 8, 9, 12, 24, 25, 32–35, 57 discovery, 22–23 fossil record, 35, 38 as fact, 12 generations per million years, 7 industry applications, 9 upright walking, 33, 34 microevolutionary changes, 6–7 and origins of life, 22 and reproductive success, 50 Science, evolution, and creationiSm 68

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S Neanderthals, 35 SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), 5 North America, mammals, 27–28 Scaptomyza, 27 Nuclides, defined, 20 Science O contributions of, xi Opossums, 27, 28 defined, 10 empirical evidence, 10, 12 P hypotheses, 41–42, 43 Paleontologists/paleontology, 2–3, 23. See also Fossil and religion, xi, xiii, 12, 15, 41–42, 47, 54 record theory, generally, xii, 11, 42, 51 Paranthropus robustus, 35 Scopes, John, 44 Pennsylvania laws, 44, 45 Sea turtles, 8 Pets, generations per million years, 7. See also Self-replication, 22 Domestication of species Solar system, 19, 20, 51 Planetary motion, 12 South America, mammals, 27–28 Planetesimals, 19 Speciation, 7–8, 26, 27 Plate tectonics, theory of, 11, 53 Species Populations of organisms defined, 1 defined, 4 extinct, 33 DNA variations, 29 generations per million years, 7 evolution of, 5, 6, 7–8, 28–29, 50 geographic distribution, 17, 26–28 extinct, 33, 35 highly conserved elements, 6 highly conserved genes, 6 intermediate/transitional, 1–3, 22, 23 human, 29, 35 new (see Speciation) neutral mutations in, 29 Stars, origin of, 19, 20 Porpoises, 32 Stromatolites, 21 Primates, 8, 9, 24, 25, 31, 32–33. See also Humans Supernovas, 20 Proconsul, 25 Proteins, 4, 21, 22, 31–32, 40–41 T Protocells, 22 Tennessee laws, 44 Public school science curriculum Tetrapods, 2–3, 4, 8–9, 11, 23, 24, 30, 31–32, 38 creationism in, xii–xiii, 43–45, 53 Theory, defined, 11 critical thinking in, 52 Tiktaalik, 2–3, 4, 11, 23, 30, 38 evidentiary standard for, 53 Traits, 4, 5, 6, 7, 24, 28–29, 31, 50 role of evolution, xi–xii, 43, 47 U teaching the “controversies,” xiii, 52 Universe R age of, 19–20, 38, 51 Radioactive decay, 20 expansion, 18–19 Radiometric dating, 17, 20, 51 origin of, 18–19, 57–58 Religion University of California, San Francisco, 5 compatibility of evolution with religious faith, V 12–14, 49 Viruses, 4, 5, 39 science and, xi, xiii, 12, 15, 47, 54 Reproductive W isolation, 7–8 Wallace, Alfred Russel, 12, 22–23 success, 4, 5, 8–9, 50 Warm-bloodedness, 9 Reptiles, 3, 8–9, 23, 41 Whales, 23, 24, 26, 32 RNA, 22, 31 Wheat domestication, 6 Wolves, 24, 27 Science, evolution, and creationiSm 69