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Index A design of learning progression, 64-65, 151 Accountable Talk in Math and Science Project, 167 language of science in, 65 Activities. See Classroom investigations learning progressions, 43, 44, 45-54, 59, 66-69, Adelson, Glenn, 167 72-75, 84-85 Administrators, 16, 162-163 Molecules in Motion activity (grade 7), 45-54 African Americans, 99 multidisciplinary nature of, 60, 84 Air Mystery Box activity (grades K-2), 61, 65, 66-69 as matter, 42 Nature of Gases activity (grades 6-8), 79-83, 168 properties of, 45-54, 72-75 Properties of Air activity (grades 3-5), 72-75 Altimeter, 26, 30 Autism, 95 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 59 B Argument Behavior of students, 1, 23, 31, 95-96 ambiguity in language and, 93 Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 18, 62-63, 153 as collaboration, 87 Biodiversity activity, 128, 151 cultural diversity in, 97-100 case study, 22-27 discomfort of educators with, 92-93, 165 ecosystem balance, 128-129 encouraging, 92-93, 165-166 modeling species variability, 119-124 forms of, 88-89 proficiency strands, 28-34 goals of, 89 Biodiversity in a City Schoolyard, 22-27, 112, learning through, 15, 32, 33, 68, 88-89 119-124 mediating, 93 Biology norms for presenting, 21, 89, 92, 95-96, 136, atomic-molecular theory and, 60 165-166 conceptual change in, 42, 43 Assessments. See also State Assessments curriculum tools, 114, 116, 119-124, 169 for atomic-molecular theory learning progression, growth representation, 114-124 176-178 naïve understanding of, 28-29, 38, 42 statutory requirement, 2 reasoning skills of young children, 39 supporting science learning, 16, 35, 151 Struggle for Survival unit, 130-131 Atomic-molecular theory of matter Biology Guided Inquiry Learning Environment assessment items, 176-178 (BGuiLE), 130, 132-133 conceptual change in understanding, 43, 45-56 core concepts in, 72, 76, 128 187

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C Classroom norms Case studies. See also Classroom investigations for discussion, 11-12, 15, 95-96 questions for practitioners, 171-175 for presenting arguments, 21, 89, 92, 95-96, 136, Categorization. See also Classification 165-166 assessment task, 176 for scientific practice, 14, 15, 136 of data, 112 Cognitive skills skills of young children, 25, 26, 29, 39, 69 children’s capabilities, 6-8, 15, 28-29, 37-41, 149, Catron, Susan, 167 155-156 Cell theory, 59 linguistic abilities, 97-98 Chèche Konnen research program, 101 misconceptions about, 8, 155-156 Chemistry, 38, 60, 76. See also Atomic-molecular Communication of ideas. See also Argument; theory of matter Representation; Talk Classification cultural differences, 4, 97-100 biological, 23, 26-27, 30 importance, 87 models, 23 public speaking, 101 of objects, 69, 70, 176 Conceptual change Classroom investigations in knowledge structure, 41, 147 Biodiversity in a City Schoolyard, 22-27, 112, in levels of explanation, 44, 50-54, 76-77 119-124 in Molecules in Motion, 45-56 biological growth, 110-111, 114-124 in networks of concepts, 42-43, 46-50, 55 constructing and defending explanations, 19, in preexisting concepts, 42, 43-44, 45, 46-47, 55, 95-96, 132-135 67 creating meaningful problems, 127-129 in representations, 114-118 cultural considerations in, 74, 104-106 teaching for, 137 empirical, 8, 9-13, 69, 70 types, 42-43 follow-up and extension activities, 1, 10, 31, 70-71 Constant units, 10, 12, 111 graphing, 11, 112 Content. See Core concepts; Curriculum content; “just in time” approach, 129-130, 131 Proficiency strands lever and fulcrum, 128 Core concepts. See also Conceptual change mass and density, 137-140 effectiveness of, 78 measurement activities, 8, 9-13, 69, 70, 72-75, examples, 59, 128 112 implementation over time, 60-61, 63-65, 85, metacognition, 142-146 130-131, 165 Molecules in Motion, 45-54 importance, 57, 84-85 Mystery Box, 66-71 intermediate ideas, 61, 64 Nature of Gases (grades 6-8), 79-83 interrelatedness, 57, 59-60 norms for discussion, 95-96 in learning progressions, 55-56, 59, 60, 63-65, practical or applied problems, 128 72-73, 76, 84-85, 151 Properties of Air, 72-75 research needs, 63 representing data, 23, 110-111, 114-124 standards and benchmarks and, 61, 62-63 scripting roles in, 137-140 support system for, 61 sequencing instruction for, 129-131 young children’s understanding of, 12 Struggle for Survival, 130-131, 132 Cultural, linguistic, and experiential considerations, 4. theoretical problems, 128 See also English language learners weighing and balancing activities, 70, 73-74, appreciating, 97-100 104-105, 112 in argument and talk, 97-100 188 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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inclusiveness strategies, 10, 23-27, 66-67, norm setting for, 11, 15, 46-47, 69, 77-78, 95-96, 100-106 97, 100, 165 professional development opportunities, 160-161 piggybacking questions, 100-101 Curriculum content, 57. See also Core concepts position-driven, 30, 31, 40, 93-94, 141 AAAS themes, 59 promoting, 52, 138-139, 141 breadth and depth of, 62, 85, 150 rules of participation, 100-101, 135-137 “final form science,” 132 shared inquiry, 94 inquiry-based, 34 small-group, 47, 91, 95, 98 international comparisons, 62, 161 teacher’s role, 94, 95, 165 national standards and benchmarks, 3, 62-63 young children’s abilities, 40 organizational structure, 59-60, 150 whole-group, 24, 25, 31, 32, 33-34, 68-69, 71, planning and development, 152, 162-163 72-75, 93, 138-139 processes linked to, 17-19; see also Proficiency Domains of science, 4, 38-41 strands Curriculum specialists, 22, 35. See also Science specialists E Earthquakes, 5 Education system. See Science education system D design Data. See also Scientific evidence Electromagnetism, 4, 57 analysis, 4, 8, 11, 69, 130 English language learners, 9, 10, 23-24, 26, 29, collection, 4, 5, 8, 29-30, 32-33, 112, 130 74-75, 93, 85, 103, 104-106, 160-161 comparison, 13 Estimation, 13 defined, 5 Evidence. See Scientific evidence distribution of, 119-124 Evolutionary theory, 19, 23, 52, 57, 59, 128, 130-131 interpreting, 113, 115-116, 117 intervals in, 119-124 from measurement, 8, 10, 11, 115 F Facts, 5. See also Scientific evidence quality and reliability, 30, 32, 33, 115 Forces querying existing data sets, 112 balanced and unbalanced, 79-93 representation, 4, 8, 11, 111-113, 119-124 kinetic, 145, 146 sharing, 11, 25, 31-32, 101, 138 Foundational knowledge. See also Core concepts statistical measures, 113 building student motivation on, 130-131 structuring, 112 common elements of, 38-41 typical values, 119-124 conceptual understanding, 42 understanding construction of, 111-112 domain-specific reasoning, 38-39 Davis Foundation, 167 misconceptions in, 40, 43-44, 46-47 Density, 42, 57, 76, 137-140 of modeling, 39-40 Discussion, 6. See also Argument; Talk naïve knowledge of science, 38-39, 46 brainstorming, 71 proficiency strands in, 40 building environment for, 107, 165 self-correction, 44 claim-evidence-reasoning framework, 135-137 cross-talk, 30, 31, 33 cultural diversity and, 9, 10, 94, 95, 97-103 G framing questions, 94, 101 Galapagos Islands, 130-131 importance, 40, 78, 106-107 Gases, 45-54, 76, 79-83 inclusiveness strategies, 74-75, 100-103 Geology, 60 Index 189

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Goldenada, Marianne, 151-153 misconceptions as stepping stones, 7, 43-44 Grades K-2 motivating students, 26, 128-129, 130-131 atomic-molecular theory (Mystery Box), 61, 65, proficiency strands applied in, 28-32, 34-35, 66-69, 176-177 45-56 biodiversity investigation, 22-27 reciprocal approach, 136 cognitive capabilities of children, 6-8 scaffolding, 129 growth investigation, 115 scripting student roles, 11-12, 100, 135-145 measurement classes, 8, 9-10 sequencing instruction, 129-131 representations, 114, 115 standards based, 161 Grades 3-5 supervision of, 35 atomic-molecular theory, 72-75, 177-178 Investigating and Questioning Our World through balance experiment, 104-105 Science and Technology (IQWST), 132-133 biodiversity investigation, 22-27 Investigations. See Classroom investigations growth investigation, 116-117 Investigators Club, 79-83, 167, 168 representations, 110, 114, 117, 118, 119-124 Iteration, 12 Grades 6-8 atomic-molecular theory, 45-54, 76-83, 178 IQWST units, 132-133 K Kamehameha Early Education Project, 98 state assessments, 1 Kindergarten. See Grades K-2 shifts in understanding, 142-145 Graphing data, 11, 32, 33, 72, 110-111, 112, 114, 115, 118 L Gravity, 56, 75, 145 Language of science, 4-6, 61, 65, 88, 97, 168 Learning progressions assessments for, 176-178 H in atomic-molecular theory, 45-54, 64-65, 66-69, Haitian Creole students, 101, 104-106 72-78, 176-178 Hypotheses and hypothesizing, 4, 5, 69 benefits, 63-64 from core concepts, 26, 60, 63-65, 76, 84-85, 151 I development, 84-85 Ideal gas law, 79-83 effectiveness, 85 Individualized education plans, 95 implementation, 84-85 Induction, 39 importance, 14, 84-85 Infants, reasoning skills, 39 macro-level processes linked to micro-level Inquiry, 34 phenomena, 65, 76-77, 78 Inquiry and the National Science Education in modeling, 114-118 Standards, 153 over multiple years, 14-15, 56-57, 63-65, 150 Instructional practices from prior knowledge, 7, 8, 39-40, 55-56, 63, 77 approaches and strategies, 9-10, 41, 52 proficiency strands in, 64 conceptual change, 41, 137 short-term extensions, 70-71, 85 constructing and defending explanations, 47-48, Lee, Okhee, 100 132-135, 137 Lehrer, Richard, 114, 118, 167 creating meaningful problems, 127-129, 156-157 inclusiveness strategies, 10, 23-27, 66-67, 100-106 inquiry, 34, 154, 161 M Mass, 75, 137-140, 168 instructional congruence, 100 Mathematics, 8, 12, 23, 26, 40, 110-111 190 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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Matter, phases, 42. See also Atomic-molecular theory N of matter National Science Education Standards, 18, 19, 62-63, Means, 113, 119 153 Measurement, 5 National Science Foundation, 84, 150, 158, appropriate units, 12, 111 160-161 boundary-filling conception, 111 National Science Teachers Association, 159 conventions, 12 Natural selection, 19, 130-131 error, 26, 113 Nature of Gases (grades 6-8), 79-83 fractional units, 72 Newtonian mechanics, 4, 59 identical units, 12 No Child Left Behind Act, 2 iteration, 12 Norms. See Classroom norms key principles, 12 Northwestern University, 130-131 science classes, 8, 9-13, 25, 72-75 standard methods, 9, 12, 70, 115 theory, 111 O Memorization of facts, 19, 46, 65, 72 Observation, 5, 69, 72-75, 98, 112 Michigan State University, 158 Modeling Nature Project, 167 P Models/modeling, 4, 5, 6 Pan balance, 70, 73-74, 112 accuracy of representation, 110, 113-114 Parental roles in science education, 7 advantages and limitations, 80 Pattern recognition, 28-29, 116-117, 118 Air Puppies model of ideal gas law, 79-83, 109, Physics 110 atomic-molecular theory, 60 Archimedes software, 137 naïve knowledge and reasoning skills, 38, 39 data, 111-113 network of knowledge, 42-43 diagrams, 79-83, 109, 110, 113, 114 PI-CRUST (Promoting Inquiry Communities for the forms of, 109-110 Reform of Urban Science Teaching), 158-159 foundational knowledge, 39-40 Plant growth, 110-111 graphs, 11, 32, 33, 72, 110-111, 112, 114, 115, Plate tectonics, 5 119-124 Preschoolers intervals in data, 119-124 modeling skills, 40, 113 and learning progressions, 40, 77, 114-118 reasoning skills, 39 light motion, 129 Pressure of air, 45-54 maps, 25-26, 33, 114 Professional development, 16 mathematical, 23, 40 for teaching diverse student populations, 160-161 metacognitive understanding, 14, 78, 88, 113, informal networks, 35 114, 129, 130, 142-146 opportunities for, 35, 157-162 Modeling with Dots software, 137, 138 proficiency strands in, 154, 163 pretend play as, 39 resources for, 164 proficiency strands in, 125 school-level, 151-153, 157 scale models, 113-114 staff, 163-164 shifts in understanding, 114-118 Proficiency strands. See also Learning progressions typical values, 119-124 benchmarks and standards and, 19 Molecules in Motion, 45-54 case study, 21, 22-32 Mystery Box, 66-71 as content–process linkage, 17-19, 34-35, 129 Index 191

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generating evidence (strand 2), 8, 14, 19-20, 29-30, administrators, 16, 162-163 32-33, 35, 111, 112, 117, 124, 127, 154 assessment, 16, 57, 151 instruction approaches, 28-32, 150 building the system, 15-16, 61, 107, 162-163 interrelated nature of, 18, 32-34, 45, 149 change initiatives, 150 in modeling data, 124 curriculum development, 57, 150, 152-153, 164 in naïve knowledge, 37-38, 40 instructional practices, 150 participating productively (strand 4), 21, 31-32, knowledge about learning and, 150-151 33-34, 124, 129, 154 professional development, 16, 61, 71, 151, reflecting on scientific knowledge (strand 3), 14, 152-153, 163-164 20, 28, 30, 32, 33-34, 88, 92, 124, 125, 127, proficiency strands and, 35 128, 129, 130, 133, 136, 142-145, 146, 147, science specialists, 161-162 154 standards and, 150, 161 standards and benchmarks and, 63 Science learning. See also Learning progressions; teacher learning patterns, 154 Proficiency strands understanding explanations (strand 1), 19, 28-29, beliefs about young children, 155-156 33, 124, 142-145, 154 framework for, 17-18, 150 Properties of Air, 72-75 Science specialists, 161-162, 164 Psychology, naïve knowledge of, 38 Scientific claims, 5, 10, 14 Pythagorean theorem, 26, 32 Scientific evidence, 4. See also Data defined, 5 empirical, 69 R generating, 4, 12-13, 14, 19-20, 29-30 Ratios, 53, 76, 113, 117 instruction approach, 29-30 Reasoning skills, 6, 7, 9-10 negative, 68 deductive, 69 observational, 5, 69, 72-75 domain specific, 38-39 presenting, 14 inference, 68, 75 reflecting on, 33 mathematical, 105 Scientific knowledge Representation, 6. See also Argument; Models/model- concept-based, 41; see also Conceptual change ing; Talk construction of, 80 biodiversity activity, 119-124 “doing” science and, 18, 20, 46, 127, 132 coordinate systems, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 124 domains, 38-41, 45 data, 111-113, 119-124 fact learning, 41, 46, 50-51, 55 development of, 118, 119-124 importance, 2 grades K-2, 11, 115-116 instruction approach, 30, 41 grades 3-5, 110, 114, 117, 118, 119-124 misconceptions, 43-44, 46-47 importance, 87, 109, 125-126 reflecting on, 2, 20, 30, 142-146 mathematical, 8, 12, 23, 104, 110-111, 114 structure of, 41 shifts in understanding, 33, 117-118 Scientific methods, 3, 4, 15 S-shaped logistic curve, 116, 118 Scientific practice as thinking tools, 77, 109, 125-126 classroom norms, 14, 69 Reproducible results, 10 collective decisionmaking, 6, 8, 9-10, 11-13, 14 concepts integrated with, 62-63, 72-75 S effective classrooms, 6, 14, 135-136 Schauble, Leona, 114, 118, 167 evidence and, 19 Science education system design. See also Teachers inquiry component, 34 192 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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instruction approach, 9-13, 31-32, 34-35 encouraging, 89-92 norms for, 14, 15, 21 equitable participation, 102, 103 productive participation, 6, 21, 31-32 exploratory (first-draft thinking), 102-103, 165 proficiency strands and, 18, 19-20, 31-32, 62 importance, 2, 91-92, 179-180 “science as practice” perspective, 6, 34-35 I-R-E sequence, 89-90, 107 social context, 21, 34, 132, 137 learning through, 31-32, 88-89 by young children, 8, 9-14, 33-34 moves, 15, 90-91 Scientific understanding. See also Scientific knowledge partner talk, 47-48, 91 building on existing knowledge, 7, 8, 10, 14-15, and proficiency strands, 90 26, 32, 56-57, 60-61, 152 reviewing prior knowledge, 90 children’s capacity for, 6-8, 28-29, 37-41, 149 student presentations, 91 contexts of meaning, 41; see also Conceptual teacher initiated questions, 9, 11, 50, 53, 90, 105 change thinking or wait time, 49, 52, 73-74, 90, 91, demonstrating proficiency, 19 101-102 instruction approach, 28-29, 45-54 turn-taking format, 66-67, 74, 89-90, 102, metacognitive, 78, 142-146 104-105 naïve knowledge, 38-41 Teachers. See also Professional development nonschool influences, 7 folk view of science, 154 self-correction, 44 implementing changes, 164-166 shifts in, 6, 20, 29, 30, 76, 117-118, 142-145 informal networks, 35 Scientists knowledge of science, 4, 8, 27-28, 57, 61, 71, contributions, 2 153-155 intellectual practices, 138 as learners, 23, 27, 151-153 real-world practices, 4, 6, 25, 136 negative judgments of cultural differences, 99-100, as a social network, 2, 4, 132 166 stereotype, 3 opportunities to learn, 23, 35, 151, 157-162 students as, 6, 15 pedagogical considerations, 71, 94, 107, 147, women and minorities, 4 156-157, 168 Selecting Instructional Materials, 153 peer and administrative support, 151-153, 157 Sohmer, Richard, 79-83, 167 supporting proficiency strands, 35 Solar system models, 113-114 understanding how students learn, 15, 84, Solubility, 57 155-156, 157 Sound unit, 159 Teaching science well. See also Instructional practices Spencer Foundation, 167, 168 building on existing knowledge, 7, 8, 10, 14-15 Standards and benchmarks, 3, 19, 151 effective science classrooms, 6, 87 limitations of, 62-63 following up on experiments, 1 recommended revisions, 150 importance, 2-3, 166 State assessments, 1, 22 knowledge of subject matter and, 8, 57 State standards and curriculum frameworks, 3, 151 language and, 88 Statistical measures, 113 next steps for practitioners, 164-166 Struggle for Survival, 130-131, 132 questions for practitioners, 171-175 System. See Science education system design representation of data, 125-126 scientific terminology, 4-6 standards and benchmarks, 3, 151 T state testing and, 1 Talk, academically productive. See also Argument; time constraints and, 1, 45-46 Discussion Index 193

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Temperature, 44, 57, 76 V Theories/theorizing, 136 Vanderbilt University, 167 advanced, 77 Volume, 70, 72 creating meaningful problems, 128 defined, 4-5, 88 generating scientific evidence, 19, 25-26, 67, W 74-75 Water displacement cup, 70 naïve, 37, 44, 167 Weight and weighing experiments, 42, 57, 70, 72-75, position driven discussions, 73-75, 93-94, 113, 168 139-140, 141 Wellesley College, 167 Thermodynamics, 4, 57, 82 Williams, Paul, 169 Thinking critically Windshitl, Mark, 154 introspection, 144 Wisconsin Fast Plants, 114, 116, 119-124, 169 science and, 2 Writing and publishing research, 83, 138 understanding students’ abilities, 15, 142-145 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, Y 62 Yup’ik, 98 Tiling, 12, 111 Tobacco hornworm growth, 117, 118 Trash and recycling unit, 159-160 Z Zero point, 12 U Understanding science. See Scientific understanding Units of measure, 12 University of Wisconsin–Madison, 169 194 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!