Appendix D
Biographical Sketches of Oversight Group and Coauthors

Kevin J. Crowley is associate professor of education and cognitive psychology at the University of Pittsburgh’s Learning Research and Development Center, where he also directs the Center for Learning in Out-of-School Settings. His research interests focus on the development of children’s scientific thinking in informal, formal, and everyday settings, focusing on how they develop knowledge and skill in such contexts as museums and on the Web and how to best coordinate their experiences in science. He has been a visiting fellow at the Department of Psychology and Education at Nagoya University in Japan. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from Carnegie Mellon University (1994).

Janet English, currently on leave from teaching, is the director of educational services for KOCE-TV, Orange County, California’s Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) station. She has been teaching eighth-grade science and seventh- and eighth-grade multimedia communications at Serrano Intermediate School in Orange County’s Saddleback Valley Unified School District for 13 years. She received the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching in 2003. At KOCE-TV, she helped start the Schoolhouse Video Project, which broadcasts student video work on PBS. She has been a contributor to and a staff person for the National Science Education Standards, a consultant with the Cal Tech Precollege Science Initiative, and a committee member of the Defense Investment Initiative, which assists displaced scientists and engineers who are transitioning to teaching in inner-city schools. She was the director of the Institute for Chemical Education’s physics and chemistry camps at the University of Northern Colorado, an instructor for the Apple Teacher Institute and the Apple Colleges of Education, and a teacher trainer for the California Technology Assistance Project. She is an associate member of the National Research Council’s (NRC) Teacher Advisory Committee and serves as vice chair of the California Teacher Advisory Council.

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Sister Mary Gertrude Hennessey is an elementary school administrator at Saint Ann’s School in Stoughton, Wisconsin. Previously she taught science to students in grades 1 through 6. In addition to challenging existing theories of child devel­ opment, Dr. Hennessey worked with the Harvard University Graduate School of Education on a study designed to test the claim that elementary school stu­ dents can make significant progress in developing a sophisticated, constructivist epistemology of science, given a sustained elementary school science curriculum designed to support their thinking about epistemological issues. She has also conducted a multiyear study to describe the multifaceted nature of young stu­ dents’ metacognitive abilities. She is a founding member and past president of Wisconsin Elementary Science Teachers. She has collaborated with researchers from such institutions as the Smithsonian Institution’s Center for Astrophysics, the University of Maryland’s Physics Education Research Group, the Ohio State University, the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, and the University of Wisconsin–Madison. She has received numerous national and state awards for excellence in science teaching. She has a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Sarah Michaels is professor of education and senior research scholar at the Jacob Hiatt Center for Urban Education at Clark University. A sociolinguist by training, she has been actively involved in teaching and research in the area of language, culture, “multiliteracies,” and the discourses of math and science. She was the founding director of the Hiatt Center for Urban Education and works to bring together teacher education, educational research on classroom discourse, and district­based efforts at education reform. She is currently involved in rethinking teacher education and professional development so that it focuses central attention on rigorous, coherent, and equitable classroom dis­ course. Michaels is a coauthor of the CD­ROM suite of tools Accountable Talk: Classroom Conversation That Works (in collaboration with the Institute for Learning at the University of Pittsburgh), which is currently being used in large urban districts throughout the country. In promoting teacher research, she works to support teachers as theorizers, curriculum innovators, and education leaders who use the tools of ethnography and discourse analysis in generating new and usable knowledge for improving instruction and student learning in their own and others’ classrooms. Michaels has published widely in the area of classroom discourse analysis, has received numerous awards for both teaching and scholarship, and serves on a wide range of review boards for journals, book series, and educational foundations. Prior to joining Clark in 1990, Michaels 182 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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served as director of the Literacies Institute in Newton, Massachusetts, and as project director of a number of sponsored grants in language and schooling as a research associate and instructor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She has a B.A. from Barnard College and a Ph.D. in education (language and literacy) from the University of California, Berkeley. Brian J. Reiser is professor of learning sciences at the School of Education and Social Policy at Northwestern University. His research concerns the design and study of investigation environments and inquiry support tools for science. These projects explore the design of computer­based learning environments that scaffold investigation and scientific argumentation about biological phenomena and the design of inquiry support tools that help students organize, reflect on, and communicate about the progress of their investigations. This work is being conducted as part of the initiatives of the Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools, which is working to understand how to make learning technol­ ogies a pervasive part of science classrooms in urban schools. Reiser is also a member of the core faculty of the Center for Curriculum Materials in Science, a collaboration of Project 2061, Michigan State University, Northwestern University, and the University of Michigan. He serves on the editorial boards of Interactive Learning Environments and the Journal of the Learning Sciences. He was a member of the NRC’s Committee on Test Design for K­12 Science Achievement. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from Yale University (1983). Leona Schauble is professor of education at Vanderbilt University. Her research interests include the relations between everyday reasoning and more formal, culturally supported, and schooled forms of thinking, such as scientific and mathematical reasoning. Her research focuses on such topics as belief change in the contexts of scientific experimentation, everyday reasoning, causal inference, and the origins and development of model­based reasoning. Prior to her work at Vanderbilt, she worked at the University of Wisconsin, the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh, and the Children’s Television Workshop in New York. She recently served as a member of the Strategic Educational Research Partnership, an NRC­affiliated venture designed to construct a powerful knowledge base, derived from both research and practice, that will support the efforts of school people at all levels with the ultimate goal of significantly improving student learning. Schauble has a Ph.D. in developmental and educational psychology from Columbia University (1983). 183 Appendix D

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Heidi A. Schweingruber (Coauthor) is a senior program officer with the NRC’s Board on Science Education. She was a program officer on the NRC study that produced America’s Lab Report: Investigations in High School Science and is currently directing a congressionally mandated review of NASA’s precollege edu­ cation programs. Prior to joining the NRC, she was a senior research associate at the Institute of Education Sciences in the U.S. Department of Education, where she served as program officer for the preschool curriculum evaluation program and for a grant program in mathematics education. She was also a liaison to the Department of Education’s Mathematics and Science Initiative and an adviser to the Early Reading First program. Before moving into policy work, she was direc­ tor of research for the Rice University School Mathematics Project, an outreach program in K­12 mathematics education, and taught in the psychology and edu­ cation departments. She has a Ph.D. in psychology (developmental) and anthro­ pology and a certificate in culture and cognition from the University of Michigan (1997). Andrew W. Shouse (Coauthor) is a senior program officer with the NRC’s Board on Science Education, where he currently directs a study of learning science in informal environments. He is an education researcher and policy analyst whose interests include teacher learning, science education in formal and informal set­ tings, and communication of education research to policy and practice audiences. He previously served as codirector (with Heidi Schweingruber) of the study that resulted in the consensus report Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Prior to joining the NRC, he worked as an education research and evaluation consultant, a science center administrator, and an elemen­ tary and middle grades teacher. He has a Ph.D. in curriculum, teaching, and edu­ cational policy from Michigan State University (2005). Deborah Smith is a second­grade teacher at Woodcreek Elementary Magnet School for Math, Science and Engineering in Lansing, Michigan. She was coprin­ cipal investigator for science on the Delaware Statewide Systemic Initiative. She was also the author and, until she returned to the classroom, coprincipal inves­ tigator on a five­year National Science Foundation grant to the Lansing School District and Michigan State University for K­8 teacher retention and renewal. She facilitates two of the teacher professional learning communities for that grant. She has consulted for Project 2061, WestEd, Horizon Research, Annenberg CPB, and the Michigan Department of Education on matters of professional development, science standards, and curriculum analysis. While on the faculty 184 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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at Michigan State University, her research investigated preservice teachers’ sci­ ence content understanding and their conceptions of the nature of scientific work and of science teaching. She has published her research in such journals as the Journal of Research on Science Teaching, Teaching and Teacher Education, and the Journal of Science Teacher Education. She received a Spencer Foundation postdoctoral fellowship and a Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning fellowship. She is a member of the National Academies’ Teacher Advisory Council. She has a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction from the University of Delaware (1989). 185 Appendix D

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Index A design of learning progression, 64-65, 151 language of science in, 65 Accountable Talk in Math and Science Project, 167 learning progressions, 43, 44, 45-54, 59, 66-69, Activities. See Classroom investigations 72-75, 84-85 Adelson, Glenn, 167 Molecules in Motion activity (grade 7), 45-54 Administrators, 16, 162-163 multidisciplinary nature of, 60, 84 African Americans, 99 Mystery Box activity (grades K-2), 61, 65, 66-69 Air Nature of Gases activity (grades 6-8), 79-83, 168 as matter, 42 Properties of Air activity (grades 3-5), 72-75 properties of, 45-54, 72-75 Autism, 95 Altimeter, 26, 30 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 59 B Argument Behavior of students, 1, 23, 31, 95-96 ambiguity in language and, 93 Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 18, 62-63, 153 as collaboration, 87 Biodiversity activity, 128, 151 cultural diversity in, 97-100 case study, 22-27 discomfort of educators with, 92-93, 165 ecosystem balance, 128-129 encouraging, 92-93, 165-166 modeling species variability, 119-124 forms of, 88-89 proficiency strands, 28-34 goals of, 89 Biodiversity in a City Schoolyard, 22-27, 112, learning through, 15, 32, 33, 68, 88-89 119-124 mediating, 93 Biology norms for presenting, 21, 89, 92, 95-96, 136, atomic-molecular theory and, 60 165-166 conceptual change in, 42, 43 Assessments. See also State Assessments curriculum tools, 114, 116, 119-124, 169 for atomic-molecular theory learning progression, growth representation, 114-124 176-178 naïve understanding of, 28-29, 38, 42 statutory requirement, 2 reasoning skills of young children, 39 supporting science learning, 16, 35, 151 Struggle for Survival unit, 130-131 Atomic-molecular theory of matter Biology Guided Inquiry Learning Environment assessment items, 176-178 (BGuiLE), 130, 132-133 conceptual change in understanding, 43, 45-56 core concepts in, 72, 76, 128 187