Index

A

Advertising and marketing

of competitive foods and beverages, 9899

recommendations for Tier 2 products, 11, 136

After-school activities

concession stands, 84

recommendations for food and beverage availability, 1112, 136137

À la carte entrée items

availability in schools, 23, 7980, 83

definition, 7

nutritional quality, 24

recommended nutrition standards, 7, 8, 129130

regulation, 83

school revenue from, 9394, 96

scope, 83

See also Competitive foods and beverages in schools

Alabama, 184185

Alaska, 186187

Alliance for a Healthier Generation, 114, 115, 257

Anorexia nervosa, 3839

Arizona, 186187

Arkansas, 186189

Aspartame, 47

Atherosclerosis, 30, 33

Athletics. See Sports drinks

Availability of foods and beverages

competitive foods and beverages, 23, 7980, 83

determinants of, in schools, 16

effect of competitive foods on student food intake, 8586, 107

monitoring implementation of nutrition standards, 146147

parental restrictions, 67

physical environment, 99100

rationale for school regulation, 2224

recommendations for after-school activities, 1112, 136137

recommendations for school day, 1011, 134136

B

Benchmark data, 20, 144, 145146, 147148

Beverages

Alliance for a Healthier Generation guidelines, 260262

caffeine content, 910, 133134

consumption patterns, 6061



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OCR for page 275
Index A Aspartame, 47 Atherosclerosis, 30, 33 Advertising and marketing Athletics. See Sports drinks of competitive foods and beverages, Availability of foods and beverages 98–99 competitive foods and beverages, 23, recommendations for Tier 2 products, 79–80, 83 11, 136 determinants of, in schools, 16 After-school activities effect of competitive foods on student concession stands, 84 food intake, 85–86, 107 recommendations for food and beverage monitoring implementation of nutrition availability, 11–12, 136–137 standards, 146–147 À la carte entrée items parental restrictions, 67 availability in schools, 23, 79–80, 83 physical environment, 99–100 definition, 7 rationale for school regulation, 22–24 nutritional quality, 24 recommendations for after-school recommended nutrition standards, 7, 8, activities, 11–12, 136–137 129–130 recommendations for school day, 10–11, regulation, 83 134–136 school revenue from, 93–94, 96 scope, 83 See also Competitive foods and B beverages in schools Benchmark data, 20, 144, 145–146, Alabama, 184–185 147–148 Alaska, 186–187 Beverages Alliance for a Healthier Generation, 114, Alliance for a Healthier Generation 115, 257 guidelines, 260–262 Anorexia nervosa, 38–39 caffeine content, 9–10, 133–134 Arizona, 186–187 consumption patterns, 60–61 Arkansas, 186–189 

OCR for page 275
 INDEX consumption trends, 69 Cholesterol, 33, 62 fortified, 41 trans fat effects, 4, 126 industry efforts to improve nutritional Civil Rights Act, 74 value of, 114–115 Colorado, 194–195 nonnutritive sweeteners in, 8, 130–132 Competitive foods and beverages in schools obesity and, 61 after-school sales, 11–12, 84, 136–137 recommendations for school day Alliance for a Healthier Generation availability, 10–11 guidelines, 114, 115, 257–262 regulatory trends, 111 availability, 23, 79–80, 83 sugar content, 6, 59–60, 127–128 concerns, 16, 106–107 Tier 1 classification, 123 current nutritional characteristics, 16, 24 Tier 2 classification, 124 current regulation, 78–79, 109, 183–255 See also Competitive foods and definition, 1, 16, 78 beverages in schools determinants of access and availability, Body mass index, 31, 60, 65 16 Bone health, 35–36, 56, 58, 60 effects on student food intake, 85–86, Breakfast, 65–66, 70 107 Bulimia nervosa, 38–39 evolution of regulation, 104–105 financial effects of restricting, 96–97 foods used as reward or discipline, 11, C 85, 135–136 goals, 14, 108, 119–120 Caffeine marketing of, 11, 98–99, 136 consumption patterns, 50 national sales, 92–93 potential adverse effects, 9, 51–53, 134 national school meals program and, recommended nutrition standards, 9–10, 76–77, 79, 104, 107, 124 133–134 rationale for nutrition standards, 16, sources, 50 23–24, 25–26, 107–108, 118 stimulant effects, 50–51 recommendations for after-school Calcium, 36, 42, 56–58, 59–60 availability, 11–12, 136–137 California, 190–193 recommended standards for nonnutritive Calorie intake food components, 8–10, 130–134 current standards for school meals, 25 recommended standards for nutritive discretionary calorie allowance, 63–65 food components, 4–8, 126–130 low nutrient density foods, 62–65 recommended standards for school day nonnutritive sweeteners and, 8, 48–50 availability, 10–11, 134–136 patterns and trends, 15, 23, 43–44, 60 research needs, 1–2, 19 snacks, 7, 67, 129 as school revenue source, 75, 77, 91–97, sugar, 58 104, 110, 148 from sugar-sweetened beverages, 60 sources, 1, 78, 83–85 weight gain and, 62 two-tier classification, 3–4, 119, 120 See also Intake, energy and nutrient Connecticut, 196–197 Cardiovascular disease, 33 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1–2, 19, 87 D Channel One, 98 Child Nutrition Act, 74, 104 Dairy products Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization as calcium source, 56–58 Act, 1, 16–19 displacement by sweetened beverages, Child Nutrition Labeling Program, 128 59–60 Child Nutrition Promotion and School sugar content, 6–7, 59, 128–129 Lunch Protection Act, 108 Tier 1 foods, 123

OCR for page 275
 INDEX Delaware, 198–199 Fiber, dietary, 42 Dental disease, 37–38 Financial considerations Diabetes, 34 competitive foods as school revenue Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2, 16, source, 75, 77, 91–96, 104, 148 20, 24, 26, 54, 61, 88, 118–119, cost of implementing recommended 121, 126, 139 standards, 20, 139 current intake and consumption patterns effects of restricting competitive food and, 39–41 sales, 96–97, 113 Dinner, 66 federal school meal program, 93 District of Columbia, 198–199 monitoring implementation of nutrition standards, 148 obstacles to competitive foods E regulation, 110, 113 Florida, 198–199 Eating disorders, 38–39 Folate, 42 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Food industry 74 efforts to improve nutritional value of Elementary school school-available beverages and foods, after-school food and beverage 114–115 availability, 11–12 implementation of recommended availability of competitive foods, 23 nutrition standards, 13–14, 138–139, competitive foods regulation, 110, 111 146 nutrition standards, 26–27, 183–255 product information and labeling, 14, open campus, 100 127, 128, 138–139 recommendations for after-school food receptivity to regulation, 114 and beverage availability, 136–137 Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity, 26 Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value, 79, F 104–105, 106, 108 Foods to be encouraged, 3 Fast food consumption, 65 Fortification and supplementation, 41 Fat Fruits Alliance for a Healthier Generation current consumption patterns, 53 guidelines, 260 sugar content, 6, 128 consumption trends, 69–70 Tier 1 foods, 121–122 current intake, 15, 61 Fundraising activities, 12, 84–85, 137 health effects, 4, 62, 126 recommended nutrition standards, 4, 126 G Federal government competitive foods regulation, 104–105, Gender differences 107–108 dietary intake, 67–68 current nutrition standards for school eating disorders, 38, 39 meals, 25, 78 energy intake, 43 food safety regulation and oversight, nutrient intake, 42, 43 46–47 obesity patterns, 32 implementation of recommended Georgia, 200–201 nutrition standards, 12–14, 138–139 Growth school governance structure, 74 energy balance and, 7, 29–30, 43 school system funding, 75 individual patterns, 30 wellness program mandates, 1, 16–19, 108

OCR for page 275
 INDEX H requirements for, 24–25, 145 success stories, 113–114 Hawaii, 200–203 tracking and evaluation, 144–149 Health wellness program compliance, 108 caffeine intake and, 9, 51–53, 134 Indiana, 208–209 current dietary guidelines, 2, 26, 39–41 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, diet and nutrition concerns, 1, 16, 29 74 fat intake and, 4, 62, 126 Institute of Medicine, 1–2, 19 life-course approach, 30–31 Intake, energy and nutrient, 15, 42–44 normal growth, 30 added sugar, 6, 58–59 nutrition linkage, 15, 16, 22, 24, 27, age-related patterns, 70 29–39, 53 basis for nutrition standards, 118 school role in children’s, 1, 15, 22–23, calcium, 56–58 25–26 competitive food availability and, 85–86 sodium intake and, 7, 130 concerns, 15, 22, 42–43 unhealthy weight control behaviors, 39 current nutritional standards for school Healthful eating meals, 25, 78 goals of nutrition standards for data sources, 20, 71–72 competitive foods, 14, 108, 119, 126 demographic differences, 42, 43 student attitudes and beliefs, 86 dietary guidelines and, 39–41, 61 students’ food choice behaviors, 67, 86 economic status and, 68–69 HealthierUS School Challenge, 56 effects of parental restrictions, 67 Healthy People 00, 88 energy requirements of children, 63–65 High schools fast food consumption, 65 availability of competitive foods, 23 fat, 15, 61 competitive foods regulation, 110–111 fruits and vegetables, 53 nutrition standards, 26–27, 183–255 gender differences, 67–68 open campus, 100 low nutrient density foods, 62–65 physical education, 88–89 meal patterns, 65–66, 70 recommendations for after-school food monitoring implementation of nutrition and beverage availability, 8, 11–12, standards, 147–148 136, 137 nonnutritive food components, 45–53 Hypertension, 33–34, 44, 51 portion size and, 71 race/ethnicity and, 69 requirements, 179–181 I at school, 103, 106–107 school environment as factor in, 73, Idaho, 202–203 99–101 Illinois, 204–207 snacks, 7, 66, 70–71 Implementation of nutrition standards sources, 15–16 benchmarks, 144, 145–146 students’ food choice behaviors, 67 changes in food availability for, 143–144 sweetened beverages, 59–61 changes in food sources for, 144 trends over time, 69–71 costs, 20, 139 whole-grain foods, 53–55 decisions and actions in, 143 See also Calorie intake expected benefits, 149 Iron deficiency, 36–37, 42 food industry role, 13–14, 138–139, 146 framework for, 141–142 key decision-makers in, 145 J promoting awareness and understanding, 142–143 Juices, 6, 12, 83, 106, 120, 123 recommendations for, 12–14, 138–139

OCR for page 275
 INDEX K Mortality cardiovascular disease, 33 Kansas, 210–211 diet-related, 30 Kentucky, 212–213 N L National School Lunch and Breakfast Local food producers, 146 Programs, 2, 15–16, 22–23, 68–69, Louisiana, 214–217 73–74 Low nutrient density foods, 62–65 administration, 75–76, 77 Lunch, 66 competitive foods and, 76–77, 79, 104, school lunch period, 99–100 107, 124 coordination of health-related programs, 87 M dietary intake related to, 106–107 financing, 77, 93, 106 Magnesium, 42 grab and go programs, 100–101 Maine, 218–219 nutritional standards for, 25, 78, 106 Making It Happen! School Nutrition participation, 76 Success Stories, 97, 113–114 school environment factors influencing Marketing. See Advertising and marketing use, 99–101 Maryland, 218–219 scope of service, 76 Massachusetts, 218–219 stigmatization of poor children, 107 Metabolic syndrome, 34–35 Nebraska, 222–223 Michigan, 220–221 Nevada, 224–225 Middle schools New Hampshire, 224–225 availability of competitive foods, 23 New Jersey, 224–225 competitive foods regulation, 110–111 New Mexico, 226–231 current state nutrition standards, New York, 232–233 183–255 No Child Left Behind Act, 74, 91 dietary intake patterns, 86 North Carolina, 232–235 nutrition standards, 26–27 North Dakota, 234–235 open campus, 100 Nutrient displacement recommendations for after-school food competitive food availability and, 25, and beverage availability, 11–12 85–86 Minnesota, 220–221 definition, 8 Mississippi, 220–221 fortification and, 41 Missouri, 220–221 nonnutritive-sweetened beverages, 8, 9, Monitoring outcomes of nutrition 48, 131–132, 133 standards, 144–149 sweetened beverage consumption and, availability of foods and beverages, 59–60 146–147 Nutrition standards benchmark data, 20, 144, 145–146, for competitive foods, rationale for, 16, 147–148 23–24, 107–108 dietary intake, 147–148 current standards, 103, 106, 109, ease of implementation, 145–146 183–255 at local level, 145 food-based, 25, 78, 118 programs for, 148–149 goals for competitive foods and school finances, 148 beverages in schools, 14, 108, at state and federal levels, 145 119–120, 126, 147 Montana, 222–223

OCR for page 275
0 INDEX guiding principles, 2, 21–27, 117, Oregon, 236–237 118–119 Osteoporosis, 35–36, 56 National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, 25, 78, 106 P penalties for noncompliance, 111 product information and labeling issues, Packaging, for implementation of nutrition 14, 127, 128, 138–139 standards, 146 recommendations for after-school Parental restrictions on food consumption, availability, 11–12, 136–137 67 recommendations for implementation, Pennsylvania, 236–237 12–14 Physical activity recommendations for nonnutritive food coordination of school health-related components, 8–10, 130–134 programs, 88 recommendations for nutritive food current levels in schools, 88–89 components, 4–8, 126–130 discretionary calorie allowance and, 63 recommendations for school day foods energy requirements, 179–181 and beverages, 10–11, 134–136 recommendations for, 88 research goals, 1–2, 19 state requirements, 88 for school-available foods and beverages, Portion sizes, 71 rationale for, 22–24, 25–26, 27, 103 Potassium, 42 scientific base, 26 Preenting Childhood Obesity: Health in scope, 26–27 the Balance, 26 state and local, 2, 109–112 Private sector trends, 109–110 nongovernmental organizations, 114 two-tier classification of competitive See also Food industry foods, 3–4, 119, 120 Processed foods, 4 wellness program goals, 1, 19 Product information and labeling, 14, 127, wellness program implementation, 108 128, 138–139 See also Implementation of nutrition Progress in Preenting Childhood Obesity, standards 26 Nuts/seeds, 122–123 Psychosocial factors effects of parental restrictions on food consumption, 67 O food choice behavior, 67 Obesity self-reported food intake, 71–72 complications of, 1, 15, 30, 33–35 definition, 31 R demographic patterns, 32 energy imbalance in, 43–44 Race/ethnicity fat intake and, 62 dietary intake differences, 68, 69 life course, 30 hypertension risk, 34 meal-skipping patterns and, 66 obesity patterns, 32 socioeconomic status and, 68 Rewards, use of foods and beverages as, 11, sweetened beverage consumption and, 85, 135–136 60–61 Rhode Island, 238–239 trends, 1, 31–32 Richard Russell National School Lunch wellness program mandates, 16–19 Act, 74 Ohio, 234–235 Oklahoma, 234–235 Open campuses, 100

OCR for page 275
 INDEX S Sodium, 44–45 Alliance for a Healthier Generation Safety of food supply, 46–47 guidelines, 260 Saturated fat associated health risks, 7, 130 current intake, 15, 61 recommended nutrition standards, 7–8, health effects, 62 130 recommended nutrition standards, 4, 61, South Carolina, 240–241 126 South Dakota, 240–241 School Food Authority, 75–76, 77, 94 Sports drinks, 10–11, 135 School Nutrition Dietary Assessment, 78 State and local governments School nutrition programs, federally administration of school meals reimbursable, 1, 14 programs, 77 School Physical Activity and Nutrition current school nutrition standards, survey, 148–149 183–255 School stores and snack bars, 1, 14, 23, 79, federal wellness program mandates, 1 80, 83, 84 implementation of recommended Schools nutrition standards, 12–13, 24–25, cafeteria conditions, 101 138 competitive foods in. See Competitive monitoring outcomes of nutrition foods and beverages in schools standards, 145 coordination of health-related programs, physical education requirements, 88 86–87 regulation of competitive foods and current enrollment, 22 beverages, 109–112 dietary intake in, 103, 106–107 school funding, 75 environmental factors in food behavior, school governance structure, 74–75 73, 99–101 school nutrition program administration, funding system, 75, 91–92 75–76 governance structure, 74–75, 113 vending machine regulation, 83–84 nutrition education in, 89–91 See also specific states nutrition standards rationale, 22–24, Sugar 25–26, 27 dental health and, 37–38 physical education, 88–89 dietary guidelines, 58 role in children’s health, 1, 15 intake patterns, 58 sources of foods and beverages, 15–16 low nutrient density foods, 62 wellness program mandates, 1 measurement in foods, 59 Snacks product labeling, 127, 128 calorie limits, 7, 129 rationale for reduced intake, 6, 127 consumption patterns, 7, 66, 70–71 recommended nutrition standards, 6–7, definition, 7 127–129 discretionary calorie allowance and, sources, 58–59 63–64 sweetened beverages, 59–61, 127–128 fat standards, 4 See also Sweeteners, nonnutritive nutrition characteristics, 67 Sweeteners, nonnutritive recommended nutrition standards, 7–8, concerns, 45, 130 129–130 to increase consumption of healthful sodium content, 8, 130 foods, 9, 133 sugar standards, 6 nutrient displacement, 8, 9, 48, 131–132 Socioeconomic status purpose, 45 dental disease and, 37 recommendations, 8–9, 130–133 dietary intake and, 68–69 research needs, 133 stigmatization of school lunch programs, safety, 8, 9, 45–48, 131, 133 107

OCR for page 275
 INDEX sources, 45 Vending machines weight control and, 8, 9, 48–50, 131, contents, 83 132, 133 exterior design, 11, 136 Syndrome X, 34–35 prevalence, 23, 79–80, 83, 97 regulation, 83–84 trends, 97 T See also Competitive foods and beverages in schools Taxes, school system funding, 75 Vermont, 250–251 Tennessee, 242–243 Virginia, 250–251 Texas, 244–249 Vitamin A, 42 Tier 1 foods and beverages Vitamin C, 42 definition, 3, 119,124, 134 Vitamin D, 36 recommendations for after-school Vitamin E, 42 availability, 11–12, 134, 136–137 recommendations for school day availability, 10, 136 W types of, 120–123 Tier 2 foods and beverages Washington, 252–253 definition, 3–4, 119, 124 Water, recommendations for availability and recommendations for after-school access, 10, 135 availability, 11–12 Wellness programs recommendations for nonnutritive after-school activities and, 84 components, 8 coordination of health-related programs, recommendations for school day 87 availability, 11 current state, 1, 87, 108 Trans fat, 62 federal mandate, 1, 16–19, 87, 108 recommended nutrition standards, 4, implementation of nutrition standards 126 in, 146 nutrition education, 89–91 research goals, 1–2 U West Virginia, 252–253 Whole-grain foods, 53–55, 121–122 Utah, 248–249 WIC Reauthorization Act, 108 Wisconsin, 252–253 Wyoming, 254–255 V Vegetables Y current consumption patterns, 53 sugar content, 6, 128 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Tier 1 foods, 121–122 148