energy sources. Developing such an understanding would have great value in helping the United States make better-informed choices about energy sources, but that was beyond this committee’s charge. Nonetheless, the analyses in this report have value until such time as a more comprehensive understanding is developed.

Ecological Impacts

Wind turbines cause fatalities of birds and bats through collision, most likely with the turbine blades. Species differ in their vulnerability to collision, in the likelihood that fatalities will have large-scale cumulative impacts on biotic communities, and in the extent to which their fatalities are discovered. Probabilities of fatality are a function of both abundance and behavioral characteristics of species. Among bird species, nocturnal, migrating passerines3 are the most common fatalities at wind-energy facilities, probably due to their abundance, although numerous raptor fatalities have been reported, and raptors may be most vulnerable, particularly in the western United States. Among bats, migratory tree-roosting species appear to be the most susceptible. However, the number of fatalities must be considered in relation to the characteristics of the species. For example, fatalities probably have greater detrimental effects on bat and raptor populations than on most bird populations because of the characteristically long life spans and low reproductive rates of bats and raptors and because of the relatively low abundance of raptors.

The type of turbines may influence bird and bat fatalities. Newer, larger turbines appear to cause fewer raptor fatalities than smaller turbines common at the older wind-energy facilities in California, although this observation needs further comparative study to better account for such factors as site-specific differences in raptor abundance and behavior. However, the data are inadequate to assess relative risk to passerines and other small birds. It is possible that as turbines become larger and reach higher, the risk to the more abundant bats and nocturnally migrating passerines at these altitudes will increase. Determining the effect of turbine size on avian risk will require more data from direct comparison of fatalities from a range of turbine types.

The location of turbines within a region or landscape influences fatalities. Turbines placed on ridges, as many are in the MAH, appear to have a higher probability of causing bat fatalities than those at many other sites.

The overall importance of turbine-related deaths for bird populations is unclear. Collisions with wind turbines represent one element of the cumu-


Passerines are small to medium mainly perching songbirds; about half of all U.S. birds are passerines.

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