Ready, Set, Science! is the result of a shared vision and commitment among a remarkable assemblage of talented people. Countless hours of individual and collaborative work and a strong commitment to creating a quality resource for science education practitioners moved this volume from a vision to a reality.

This book would not have been possible without the sponsorship of the Merck Institute for Science Education. The ongoing support of its executive director, Carlo Parravano, has been essential to the project. We are grateful for our early conversations with Carlo about the importance of a practitioner volume, as well as for his continuing belief in this book at each project stage. We are also grateful for a skillful team of project consultants who served as writers, advisers, and editorial consultants. Freelance science writer Steve Olson translated sections of the parent report, Taking Science to School, and contributed to early drafts and revisions. We want to thank Steve for attending meetings of the NRC Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade, as an observer to ensure fidelity between Ready, Set, Science! and the findings and recommendations of this committee’s report.

We want to recognize Betsy Melodia-Sawyer, a freelance editor, who came to this project in the role of a developmental editor. Her work has been outstanding. It not only guided but also energized and clarified the final rounds of editing the book. We want to acknowledge Kevin Crowley from the University of Pittsburgh and Brian Reiser from Northwestern University, who were project liaisons from the Committee on Science Learning and reviewed several drafts. A third committee member, Leona Schauble of Vanderbilt University, carefully reviewed many drafts and worked closely with staff and consultants. We are very grateful for the generous commitment of time and remarkable expertise she brought to this project. Sister Mary Gertrude Hennessey, then an elementary school principal and K-5 science teacher in Stoughton, Wisconsin, and Deborah Smith, a second-grade teacher

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in Lansing, Michigan, during the project served as practitioner consultants. Janet English, director of educational services at KOCE-TV, Public Broadcasting Service, in Lake Forest, California, served as a liaison from the National Research Council’s Teacher Advisory Committee. We want to acknowledge the importance of their observations and presence in this work. The cumulative contribution of these sea- soned practitioners was essential. Stephen Mautner, executive editor of the National Academies Press (NAP), was involved in the preparation of the book from the earliest stages to final pro- duction. We want to acknowledge his critical contributions as a skilled editor and steadfast collaborator with the staff of the Board on Science Education. We also want to acknowledge the support of Barbara Kline-Pope, executive director of the NAP, while this project was being conceptualized. Moreover, we want to acknowledge the dedication of all the NAP staff for their expert contributions to Ready, Set, Science! Eugenia Grohman, associate executive director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and Patricia Morison, interim director of the Center for Education, at the National Academies were pivotal in helping navigate the review pro- cess for this book as review coordinators. Patricia Morison’s work extended beyond the review process, and we want to acknowledge her ongoing guidance and encour- agement throughout. Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, the division’s reports officer, played an essential role in overseeing the independent review process. We want to acknowledge Christine McShane and her editing work as well as Yvonne Wise for her role in the production process. Victoria Ward, senior project assistant for the Board on Science Education, provided essential administrative support throughout the life of this project. We are grateful for her agility and grace in managing complex administrative details. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report. The review process for an NRC product is critically important. These reviewers pro- vided constructive and insightful comments and suggestions: Brian P. Coppola, Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan; Susan Doubler, Center for Science Teaching and Learning, TERC, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Wynne Harlen, University of Bristol, Berwickshire, Scotland; Deborah Dale Lucas, Teaching and Learning Department, Vanderbilt University; and Brett D. Moulding, Curriculum, Utah Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Finally, we want to acknowledge the original work of the Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. Without this remarkable contribution, Ready, Set, Science! would not be a reality. C. Jean Moon, Director Board on Science Education 196 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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Credits Special thanks to the students and teachers of CS 134 in the Bronx, New York, for their kind invitation to the authors of this volume to photograph students engaged in science activities in their school. These photographs can be found on the following pages of Ready, Set, Science!: ii, iii, 9, 10, 13, 47 (left), 48, 50, 66 (top), 68, 69, and 74. front cover Photodisc, EyeWire Inc., Digital Stock Corporation, NPS photo by J. Schmidt; back cover Photodisc; ii Harry Heleotis; iii Harry Heleotis; 7 Photodisc; 9 Harry Heleotis; 10 Harry Heleotis; 11 Richard Sohmer; 13 Harry Heleotis; 21 Open Door Images; 22 Digital Stock Corporation; 24 Modeling Nature Project, National Science Foundation; 26 Modeling Nature Project, National Science Foundation; 29 PhotoAlto; 31 Photodisc; 33 Photodisc; 46 (left and right) Richard Sohmer; 47 (left) Harry Heleotis; 47 (right) Richard Sohmer; 48 Harry Heleotis; 49 Richard Sohmer; 50 Harry Heleotis; 52 Richard Sohmer; 66 (top) Harry Heleotis; 66 (bottom) Sarah Michaels; 67 Sarah Michaels; 68 Harry Heleotis; 69 Harry Heleotis; 73 (top) Richard Sohmer; 73 (bottom) Richard Sohmer; 74 Harry Heleotis; 80 (top and bottom) Richard Sohmer; 81 (top and bottom) Richard Sohmer; 82 Richard Sohmer; 96 Photodisc; 102 Comstock Images; 104 Sarah Michaels; 109 Tim Dzurilla; 110 Tim Dzurilla; 115-116 Student displays in R. Lehrer and L. Schauble, Symbolic communication in mathematics and science: Co-constituting inscription and thought. In J. Byrnes and E.D. Amsel (Eds.), Language, literacy, and cognitive devel- opment: The development and consequences of symbolic communication (pp. 167-192); copyright Taylor and Francis Group LLC; 118 EyeWire Inc.; 120 Photograph by Richard Lehrer and Leona Schauble; copyright American Education Research Organization; 121 Photograph by Richard Lehrer and Leona Schauble; copyright American Education Research Organization; 122 (top and bottom) Photographs by Richard Lehrer and Leona Schauble; copyright American Education Research Organization; 124 (top and bottom) Photographs by Richard Lehrer and Leona Schauble; copyright American Education Research Organization; 132 EyeWire Inc.; 137 (left and right) Carol Smith; 178 Carol Smith 197 Acknowledgments