Nor are sources of energy in short supply in the venusian atmosphere. For example, a venusian metabolism might exploit the relatively high flux of ultraviolet radiation in the venusian clouds.17

6.2.1.3
Formamide as a Possible Solvent

Formamide (HCONH2) is another potential biosolvent. Formamide is formed by the reaction of hydrogen cyanide with water; both are abundant in the cosmos. Like water, formamide has a large dipole moment and is an excellent solvent for almost anything that dissolves in water, including polyelectrolytes. In particular, formamide is able to dissolve RNA, DNA, and proteins, as well as their precursors. Formamide is not reactive like water. Indeed, many species that are thermodynamically unstable in water with respect to hydrolysis, are stable in formamide.

Formamide is itself hydrolyzed by water, meaning that it persists only in a relatively dry environment, such as a desert. Desert environments recently proposed as being potential sites for the prebiotic synthesis of ribose18 may hold formamide as well. Since formamide boils at ~400 K, a mixture of formamide and water, if placed in the desert, would lose its water over time and end up as a pool of formamide. Within this pool, many syntheses are thermodynamically favorable: polypeptides from amino acids, nucleosides from sugars and bases, nucleotides from nucleosides and inorganic phosphate, and RNA from nucleotides. Indeed, phosphate esters are also spontaneously synthesized. This includes ATP (from ADP and inorganic phosphate), nucleosides (from ribose borates and nucleobases), peptides (from amino acids), and others.19-21

6.2.2
Nonpolar Solvents

A variety of solvents have higher boiling points than that of water but do not have polar structures. The most accessible of these are the hydrocarbons, which come in a series from the smallest (methane) to higher homologs (ethane, propane, butane, and so on) and are abundant in the solar system. Methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and hexane have boiling points of about 109, 184, 231, 273, 309, and 349 K, respectively, at standard terran pressure. Thus, at a mean surface temperature of 95 K, methane (which freezes at 90 K) would be liquid, implying that oceans of methane could cover the surface of Titan.

Many discussions of life on Titan have considered the possibility that water, normally frozen at the ambient temperature, might remain liquid following heating by impacts.22 Life in this aqueous environment would be subject to the same constraints and opportunities as life in water. Water droplets in hydrocarbon solvents are, in addition, convenient cellular compartments for evolution, as Tawfik and Griffiths have shown in the laboratory.23 An emulsion of water droplets in oil is obtainable by simple shaking. This could easily be a model for how life on Titan achieves the isolation necessary for Darwinian evolution, and it provides an interesting alternative for membranes, discussed in earlier chapters as a common feature of terran life.

Broad empirical experience shows that organic reactivity in hydrocarbon solvents is no less versatile than in water. Indeed, many terran enzymes are believed to catalyze reactions by having an active site that is not water-like. Further, with ethane as a solvent, a hypothetical form of life would be able to use hydrogen bonding more effectively; these bonds would have the strength appropriate for the low temperature. Further, hydrocarbons with polar groups can be hydrocarbon-phobic; acetonitrile and hexane, for example, form two phases. It is possible to conceive of liquid/liquid phase separation in bulk hydrocarbons that could achieve the isolation necessary for Darwinian evolution.

Because of its reactivity, water destroys hydrolytically unstable organic species. Thus, a hypothetical form of life in a Titan hydrocarbon ocean would be less subject to the hydrolytic deamination of its nucleobases, and would be able to guide reactivity more easily than life in water.

Thus the environment of Titan meets the absolute requirements for life. Titan is not at thermodynamic equilibrium. It has abundant carbon-containing molecules and heteroatoms and a fluid environment. Titan’s temperature is low enough to permit a wide range of bonding, covalent and noncovalent. Titan undoubtedly offers other resources believed to be useful for catalysis necessary for life, including metals and surfaces.

This makes inescapable the conclusion that if life is an intrinsic property of chemical reactivity, life should exist on Titan. Indeed, for life not to exist on Titan, we would have to argue that life is not an intrinsic property



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