IV
APPENDIXES



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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium IV APPENDIXES

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium Appendix A Biographies of Speakers* MONTEK SINGH AHLUWALIA Montek Singh Ahluwalia has been a key figure in India’s economic reforms from the early 1980s onward. He is currently the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission for India, having been appointed to this post on June 16, 2004. He was previously the first director of the Independent Evaluation Office at the International Monetary Fund (IMF), a position he assumed on July 9, 2001. Prior to joining the IMF, Mr. Ahluwalia was a member of the Planning Commission in New Delhi as well as a member of the Economic Advisory Council to the prime minister. Before that, he served as finance secretary in the Ministry of Finance, secretary in the Department of Economic Affairs, commerce secretary, special secretary to the prime minister, and economic advisor to the Ministry of Finance. Between 1968 and 1979, he held various positions in the World Bank Research Department. He earned his B.A. (Hon.) degree in New Delhi and his M.A. and M.Ph. degrees from the University of Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. His published works include papers in various professional journals and several contributions to books. ROBERT ARMSTRONG Robert Armstrong received his B.S. degrees in chemistry and biochemistry from the University of California at San Diego in 1979. He then moved to Colorado State University, where he received his Ph.D. degree in 1984 and * As of June 2006.

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium subsequently completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard University. He joined the UCLA faculty in 1986 as an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and was tenured in 1992. While at UCLA, Professor Armstrong’s research efforts focused in the areas of synthesis and mechanism of action of bioactive compounds. Dr. Armstrong joined the senior research management team at Amgen, Inc. in 1996 and was responsible for developing Amgen’s small-molecule drug discovery efforts. As of 1999, Dr. Armstrong has held the position of vice president, Discovery Chemistry Research and Technologies and Global External Research and Technologies at Eli Lilly and Co. GEORGE ATKINSON Dr. George H. Atkinson, named by then-Secretary of State Colin Powell to be science and technology adviser to the secretary (STAS) in September 2003, has continued to serve as STAS under Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. The STAS is a principal interlocutor for science and technology with the U.S. Department of State. Dr. Atkinson joined the Department of State in August 2001, as the first American Institute of Physics Senior Fellow for Science, Technology, and Diplomacy. He continues efforts to strengthen the Department of State’s scientific capacity by increasing the number of scientists in the department, introducing new anticipatory, proactive programs, and developing key domestic and international science and technology relationships. Dr. Atkinson received his Ph.D. in chemistry from Indiana University in Bloomington. He was professor of chemistry at Syracuse University until 1983, when he joined the University of Arizona as professor of chemistry and optical sciences and head of the Chemistry Department. He remains a tenured professor at the University of Arizona. Dr. Atkinson has more than 160 publications in refereed scientific journals and books, and has authored 66 U.S. and foreign patents. He also founded Innovative Lasers Corporation in 1992. His numerous honorary awards include the Senior Alexander von Humboldt Award (Germany), the Senior Fulbright Award (Germany), the Lady Davis Professorship (Israel), the SERC Award (Great Britain), the Distinguished Alumni Award for Outstanding Service from Indiana University, and the Chancellor’s Distinguished Fellows Award from the University of California at Irvine. He has been a visiting professor at universities and research institutions in Japan, Great Britain, Germany, Israel, and France. In 1992, students selected him as the “outstanding teacher at the University of Arizona.” SAMUEL BODMAN Samuel Wright Bodman was sworn in as the eleventh secretary of energy on February 1, 2005, after the U.S. Senate unanimously confirmed him on January

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium 31, 2005. He leads the Department of Energy with a budget in excess of $23 billion and over 100,000 federal and contractor employees. Previously, Secretary Bodman served as deputy secretary of the Treasury beginning in February 2004. He also served the Bush administration as the deputy secretary of the Department of Commerce beginning in 2001. A financier and executive by trade, with three decades of experience in the private sector, Secretary Bodman was well suited manage the day-to-day operations of both of these cabinet agencies. Born in 1938 in Chicago, he graduated in 1961 with a B.S. in chemical engineering from Cornell University. In 1965, he completed his Sc.D. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For the next six years he served as an associate professor of chemical engineering at MIT and began his work in the financial sector as technical director of the American Research and Development Corporation, a pioneer venture capital firm. He and his colleagues provided financial and managerial support to scores of new business enterprises located throughout the United States. From there, Secretary Bodman went to Fidelity Venture Associates, a division of the Fidelity Investments. In 1983, he was named president and chief operating officer of Fidelity Investments and a director of the Fidelity Group of Mutual Funds. In 1987, he joined Cabot Corporation, a Boston-based Fortune 300 company with global business activities in specialty chemicals and materials, where he served as chairman, CEO, and as a director. Over the years, he has been a director of many other publicly owned corporations. Secretary Bodman has also been active in public service. He is a former sirector of MIT’s School of Engineering Practice and a former member of the MIT Commission on Education. He also served as a member of the Executive and Investment committees at MIT, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a trustee of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and the New England Aquarium. RALPH CICERONE Ralph J. Cicerone, president of the National Academy of Sciences, is an atmospheric scientist whose research in atmospheric chemistry and climate change has involved him in shaping science and environmental policy at the highest levels nationally and internationally. His research was recognized on the citation for the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded to University of California at Irvine colleague F. Sherwood Rowland. The Franklin Institute recognized his fundamental contributions to the understanding of greenhouse gases and ozone depletion by selecting Cicerone as the 1999 laureate for the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science. One of the most prestigious American awards in science, the Bower also

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium recognized his public policy leadership in protecting the global environment. In 2001, he led a National Academy of Sciences study of the current state of climate change and its impact on the environment and human health, requested by President Bush. The American Geophysical Union awarded him its 2002 Roger Revelle Medal for outstanding research contributions to the understanding of Earth’s atmospheric processes, biogeochemical cycles, or other key elements of the climate system. In 2004, the World Cultural Council honored him with another of the scientific community’s most distinguished awards, the Albert Einstein World Award in Science. During his early career at the University of Michigan, Cicerone was a research scientist and held faculty positions in electrical and computer engineering. In 1978, he joined the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California at San Diego as a research chemist. From 1980 to 1989, he was a senior scientist and director of the atmospheric chemistry division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. In 1989, he was appointed the Daniel G. Aldrich Professor of Earth System Science at the University of California at Irvine and chaired the Department of Earth System Science from 1989 to 1994. While serving as dean of physical sciences for the next four years, he brought outstanding faculty to the school and strengthened its curriculum and outreach programs. Prior to his election as Academy president, Cicerone was the chancellor of the University of California at Irvine from 1998 to 2005. Cicerone is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He has served as president of the American Geophysical Union, the world’s largest society of earth scientists, and he received its James B. Macelwane Award in 1979 for outstanding contributions to geophysics. He has published about 100 refereed papers and 200 conference papers, and has presented invited testimony to the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives on a number of occasions. Cicerone received his bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he was a varsity baseball player. Both his master’s and doctoral degrees are from the University of Illinois in electrical engineering, with a minor in physics. CARL DAHLMAN Carl Dahlman is the Luce Professor of International Affairs and Information Technology at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. He joined Georgetown in January 2005 after more than 25 years of distinguished service at the World Bank. At Georgetown, Dahlman’s research and teaching explore how rapid advances in science, technology, and information are affecting the growth prospects of nations and influencing trade, investment, innovation, education, and economic relations in an increasingly globalizing world.

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium At the World Bank, Dahlman served as senior advisor to the World Bank Institute. In this role he managed the Knowledge for Development (K4D) program, an initiative providing training on the strategic use of knowledge for economic and social development to business leaders and policy makers in developing countries. Prior to developing the K4D program, Dahlman served as staff director of the 1998–1999 World Development Report, Knowledge for Development. In addition, he was the bank’s resident representative and financial sector leader in Mexico from 1994 to 1997, years during which the country coped with one of the biggest financial crises in its history. Before his position in Mexico, Dahlman led divisions in the bank’s Private Sector Development, and Industry and Energy Departments. He has also conducted extensive analytical work in major developing countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, India, Pakistan, China, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Dahlman’s publications include: India and the Knowledge Economy: Leveraging Strengths and Opportunities (2005), China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century (2001), and Korea and the Knowledge-Based Economy: Making the Transition (2000). He is currently finishing a knowledge economy study on Mexico, working on a book on the challenge of the knowledge economy for education and training in China, and collaborating with research teams in Finland, Japan, and Korea to produce books on each country’s innovation and development strategies. Dahlman earned a B.A. magna cum laude in international relations from Princeton University and a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. He has also taught courses at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. PAULA J. DOBRIANSKY Paula J. Dobriansky was nominated by President Bush on March 12, 2001, unanimously confirmed by the Senate on April 26, and on May 1, sworn in as undersecretary of state for global affairs. On July 29, 2005, she became undersecretary of state for democracy and global affairs. In this capacity, she is responsible for a broad range of foreign policy issues, including democracy, human rights, labor, refugee and humanitarian relief matters, and environmental/science issues. She has also been designated as the special coordinator for Tibetan issues. Prior to her appointment, Dr. Dobriansky served as senior vice president and director of the Washington Office of the Council on Foreign Relations. She was responsible for managing the Council’s office and operations in Washington, D.C., and for leading council meetings, study groups, and seminars that served over 1,000 area members. She was also the council’s first George F. Kennan Senior Fellow for Russian and Eurasian Studies. Previously, Dr. Dobriansky served as senior international affairs and trade advisor at the law firm of Hunton & Williams, and also as cochair of the Interna-

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium tional TV Council at the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Her government appointments include associate director for policy and programs at the United States Information Agency, deputy assistant secretary of state for human rights and humanitarian affairs, deputy head of the U.S. delegation to the 1990 Copenhagen Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, advisor to the U.S. delegation to the 1985 U.N. Decade for Women Conference in Nairobi, Kenya, and director of European and Soviet affairs at the National Security Council, the White House. Dr. Dobriansky received a B.S.F.S. summa cum laude in international politics from Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in Soviet political/military affairs from Harvard University. She is a Fulbright-Hays Scholar, Ford and Rotary Foundation Fellow, a member of Phi Beta Kappa, and a recipient of various honors, including Georgetown University’s Annual Alumni Achievement Award, the State Department’s Superior Honor Award, Dialogue on Diversity’s International Award 2001, National Endowment for Democracy (NED) Democracy Service Medal, Poland’s Highest Medal of Merit, Grand Cross of Commander of the Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, honorary doctorate of humane letters from Fairleigh Dickinson University, Westminster College, Roger Williams University, and an honorary doctorate of laws from Flagler College. Dr. Dobriansky has served on various boards, including the Western NIS Enterprise Fund, National Endowment for Democracy (vice chairman), Freedom House, American Council of Young Political Leaders, the American Bar Association Central/East European Law Initiative, and the U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy. She has a working knowledge of French, Russian, Italian, and Dutch. Dr. Dobriansky has lectured and published articles, book chapters, and op-ed pieces on foreign affairs-related topics, ranging from U.S. human rights policy to East European foreign and defense policies, public diplomacy, democracy promotion strategies, Russia, and the Ukraine. For three years, she hosted Freedom’s Challenge and cohosted Worldwise, the international affairs programs on National Empowerment Television. Additionally, she has appeared on ABC, NBC, CBS, CNN Headline News, CNN & Company, Fox Morning News, John McLaughlin’s One-on-One, The McLaughlin Group, C-SPAN, MSNBC, PBS, National Public Radio, and has testified often before the Senate Foreign Relations and House International Relations Committees. MARY GOOD Mary L. Good is the Donaghey University Professor at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, and serves as dean for the College of Information Science and Systems Engineering. She is managing member for the Fund for Arkansas’ Future, LLC. (an investment fund for start-up and early-stage companies), past

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium president of the American Association for the Advance of Science, past president of the American Chemical Society, and an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering. She presently serves on the boards of BiogenIdec, Inc. and Acxiom, Inc. Previously, she served a four-year term as the undersecretary for technology for the Technology Administration in the Department of Commerce, a presidentially appointed, Senate-confirmed, position. In addition, she chaired the National Science and Technology Council’s (NSTC) Committee on Technological Innovation, and served on the NSTC Committee on National Security. Previously, she has served as the senior vice president for technology for Allied Signal and as the Boyd Professor of Chemistry and Materials Science at Louisiana State University. She was appointed to the National Science Board by President Carter in 1980 and by President Reagan in 1986. She was the chair of that board from 1988 to 1991, when she received an appointment by President Bush to be a member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. She has received many awards, including the National Science Foundation’s Distinguished Public Service Award, the American Institute of Chemists’ Gold Medal, the Priestly Medal from the American Chemical Society, and the Vannevar Bush Award from the National Science Board, among others. Good received her bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the University of Central Arkansas and her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in inorganic chemistry from the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville. GOPAL GOPALAKRISHNAN Dr. P. (Gopal) Gopalakrishnan is the director of the IBM India Research Laboratory, which is part of IBM Research, widely recognized as the world’s leading IT research organization. Gopal has over 18 years of experience in technology and research, and now leads a team of researchers in developing innovative technologies for IBM products and services and in addressing the unique issues faced by clients in the region. The India Research Lab has projects that span several important areas of technology: software, systems, and services. The newly created Services Innovation and Research Center of the India Research Lab is colocated with IBM’s global services teams in Bangalore and focuses on research and development of technologies to increase the competitiveness of IBM’s services organizations. Prior to this position, Gopal led IBM’s research strategy in pervasive computing and managed the pervasive infrastructures department at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York. In this role, he managed the development of advanced technologies in infrastructure middleware, device components, and prototype solutions for pervasive computing and set the directions of researchers across the worldwide labs of IBM in this area of

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium research. Gopal joined the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center in 1986 after earning a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Maryland. He made significant contributions to the field of speech recognition and conversational interfaces while part of a long-running project at IBM Research. Over the course of his research career, he has worked in several disciplines, including parallel processing, speech recognition, conversational systems, and mobile computing. He is the coinventor on 18 patents and has authored many technical publications in peer-reviewed journals and conferences. KENNETH G. HERD Dr. Kenneth G. Herd was named global technology leader for the Material Systems Technologies at GE Global Research in February 2006. Dr. Herd’s organization develops breakthrough material systems and material processes for a range of GE products, including composites for GE-Aviation and GE-Wind Energy, optical films and optical storage media for GE-Plastics, x-ray sources for GE-Healthcare and GE-Security, and material inspection and modeling for GE-Inspection Technologies. Dr. Herd leads a multidisciplinary, global organization of about 300 engineers and scientists, including 10 labs at GE Global Research in Niskayuna, New York, six labs at the Jack F. Welch Technology Center in Bangalore, India, and two labs at GE’s China Technology Center in Shanghai. He began his General Electric career in 1983, working on the development of GE’s first magnetic resonance imaging systems for GE-Healthcare, moving to GE-Energy in 1986 to develop high-performance generators. In 1988, he joined the Electro-Mechanical Systems Lab at GE Global Research to develop superconducting materials and devices. In 1998, Dr. Herd was named manager of the Measurement Systems Lab, leading the development of ultrasound, x-ray, and infrared imaging systems for industrial applications. He assumed the position of global technology leader for Inspection and Manufacturing Technologies in 2001, leading 10 labs in the development of a broad range of material process technologies. Dr. Herd earned his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering in 1981 and 1983 from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and his doctorate in mechanical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1991. Dr. Herd holds 44 U.S. patents and has published 26 papers. P. V. INDIRESAN Professor Indiresan was educated in Presidency College, Madras, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, and at the University of Birmingham, UK. He has taught for 40 years, starting his career at the University of Roorkee and then shifting to IIT Delhi. He has been a visiting professor at the Imperial College,

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium London, and a fellow at the Wissenschaftskolleg at Berlin. For a term, he was director, IIT Madras. At IIT Delhi, Professor Indiresan founded the School of Radar Studies, now renamed as the Centre for Applied Research in Electronics. He also served there as a dean for examinations and as dean of undergraduate studies. Professor Indiresan has been president of the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, and of the Indian National Academy of Engineering. He is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, a distinguished fellow of Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, and honorary fellow of the Indian Railway Society of Signal and Telecommunication Engineers. Professor Indiresan was twice awarded the highest prize of the Inventions Promotion Board of the government of India. He has also been conferred the Padma Bhushan by the president of India. He has the rare honor of being made an honorary member by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA. His students have built a hostel in his name. He is currently a member of the State Planning Commission, Delhi, a director of the Indo–Sri Lanka Foundation set up jointly by the two governments, and chairman, Netaji Institute of Science and Technology, an autonomous institution of the government of Delhi. Professor Indiresan has written several hundred articles on societal and technical issues in Indian journals. He prepared the final report “Driving Forces and Impedances” of the Vision 2020 series compiled under the direction of President Kalam. He has a biweekly column in the Hindu Businessline and has written two books—Managing Development: Geographical Socialism, Decentralisation and Urban Replication, and Vision 2020: What India Can Be, and How to Make That Happen—as well as chapters in over 20 books. SURINDER KAPUR Dr. Surinder Kapur, chairman, National Mission on Manufacturing Innovation, and founder chairman and managing director, Sona Group, is representing the SME sector on the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council. An engineer by qualification, Dr. Kapur has led quality and innovation in Indian industry through the various committees and initiatives of CII. He is leading CII’s initiative of SME Clusters under its TQM program as well as advanced clusters on breakthrough management (innovation). Under his chairmanship of the Mission on Manufacturing Innovativeness, CII will create 100 leader companies in Indian industry with global processes on innovation and product development over three years by setting up an Innovation Center of Excellence. Dr. Kapur also chairs the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association (ACMA) of India Centre for Technology. As a member of

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium the National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project, an initiative by the government of India to address the critical gap in testing and R&D infrastructure in the country, he is leading the Automotive Component Manufacturers’ efforts to support government-funded R&D activities through the Technology Information, Forecasting, and Assessment Council. As a member of the Technical Advisory Committee on Automotives, DGTD and the Development Council for Automotives & Allied Industries GOI, Dr. Kapur has made a number of policy recommendations. Dr. Kapur and his company have been the recipients of a number of awards and recognitions in the areas of quality, manufacturing excellence, and leadership. His pursuit of quality led the Sona Group to winning the Deming Award from the Japanese Union of Scientific Engineers and the Frost & Sullivan Corporate Gold Award for Excellence in Manufacturing. Dr. Kapur has been instrumental in Sona Koyo receiving the ‘Technology Award’ from AMCA in 2004 due to six patents filed by Sona Koyo. Dr. Kapur has endeavored to integrate quality into Indian industry as the chair of the CII National Committee on Quality & Training Services, the TPM Club of India and AMCA. He studied mechanical engineering at the University of Michigan and was the vice chairman and managing director of Bharat Gears from 1972 to 1990. He established Sona Koyo in 1990 and has since been leading his company from one success to another. JOHN MARBURGER Dr. John H. Marburger, III, science adviser to the president and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, was born on Staten Island, New York, grew up in Maryland near Washington, D.C., and attended Princeton University (B.A. in physics, 1962) and Stanford University (Ph.D. in applied physics, 1967). Before his appointment in the Executive Office of the President, he served as director of Brookhaven National Laboratory from 1998, and as the third president of the State University of New York at Stony Brook (1980–1994). He came to Long Island in 1980 from the University of Southern California where he had been a professor of physics and electrical engineering, serving as Physics Department chairman and dean of the College of Letters, Arts and Sciences in the 1970s. In the fall of 1994, he returned to the faculty at Stony Brook, teaching and doing research in optical science as a university professor. Three years later, he became president of Brookhaven Science Associates, a partnership between the university and Battelle Memorial Institute that competed for and won the contract to operate Brookhaven National Laboratory. While at the University of Southern California, Marburger contributed to the rapidly growing field of nonlinear optics, a subject created by the invention of the laser in 1960. He developed theory for various laser phenomena and was

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium a cofounder of the University of Southern California’s Center for Laser Studies. His teaching activities included “Frontiers of Electronics,” a series of educational programs on CBS television. Marburger’s presidency at Stony Brook coincided with the opening and growth of University Hospital and the development of the biological sciences as a major strength of the university. During the 1980s, federally sponsored scientific research at Stony Brook grew to exceed that of any other public university in the northeastern United States. During his presidency, Marburger served on numerous boards and committees, including chairmanship of the governor’s commission on the Shoreham Nuclear Power facility, and chairmanship of the 80-campus Universities Research Association, which operates Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago. He served as a trustee of Princeton University and many other organizations. He also chaired the highly successful 1991–1992 Long Island United Way campaign. While on leave from Stony Brook, Marburger carried out the mandates of the Department of Energy to improve management practice at Brookhaven National Laboratory. His company, Brookhaven Science Associates, continued to produce excellent science at the lab while achieving ISO14001 certification of the lab’s environmental management system, and winning back the confidence and support of the community. R. A. MASHELKAR Dr. R. A. Mashelkar is presently the director general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the largest chain of publicly funded industrial research and development institutions in the world, with 38 laboratories and about 20,000 employees. Dr. Mashelkar is also the president of the Indian National Science Academy. He is only the third Indian engineer to have been elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society, London, in the twentieth century. He was elected foreign associate of U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 2005, only the eighth Indian since 1863 to be so elected. He was elected foreign fellow of U.S. National Academy of Engineering (2003), fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, UK (1996), and fellow of World Academy of Art & Science, USA (2000). Twenty universities, which include the Universities of London, Salford, Pretoria, Wisconsin, and Delhi, have honored him with doctorates. In August 1997, Business India named Dr. Mashelkar as being among the 50 pathbreakers in the postindependent India. In 1998, Dr. Mashelkar won the JRD Tata Corporate Leadership Award, the first scientist to win it. In June 1999, Business India did a cover story on Dr. Mashelkar as “CEO OF CSIR Inc.,” a dream that he himself had articulated when he took over as director general of CSIR in July 1995. On November 6, 2005, he received the Business Week (USA)

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium award of Stars of Asia at the hands of George Bush (Sr.), former President of United States. When Dr. Mashelkar took over as the director general of CSIR, he enunciated “CSIR 2001: Vision & Strategy.” This was a bold attempt to draw out a corporate-like R&D and business plan for a publicly funded R&D institution. This initiative has transformed CSIR into a user-focused, performance-driven, and accountable organization. This process of transformation has been recently heralded as one of the 10 most significant achievements of Indian Science and Technology in the twentieth century. Dr. Mashelkar has been propagating a culture of innovation and balanced intellectual property rights regime for over a decade. It was through his sustained and visionary campaign that growing awareness of intellectual property rights (IPR) has dawned on Indian academics, researchers, and corporations. He spearheaded the successful challenge to the U.S. patent on the use of turmeric for wound healing and also the patent on Basmati rice. These landmark cases have set up new paradigms in the protection of India’s traditional knowledge base, besides leading to the setting up of India’s first Traditional Knowledge Digital Library. In turn, at an international level, this has led to the initiation of the change of the International Patent Classification System to give traditional knowledge its rightful place. As chairman of the Standing Committee on Information Technology of World Intellectual Property Organization, as a member of the International Intellectual Property Rights Commission of the UK government, and as vice chairman on the Commission in Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health set up by the World Health Organization, he brought new perspectives to the issue of IPR and the developing world concerns. In the postliberalized India, Dr. Mashelkar has played a critical role in shaping India’s science and technology policies. He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime minister and also of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the cabinet set up by successive governments. He has chaired 10 high-powered committees set up to look into diverse issues of higher education, national auto fuel policy, overhauling the Indian drug regulatory system, dealing with the menace of spurious drugs, reforming the Indian agricultural research system, etc. He has been a much sought after consultant for restructuring the publicly funded R&D institutions around the world; his contributions in South Africa, Indonesia, and Croatia have been particularly notable. Dr. Mashelkar has won over 40 awards and medals, which include the S. S. Bhatnagar Prize (1982), Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Technology Award (1991), G. D. Birla Scientific Research Award (1993), Material Scientist of the Year Award (2000), IMC Juran Quality Medal (2002), HRD Excellence Award (2002), Lal Bhadur Shastri National Award for Excellence in Public Administration and Management Sciences (2002), World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO) Medal of Engineering Excellence (2003) by WFEO Paris, Lifetime

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium Achievement Award (2004) by the Indian Science Congress, the Science Medal by the Third World Academy of Sciences. The President of India honored Dr. Mashelkar with Padmashri (1991) and with Padmabhushan (2000), which are two of the highest civilian honors, in recognition of his contribution to nation building. DAVID McCORMICK David H. McCormick is the undersecretary of commerce for industry and security. Nominated by President Bush, he was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on October 7, 2005, and was sworn into office by Secretary of Commerce Carlos M. Gutierrez. As undersecretary, Mr. McCormick leads the Bureau of Industry and Security, which advances U.S. national security, foreign policy, and economic objectives by ensuring an effective export control and treaty compliance system and promoting continued U.S. strategic technology leadership. Prior to his service as undersecretary, Mr. McCormick was the president of Ariba, Inc., and had served previously as the president and CEO of FreeMarkets, Inc., both publicly traded software and services companies. Before joining FreeMarkets, Mr. McCormick was a consultant for McKinsey & Company. Born in Pennsylvania, Mr. McCormick served as an officer in the U.S. Army and is a veteran of the first Gulf War. Mr. McCormick earned his bachelor’s degree from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and holds a master’s degree and Ph.D. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. PRAFUL PATEL Praful Patel is regional vice president, South Asia Region, at the World Bank. Mr. Patel specializes in the development field, with an emphasis on lesser developed countries. Specific areas include infrastructure, poverty programs (MGD-related sectors), institution and capacity building, and multisectoral project design and packaging. Examples include the Chad Cameroon Pipeline, Zambia Copper Sector, and Africa Capacity Building. Praful Patel, a Ugandan national, assumed his current position in July 2003. He oversees the Bank’s Operations in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. He joined the bank in January 1974 as part of the Young Professionals Program. Upon graduation from this program, he was appointed urban and regional planner in the Transport and Urban Projects Department, where he was promoted to deputy division chief in December 1979. In October 1984, he was promoted to the position of program coordinator in the Office of the Regional Vice President, Europe, Middle East, & North Africa

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium (MENA). In 1987, he was appointed division chief of the Infrastructure Operations Division in CD2 of the Asia Region. In February 1991, he was appointed country operations division chief in the Southern Africa Department. In May 1996, he became director of Finance, Private Sector and Infrastructure, Africa Region. From this position, he was promoted to his current position as regional vice president, South Asia. Prior to joining the bank, Mr. Patel worked in Kenya in private practice and for the Housing Research and Development Unit at the University of Nairobi, and as Instructor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mr. Patel’s academic qualifications include a bachelor’s degree in architecture (1st Class Honors) University of Nairobi, with a final-year program at Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen (1971); M.A.A.S. (thesis on urban settlement design in developing countries) from MIT (1973), and General Manager Program at Harvard Business School (1996). SWATI PIRAMAL Dr. Swati A. Piramal is director, Strategic Alliances & Communications of Nicholas Piramal India Limited. Her current responsibilities include R&D, information technology, medical services, and knowledge management for the Healthcare Group of Piramal Enterprises. A medical doctor (M.B.B.S.) from the University of Bombay, Dr. Piramal graduated with a master’s degree from Harvard School of Public Health, where she had the unique honor of being selected commencement speaker at the 1992 graduation ceremony. Dr. Piramal’s special research interests include herbal, clinical discovery, and nutrition research in pharmaceuticals, and the use of management techniques such as information technology and communication to improve access and lower health care costs to meet the needs of the underprivileged children. Her specific research interests focus on malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS and diabetes. Under her leadership, Nicholas Piramal has made significant progress in discovery research and patenting of new chemical entities, chemical process development for new drug delivery systems, clinical research for planning clinical trials, for new drug protocols and pharmacokinetics labs, herbal research for DNA fingerprinting and standardization of Ayurveda, the setting up of a business R&D program in the company, and contract research and technology partnerships with some of the leading companies in the world. Dr. Piramal was part of the management team at Nicholas Piramal that acquired the Hoechst Marion Roussel Research Centre in Bombay and set up the new Quest Institute of LifeSciences and the Wellspring Clinical Facility in Mumbai. Heading the task force for rapid implementation of information and technology research strategy at Nicholas Piramal, Dr. Piramal succeeded in ensuring

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium that all manufacturing sites were ready on Y2K and were enterprise resource planning–enabled. Under her leadership, a vast wide area network using VSAT technology was put in place. She has also developed 12 cybercafes in the country for training and knowledge management of medical field representatives and doctors, started the data-warehousing solutions to manage large data bytes of information in the health care industry, and started a new project to implement Web-enabled e-business solutions. Recognizing her specialization, the Indian government has appointed Dr. Piramal as a member of a special committee set up to transform India into a knowledge power. She has coauthored a book on nutrition and health along with Mrs. Tarla Dalal, entitled Eat Your Way to Good Health. She is also coauthor of another book entitled Diet & Nutrition Guide for Patients with Renal Disease & Related Disorders, with Dr. V. N. Acharya. She has published articles in many leading publications. RONEN SEN Mr. Ronen Sen assumed charge as ambassador of India to the United States in August 2004. He began his career in the Indian Foreign Service in July 1966. From May 1968 to July 1984, he served in Indian Missions, with posts in Moscow, San Francisco, and Dhaka and in the Ministry of External Affairs, and has also been secretary to the Atomic Energy Commission of India. From July 1984 to December 1985, Mr. Sen was joint secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs. He was thereafter joint secretary to the prime minister of India from January 1986 to July 1991, responsible for foreign affairs, defense and science & technology. Mr. Sen was ambassador to Mexico from September 1991 to August 1992, ambassador to the Russian Federation from October 1992 to October 1998, ambassador to Germany from October 1998 to May 2002, and high commissioner to the United Kingdom from May 2002 to April 2004. Mr. Sen participated in summit meetings in the United Nations, Commonwealth, Non-Aligned Movement, Six-Nation Five-Continent Peace Initiative, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, International Atomic Energy Agency, G-15, and other forums and also in over 160 bilateral summit meetings. He has had several assignments as special envoy of the prime minister of India for meetings with heads of state or governments of neighboring and other countries. RAM SHRIRAM Ram Shriram started Sherpalo in January 2000 with the goal of applying his wealth of operating and company-building experience to promising early-stage

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium ventures. As a technology industry insider for over 25 years, he has worked in companies large and small across all functional areas and through fluctuating business cycles. He is always eager to roll up his sleeves and work closely with founding teams on the challenging issues that confront and sometimes confound early-stage ventures. Mr. Shriram’s knowledge of and advice on issues ranging from raising venture capital, key management hiring, making the right product choices, and defining and adapting the business model to changing market conditions has been used to secure early customer wins, build momentum from a standing start, and generate international growth. A hallmark of his success is the ability to create the right “DNA” for a young growth company with a focus on revenue and profitability, by establishing a virtuous cycle of talented employees/owners and happy customers/users. He enjoys the process of turning founders’ dreams into successful businesses and takes a long-term view that serves as a guidepost for decision making. Mr. Shriram is thoughtful, cerebral, easy to communicate with, deeply committed to the tasks he undertakes, and has a keen intuitive sense for what works in the marketplace. Mr. Shriram has partnered with the venture capital industry and its many famous and successful members all across Silicon Valley. Because of his domain and market expertise, he brings a unique value to the building of companies with successful outcomes that fits well with the value offered by venture capital firms. Immediately prior to founding Sherpalo, Mr. Shriram served as an officer of Amazon.com, working for Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO. He came to Amazon.com in August 1998 when Amazon acquired Junglee, an online comparison shopping firm of which Mr. Shriram was president. While at Amazon, he helped grow the customer base during its early high-growth phase in 1998–1999. Before Junglee and Amazon, Ram was a member of the Netscape executive team, joining them in 1994, before they shipped products or posted revenue. He drove the many partnerships and channels that Netscape employed to get massive distribution for its browser and server products during those now legendary early days of the Internet. Mr. Shriram is a founding board member of Google Inc. and 247customer.com. He also serves on the boards of Plaxo, Zazzle.com, PodShow, and Business Signatures. Ram serves on the advisory board of Naukri.com, a classifieds site in India that has leading marketplaces in jobs, matrimony, and real estate serving the Indian market. KAPIL SIBAL Kapil Sibal is India’s minister of science, technology, and ocean development. Born in Jalandhar, Punjab, on August 8, 1948, he obtained his M.A. in history from St. Stephen’s College, University of Delhi, Delhi, and L.L.M. from

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium Harvard Law School. He joined the American Bar Association in 1972 and was designated as a senior advocate in 1983. Prior to assuming his ministerial post in January 2006, Mr. Sibal was elected to the Indian Upper House of Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, in July 1998. In 2004, he was elected to the Lower House of the Indian Parliament, the Lok Sabha, from the historic 500-year-old Chandni Chowk constituency of Delhi. Mr. Sibal is the leading lawyer in the Supreme Court of India and a recognized authority on constitutional law, having been involved in almost all the court’s landmark cases over the past 20 years. He was elected president of the Supreme Court Bar Association in 1995 and again in 1997. He has also worked for the Human Rights Commission as a member of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detentions. Reflecting this range of experience, Mr. Sibal has contributed articles on important national and international issues such as security, nuclear proliferation, and terrorism in national dailies and periodicals. T. S. R. SUBRAMANIAN T. S. R. Subramanian retired from public service in India after a distinguished career spanning 37 years. He has held the highest civil service position viz the cabinet secretary to the government of India, as well as the position of chief secretary in Uttar Pradesh, the largest state of India. His other civil service posts in the government of India include secretary in the Ministry of Textiles and joint secretary to the Ministry of Commerce. He has been the agriculture production commissioner as well as the director of industries in the state government of Uttar Pradesh. He has dealt with policy formulation and program implementation at the highest national level in India. He has been closely connected with the economic and social sectors, rural and agriculture sectors, and industry and commerce development at the federal and state levels. Significant attempts at administrative reforms were initiated by him during his tenure as cabinet secretary, including the first draft of the Right to Information Act, steps for bringing in transparency in government activities, a Citizens Charter for all public service organizations, reforms in the telecom sector, and a thrust toward improvement of the infrastructure. For over 5 years, Mr. Subramanian worked with the International Trade Centre, a specialized trade promotion organization of the United Nations, promoted jointly by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and World Trade Organization, as a senior adviser. Since retirement in 1998, Mr. Subramanian has regularly contributed in the media and delivers lectures on diverse topics in many fora, including universities and other institutions. He has also authored a bestselling book Journeys Through Babudom and Netaland—Governance in India, a critique of governance in India; the Hindi version of the book has also been recently published. He is closely

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium involved in the management of some large companies in India as director, and is also associated with some voluntary agencies. Mr. Subramanian obtained his master’s degree from Calcutta University, has studied at Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, and has a master’s degree in public administration from Harvard University. THOMAS WEBER Dr. Thomas A. Weber has served at the National Science Foundation (NSF) for nearly two decades, and in February 2006 was named director of the Office of International Science and Engineering. Prior to this, Dr. Weber served for more than 10 years as the director of NSF’s Materials Research Division and for 2 years as the executive officer for the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences. In 1993, Dr. Weber was detailed to the White House and worked in the Executive Office of the President; he received the Meritorious Executive Presidential Rank Award in 1994. Dr. Weber originally came to NSF from AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he served for 17 years as a member of the technical staff. Dr. Weber has also directed the NSF’s Divisions on Advanced Scientific Computing (1988–1992) and on Information Systems (1992, 1994). Born in Tiffin, Ohio, on June 8, 1944, Dr. Weber received his B.S. in chemistry from the University of Notre Dame in 1966. He graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a Ph.D. in chemical physics from Johns Hopkins University in 1970. Dr. Weber is an American Chemical Society fellow whose research interests include computational chemistry and materials, using computer simulation to study air pollution, polymers, glasses, liquids, metals, and semiconductor materials. CHARLES W. WESSNER Dr. Charles W. Wessner is a policy adviser recognized nationally and internationally for his expertise on innovation policy, including public–private partnerships, entrepreneurship, early-stage financing for new firms, and the special needs and benefits of high-technology industry. He testifies to the U.S. Congress and major national commissions, advises agencies of the U.S. government and international organizations, and lectures at major universities in the United States and abroad. Reflecting the strong global interest in innovation, he is frequently asked to address issues of shared policy interest with foreign governments, universities, and research institutes, often briefing government ministers and senior officials. Dr. Wessner’s work addresses the linkages between science-based economic growth, entrepreneurship, new technology development, university–industry clusters, regional development, small-firm finance, and public–private partnerships. His program at the National Academies also addresses policy issues associated with

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India's Changing Innovation System: Achievements, Challenges, and Opportunities for Cooperation: Report of a Symposium international technology cooperation, investment, and trade in high-technology industries. Currently, he directs a series of studies centered on government measures to encourage entrepreneurship and to support the development of new technologies. Foremost among these is a congressionally mandated study of the Small Business Innovation Research Program, reviewing the operation and achievements of this $2 billion award program for small companies and start-ups. A major review of the technology drivers of the New Economy and its sustained productivity growth is nearing completion. He is also directing a major new study on best practice in global innovation programs, entitled Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century.