1. Cleland, C., and Copley, S. 2006. The possibility of alternative microbial life on Earth. Int. J. Astrobiology 4(3):165-173.

2 Ball, P. 2004. Starting from scratch. Nature 431:624-626.

3 Benner, S.A., and Sismour, A.M. 2005. Synthetic biology. Nature Rev. Genetics 6:533-543.

4 Switzer, C.Y., Moroney, S.E., and Benner, S.A. 1989. Enzymatic incorporation of a new base pair into DNA and RNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:8322-8323.

5 Piccirilli, J.A., Krauch, T., Moroney, S.E., and Benner, S.A. 1990. Extending the genetic alphabet. Enzymatic incorporation of a new base pair into DNA and RNA. Nature 343:33-37.

6 Sismour, A.M., Lutz, S., Park, J.-H., Lutz, M.J., Boyer, P.L., Hughes, S.H., and Benner, S.A. 2004. PCR amplification of DNA containing non-standard base pairs by variants of reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus-1. Nucl. Acids. Res. 32:728-735.

7 Sismour, A.M., and Benner, S.A. 2005. The use of thymidine analogs to improve the replication of an extra DNA base pair: A synthetic biological system. Nucl. Acids Res. 33:5640-5646.

8 Freier, S.M., and Altmann, K.H. 1997. Nucleic acid analogs. Nucl. Acids Res. 25:4429-4443.

9 Eschenmoser, A. 1999. Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure. Science 284:2118-2124.

10 Benner, S.A. 2004. Understanding nucleic acids using synthetic chemistry. Accounts Chem. Res. 37:784-797.

11 Wengel, J., Koshkin, A., Singh, S.K., Nielsen, P., Meldgaard, M., Rajwanshi, V.K., Kumar, R., Skouv, J., Nielsen, C.B., Jacobsen, J.P., Jacobsen, N., and Olsen, C.E. 1999. LNA (locked nucleic acid). Nucleosides Nucleotides 18:1365-1370.

12 Schöning, K.U., Scholz, P., Guntha, S., Wu, X., Krishnamurthy, R., and Eschenmoser, A. 2000. Chemical etiology of nucleic acid structure. The α-threofuranosyl-3′→2′ oligonucleotide system. Science 290:1347-1351.

13 Chin, J.W., Cropp, T.A., Anderson, J.C., Mukherji, M., Zhang, Z.W., and Schultz, P.G. 2003. An expanded eukaryotic genetic code. Science 301:964-967.

14 Bain, J.D., Chamberlin, A.R., Switzer, C.Y., and Benner, S.A. 1992. Ribosome-mediated incorporation of non-standard amino acids into a peptide through expansion of the genetic code. Nature 356:537-539.

15 Westheimer, F.H. 1987. Why nature chose phosphates. Science 235:1173-1178.

16 Jayaraman, K., McParland, K., Miller, P., and Tso, P. O. P. 1981. Non-ionic oligonucleoside methylphosphonates. 4. Selective inhibition of Escherichia coli protein synthesis and growth by non-ionic oligonucleotides complementary to the 3′ end of 16S ribosomal-RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:1537-1541.

17 Miller, P.S., McParland, K.B., Jayaraman, K., Tso, P.O.P. 1981. Biochemical and biological effects of nonionic nucleic acid methylphosphonates. Biochemistry 20:1874-1880.

18 Reddy, P.M., and Bruice, T.C. 2003. Solid-phase synthesis of positively charged deoxynucleic guanidine (DNG) oligonucleotide mixed sequences. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 13:1281-1285.

19 Benner, S.A., and Hutter, D. 2002. Phosphates, DNA, and the search for nonterran life. A second generation model for genetic molecules. Bioorg. Chem. 30:62-80.

20 Steinbeck, C., and Richert, C. 1998. The role of ionic backbones in RNA structure: An unusually stable non-Watson-Crick duplex of a nonionic analog in an apolar medium. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120:11576-11580.

21 Flory, P.J. 1953. Principles of Polymer Chemistry. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y.

22 Brant, D.A., and Flory, P.J., 1965. The configuration of random polypeptide chains. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 87:2788.

23 Lee, D.H., Granja, J.R., Martinez, J.A., Severin, K., and Ghadiri, M.R. 1996. A self replicating peptide. Nature 382:525-528.

24 Cronin, J.R., and Pizzarello, S. 1986. Amino acids of the Murchison meteorite. III. Seven carbon acyclic primary alpha-amino alkanoic acids. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 50:2419-2427.

25 Ahn, J.-M., Boyle, N.A., MacDonald, M.T., and Janda, K.D. 2002. Peptidomimetics and peptide backbone modifications. Mini. Rev. Med. Chem. 2:463-473.

26 Yamauchi, K., Mitsuda, Y., and Kinoshita, M. 1975. Peptides containing aminophosphonic acids 3. Synthesis of tripeptide containing aminomethylphosphonic acid. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 48:3285-3286.

27 Geyer, C.R., Battersby, T.R., and Benner, S.A. 2003. Nucleobase pairing in expanded Watson-Crick-like genetic information systems. The nucleobases. Structure 11:1485-1498.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement