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Appendix
Biographical Sketches of Contributors

Lise Bathum is a specialist in clinical biochemistry and chief physician in the Department of Clinical Biochemistry at Slagelse Hospital in Region Zealand, Denmark. Previously she was associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Southern Denmark and also biobank director of the Danish Twin Registry (2002-2006). She has conducted numerous studies in the field of pharmacogenetics. Her main research fields are twin studies and genetic research on aging-related phenotypes in order to estimate the impact of genes on aging. She has an M.D. and a Ph.D., both from the University of Southern Denmark.


Daniel J. Benjamin is assistant professor in the Department of Economics at Cornell University. His research focuses on psychological economics, incorporating ideas and methods from psychology into economic analysis. Currently his work includes an empirical analysis of the importance of politicians’ charisma (as measured by laboratory subjects) in determining election outcomes and a theoretical analysis of how individuals’ concern for fairness affects the efficiency of economic exchange. Ongoing work addresses how economic preferences are influenced by psychological/biological factors, such as cognitive ability, social identity (ethnicity, race, and gender), and specific genes. He has an M.Sc. in mathematical economics from the London School of Economics and Political Science and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.



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Appendix Biographical Sketches of Contributors Lise Bathum is a specialist in clinical biochemistry and chief physician in the Department of Clinical Biochemistry at Slagelse Hospital in Region Zealand, Denmark. Previously she was associate professor of epidemiol- ogy at the University of Southern Denmark and also biobank director of the Danish Twin Registry (2002-2006). She has conducted numerous studies in the field of pharmacogenetics. Her main research fields are twin studies and genetic research on aging-related phenotypes in order to estimate the impact of genes on aging. She has an M.D. and a Ph.D., both from the University of Southern Denmark. Daniel j. Benjamin is assistant professor in the Department of Economics at Cornell University. His research focuses on psychological economics, incorporating ideas and methods from psychology into economic analy- sis. Currently his work includes an empirical analysis of the importance of politicians’ charisma (as measured by laboratory subjects) in deter- mining election outcomes and a theoretical analysis of how individuals’ concern for fairness affects the efficiency of economic exchange. Ongoing work addresses how economic preferences are influenced by psychologi- cal/biological factors, such as cognitive ability, social identity (ethnicity, race, and gender), and specific genes. He has an M.Sc. in mathematical economics from the London School of Economics and Political Science and a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. 0

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0 BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS gary g. Berntson is professor of psychology, psychiatry, and pediatrics at Ohio State University. He is coeditor of the Social Neuroscience Book Series, the Handbook of Psychophysiology, and the Handbook of Neurosci� ence for the Behavioral Sciences. He is an officer and board member of the Society for Psychophysiological Research and a fellow of the American Psychological Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the International Organization for Psychophysiology. His research interests include functional organization of brain mechanisms underlying behavioral and affective processes, multiple levels of organi- zation and analysis in neurobehavioral systems, bottom-up and top-down processes in autonomic regulation, and the social neuroscience of health and disease. He has a Ph.D. in psychobiology and life sciences from the University of Minnesota and spent two years as a postdoctoral researcher at Rockefeller University. john T. Cacioppo is the Tiffany and Margaret Blake distinguished service professor at the University of Chicago and director of the University of the Chicago Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience. He is also pres- ident of the Association for Psychological Science. His current research is in the area of social neuroscience, with an emphasis on the effects of social isolation and the mechanisms underlying effective versus ineffec- tive social connection. Among his many awards, he received the Distin- guished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, the Campbell Award from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Troland Award from the National Academy of Sciences. He is the former editor of Psychophysiology and a former associ- ate editor of Psychological Review, Perspectives on Psychological Science, and Psychophysiology. He has a Ph.D. from Ohio State University. Christopher F. Chabris is assistant professor in the Department of Psy- chology at Union College. Previously he was lecturer and research associ- ate in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University. His research interests include individual differences in human cognition and their rela- tionship to brain function and structure, molecular genetics of cognition and decision making, and behavioral economics and cognitive biases. His work has been published in such journals as Nature, Psychological Science, and Neuropsychologia, and has been covered by news media worldwide. He has a Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University. Ming-Cheng Chang is chair and professor in the Institute of Healthcare Administration at Asia University and a scientific adviser to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Ministry of Health, in Taiwan. His past academic working experiences include senior associate, School of Hygiene and

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0 APPENDIX Public Health, Johns Hopkins University; research fellow, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taiwan; and director, Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning. He has a Ph.D. in demography from the University of Pennsylvania. kaare Christensen is professor of epidemiology in the Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark and senior research scien- tist at the Terry Sanford Institute at Duke University. He is also director of the Danish Twin Registry and deputy director of the international research program the Oldest-Old Mortality. He has served on numerous working groups and advisory panels of the National Research Council and the National Institute on Aging. He has conducted a long series of studies among twins and the elderly in order to shed light on the con- tribution of genes and environment in aging and longevity. He has a long-standing interest in the relation between early life events and later life health outcomes and is engaged in interdisciplinary aging research combining methods from epidemiology, genetics, and demography. He has M.D., Ph.D., and D.MSc. degrees from the University of Southern Denmark. Lene Christiansen is associate professor at epidemiology in the Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark and director of the biobank in the Faculty of Health Sciences and the Danish Twin Reg- istry. She also heads the associated genetic laboratory. Her main focus of research is in the study of the genetics of aging and longevity. She has an M.Sc. and a Ph.D. from the University of Southern Denmark. Shah Ebrahim is an epidemiologist with a clinical background in geriatric medicine at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. His research spans interests in the use of genetic polymorphisms to test the effects of environmental exposures (termed Mendelian randomization), the causes of heart disease and stroke in women, the effects of migra- tion on obesity and diabetes in India, and the determinants of locomotor disability in old age. He is coordinating editor of the Cochrane Heart Group and coeditor of the International Journal of Epidemiology. He has an M.Sc. and a D.M., both from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Douglas C. Ewbank is research professor at the Population Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania. His current research involves the application of demographic methods to the study of differences in mortality by genotype. Previously he worked on African demography, American historical demography, and Alzheimer disease. He has served

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0 BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS many professional organizations, including on the board of directors of the Population Association of America, the Steering Committee for the Health and Retirement Committee, and the National Institutes of Health Study Section SNEM-3. He has M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Princeton University. Elizabeth Frankenberg is associate professor in the Department of Public Policy Studies at Duke University. Her research interests include health and mortality, family decision making, developing economies, and South- east Asia. She has authored and coauthored many publications and arti- cles on such topics as health care, health and mortality, labor economics, and fertility and reproduction. She has an M.P.A from Princeton Univer- sity, and a Ph.D. in demography and sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. Edward L. glaeser is the Fred and Eleanor Glimp professor of econom- ics on the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1992. He is also director of the Taubman Center for State and Local Government and director of the Rappaport Institute of Greater Boston. He teaches urban and social economics and microeconomic the- ory. He has published papers on cities, economic growth, and law and economics. In particular, his work has focused on the determinants of city growth and the role of cities as centers of idea transmission. He edits the Quarterly Journal of Economics. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago (1992). Dana A. glei is a research demographer at the University of California, Berkeley, where she currently serves as project coordinator for the Human Mortality Database project. She also works as a research consultant on the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study in Taiwan. Over the past 13 years, she has published articles on a variety of topics related to health, marriage and the family, and poverty. She has a Ph.D. in sociology from Princeton University. Noreen goldman is the Hughes-Rogers professor of demography and public affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School and acting director of the Office of Population of Research at Princeton University. She conducts research in areas of demography and epidemiology, and her current research examines the role of social and economic factors on adult health and the physiological pathways through which these factors operate. She has designed several large-scale health surveys in Latin America and Taiwan. She has served as a member of the board of the Guttmacher

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0 APPENDIX Institute, a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Global Health, the National Research Council’s Committee on National Statistics, and the Population Research Subcommittee of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. She has also served in various capacities at the Population Association of America and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. She has a D.Sc. from Harvard University. Harald H.H. göring is an associate scientist in the Department of Genet- ics at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio, Texas. He has a Ph.D. from Columbia University, where he worked on statistical methods for gene mapping. He continued his training as a postdoctoral scientist at the Southwest Foundation, where he expanded his research focus to quantitative traits. His research now focuses on the localization and characterization of genetic variation influencing human traits, with an emphasis on the development of statistical methods and study designs. To complement his methodological work, he is involved in applied gene mapping studies with collaborators worldwide, focusing on a wide variety of human characteristics, including rare Mendelian disorders, complex diseases, and quantitative traits. Tara L. gruenewald is an assistant professor in the Department of Medi- cine/Geriatrics at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her research interests focus on psychological and social factors that impact function- ing and health outcomes across the life span, including the biological pathways through which psychosocial variables influence health. She has a Ph.D. in psychology and an M.P.H. in health services, both from the University of California, Los Angeles. vilmundur gudnason is director of the Icelandic Heart Association Research Institute and an associate professor in cardiovascular genet- ics at the University of Iceland. He worked for nine years as a senior research fellow at the Centre for Genetics of Cardiovascular Disorders at the University College London School of Medicine. For the past seven years, he has worked on obtaining detailed and extensive phenotypes in large population-based samples to study genetic contributions to traits of common complex chronic diseases. The work takes advantage of the homogenous Icelandic population. He is the principal investigator for the AGES Reykjavik study, based on the 40-year-long Reykjavik study, and for the REFINE Reykjavik study of younger generations. He has a medi- cal degree from the University of Iceland and a Ph.D. in genetics from University College London.

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0 BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS jennifer R. Harris is a senior researcher in the Department of Genes of Environment, Division of Epidemiology, at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) in Oslo. She is the founder of the NIPH twin study, which merges her interests in life-span development with genetics. Cur- rently she is involved in several twin research projects of physical health, mental health, and epigenetics. She leads the European Union FP6 coordi- nation action promoting the Harmonization of Epidemiological Biobanks in Europe and also led the Norwegian participation in the GenomEUtwin project, in which she focused on studies of body mass index and was in charge of the GenomEUtwin Ethics Core. She is also a special expert at the U.S. National Institute on Aging, developing research directions inte- grating genetics/genomics with behavioral and social research. She has a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. Tamara B. Harris is chief of the Geriatric Epidemiology Section, Epidemi- ology, Demography, and Biometry Program, in the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health. Prior to this she worked at the Office of Analysis and Epidemiology at the National Center for Health Statistics. Her research interests focus on how the role of the geriatric epidemiology section integrates molecular and genetic epidemiology with interdisciplinary studies of functional outcomes, disease endpoints, and mortality in older persons. This includes identification of novel risk fac- tors and design of studies involving biomarkers, selected polymorphisms, and exploration of gene/environment interactions. The section has been particularly active in devising methods to integrate promising molecu- lar or imaging techniques in ways that begin to explore the physiology underlying epidemiological associations, including adaptation of imaging protocols to epidemiological studies. She has an M.S. in epidemiology from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.S. in human nutrition from Columbia University College of Physician’s and Surgeons, and an M.D. from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. john Hobcraft is professor of demography and social policy at the Uni- versity of York. He is also a visiting research fellow at Princeton Uni- versity. He chairs the Consortium Board and the International Working Group for the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Gen- erations and Gender Programme. He is an elected member of Academia Europaea and was an editor of Population Studies for 25 years. His research interests include intergenerational and life-course pathways to adult social exclusion; understanding human reproductive behavior; the role of gender in human behavior; population policies; and understanding genetic, evo- lutionary, mind, brain; and endocrinological pathways and their interplays

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0 APPENDIX with behavior. He has a B.Sc. in economics from the London School of Eco- nomics and Political Science. Christine M. kaefer is a scientific information analyst in the Office of Centers, Training, and Resources at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health. Previously she was a presidential management fellow at NCI, and in this capacity she worked with a variety of NCI divisions, offices, and centers, including the Nutritional Sciences Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention and the Behavioral Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sci- ences. Her interests include health communication, especially as it relates to disease prevention and health promotion through healthy lifestyles, consumers’ perceptions of health risks, health-related decision making, and behavior change. She is a registered dietitian and has an M.B.A. from Virginia Polytechnic and State University and a B.S. in nutritional sciences from Cornell University. David I. Laibson is professor of economics in the Department of Econom- ics at Harvard University. Previously he was Paul Sack associate professor of political economy there. He is on the editorial board of the Journal of the European Economics Association and is co-organizer of the Russell Sage Foundation Summer School in Behavioral Economics. He is also advisory editor for the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, as well as the Q.R. Journals of Macroeconomics. His awards and honors include the Johns Hopkins Uni- versity Ely Lectures, a National Science Foundation grant, and a National Institutes of Aging grant, and he was keynote speaker at the Austrian Economics Association annual meeting. He has an M.Sc. in econometrics and mathematical economics from the London School of Economics and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Lenore j. Launer is chief of the Neuroepidemiology Section in the Labora- tory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry at the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health. Her main research interests are the metabolic, inflammatory, vascular, and genetic factors that interact and lead to pathological brain aging and function. She is one of the princi- pal investigators on the Age Gene Environment Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study and principal investigator of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes: Memory in Diabetes trial, which is investigating the effects on the brain of standard versus intensive treatment of cardio- vascular risk factors. She also collaborates closely on the Honolulu Asia Aging Study. She has a Ph.D. in epidemiology and nutrition from Cornell University.

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0 BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS Stacy Tessler Lindau is an assistant professor of obstetrics and gyne- cology and medicine-geriatrics at the University of Chicago. Her work combines biomedical and social scientific techniques to study health and health behavior in the population setting. Her primary interest is deci- phering the biological pathways linking sexual relationships to health, particularly in the context of aging and illness. She is one of the principal investigators of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, which has collected detailed questionnaire data in respondents’ homes in con- junction with a unique panel of minimally invasive biophysiological data. She also directs the Chicago Core on Biomarkers in Population-Based Research at the Center on Economics and Biodemography of Aging. She has an M.D. from Brown University and an M.A. in public policy from University of Chicago. Michael Marmot has led a research group on health inequalities for the past 30 years. He is principal investigator of the Whitehall Studies of British civil servants, investigating explanations for the striking inverse social gradient in morbidity and mortality. He leads the English Longi- tudinal Study of Ageing and is engaged in several international research efforts on the social determinants of health. He chairs the Department of Health Scientific Reference Group on tackling health inequalities. He was a member of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution for six years. In 2000 he was knighted for services to epidemiology and understanding health inequalities. He is a vice president of the Academia Europaea, a member of the RAND Health Advisory Board, a foreign asso- ciate member of the Institute of Medicine, and chair of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health set up by the World Health Organization in 2005. He won the Balzan Prize for Epidemiology in 2004 and gave the Harveian Oration in 2006. He graduated in medicine from the University of Sydney and has an M.P.H. and a Ph.D. from the University of Califor- nia, Berkeley. gerald E. McClearn is Evan Pugh professor of health and human devel- opment and biobehavioral health in the Department of Biobehavioral Health at the Pennsylvania State University and director for developmen- tal and health genetics. His research interests focus on the application of quantitative genetic models to analysis of phenotypes relevant to health and development. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. Thomas W. McDade is the Weinberg College board of visitors research and teaching professor at Northwestern University. He is also director of the Laboratory for Human Biology Research and associate director of Cells to Society (C2S): the Center on Social Disparities and Health

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0 APPENDIX at the Institute for Policy Research. He specializes in population-based research on human physiological function and health, with an emphasis on biomarkers of immune function and inflammation. He has a Ph.D. in anthropology from Emory University. john Milner is chief of the Nutritional Science Research Group in the Divi- sion of Cancer Research at the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. His current research focuses on substances in foods and cancer prevention and the molecular mechanism by which bioactive food constituents influence cancer risk and tumor behavior. He recently received the David Kritchevsky Career Achievement Award in Nutrition from the American Society for Nutrition. This award recognizes research- ers who devote their careers to promoting interaction among and support for nutrition researchers in government, private, and academic sectors. He has a B.S. in animal sciences from Oklahoma State University and a Ph.D. in nutrition, with a minor in biochemistry and physiology, from Cornell University. Shaun Purcell is a member of the Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmen- tal Genetics Unit, part of the Center for Human Genetic Research at Massachusetts General Hospital. His work focuses on developing statisti- cal and computational tools for the design of genetic studies, the detection of gene variants influencing complex human traits, and the dissection of these effects in the larger context of other genetic and environmental factors. In particular, he currently works on whole genome association studies of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and the development of tools for whole genome studies. He is an associate member of the Broad Institute of Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and its Psychiatric Disease Initiative. He has degrees from the University of Oxford and University of London and a Ph.D. from the Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre in the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College London. Sharon Ross is a program director in the Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Insti- tute (NCI) of the National Institutes of Health. She is responsible for directing, coordinating, and managing a multidisciplinary research grant portfolio in diet, nutrition, and cancer prevention. Previously she worked at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition in the Food and Drug Administration and was a cancer prevention fellow in the Division of Can- cer Prevention and Control. Her doctoral dissertation research was carried out in the Laboratory of Cellular Carcinogenesis and Tumor Promotion at NCI, where her research topic concerned the effects of retinoids in growth,

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0 BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS differentiation, and cell adhesion. She has an M.S. in nutritional sciences from the University of Connecticut, a B.S. in nutrition and dietetics from the University of New Hampshire, a Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from the University of Maryland, College Park, and a M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, with an emphasis in epidemiology. Teresa Seeman is professor of medicine and epidemiology in the Schools of Medicine and Public Health at the University of California, Los Ange- les. Her research interests focus on the role of sociocultural factors in health and aging, with specific interest in understanding the biologi- cal pathways through which these factors influence health and aging. A major focus of her research relates to understanding how aspects of the social environment, particularly socioeconomic status and social rela- tionships, affect biology and through that overall health and aging. She has extensive experience with developing and implementing commu- nity-based collection of biomarker data and has been a leading figure in research on cumulative biological risk indices. In collaboration with Bruce McEwen and Burton Singer, she has taken a lead in empirical research on the new concept of allostatic load as a cumulative index of biological aging. She has bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees from University of California, Berkeley. george Davey Smith is professor of clinical epidemiology at the Uni- versity of Bristol, visiting professor at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and honorary professor at the University of Glasgow. He is also director of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Their Children and of the Medical Research Council’s Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology. His main research inter- ests relate to how socially patterned exposures acting over the entire life course shape health of individuals and populations and also influence long-term trends in health. He is particularly concerned with integrating genetic epidemiology into such life-course studies to strengthen the abil- ity to make causal inferences in observational studies. He has also worked on sexually transmitted disease/HIV infection prevention in India and Nicaragua and on methodological issues in epidemiology. He is coeditor with Shah Ebrahim of the International Journal of Epidemiology. He has an M.Sc. in epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Andrew Steptoe is British Heart Foundation professor of psychology in the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at University College London. Previously he was professor of psychology at George’s Hospi- tal Medical School in the University of London (1988-2000). He is past

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 APPENDIX president of the International Society of Behavioral Medicine and of the Society for Psychosomatic Research. He was founding editor of the British Journal of Health Psychology and an associate editor of Psychophysiology, the Annals of Behavioral Medicine, the British Journal of Clinical Psychology, and the Journal of Psychosomatic Research. He is author or editor of numer- ous books, including Psychosocial Processes and Health and Depression and Physical Illness. His main research interests are in psychosocial aspects of physical illness, health behavior, and psychobiology. He graduated from Cambridge in 1972 and completed his doctorate at Oxford University in 1975. Ronald A. Thisted is professor in the Departments of Health Studies, Statistics, and Anesthesia and Critical Care at the University of Chicago. He has been a faculty member in statistics at Chicago since 1976, and since 1999 he has also chaired the Department of Health Studies, the home of biostatistics, epidemiology, and health services research at Chicago. His research involves statistical computation, the design and analysis of clini- cal trials and epidemiologic studies, and development of new computa- tional and statistical methods. He is a past editor of the Current Index to Statistics and was associate editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University. Duncan Thomas is professor of economics at Duke University. His research centers on the dynamics underlying individual, household, and family behavior, particularly in low-income populations. This work explores how resources are allocated in families and the responses of individuals and their families to unanticipated shocks. His research on the association between health and socioeconomic status includes design- ing and fielding a randomized treatment-control nutrition intervention in Indonesia, the Work and Iron Status Evaluation, to measure the impact of health on economic prosperity. He has a Ph.D. in economics from Princ- eton University. Elaine B. Trujillo is a nutritionist in the Nutritional Science Research Group of Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. She is responsible for promoting the translation of information about bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer. Previously she was a senior clinical and research dietitian in the Metabolic Support Service of Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Har- vard Medical School. She received the 2007 Huddleson Award by the American Dietetic Association Foundation for her article, “Nutrigenom-

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 BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS ics, Proteomics, Metabolomics, and the Practice of Dietetics.” She has a B.S. in nutritional science from the University of Delaware and an M.S. in nutritional science from Texas Woman’s University, where she also completed a dietetic internship. james W. vaupel is the founding director of the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany, and director of Duke University’s Population Research Institute. He oversees multinational re- search initiatives in Germany, Denmark, the United States, Italy, Russia, Mexico, Japan, and China. He has coauthored or coedited seven books and has written numerous research articles published in refereed journals. He is best known for his research on mortality, morbidity, population aging, and biodemography, as well as for research on population hetero- geneity, population surfaces, and other aspects of mathematical and sta- tistical demography. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the National Research Council’s Committee on Population. He has bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees from Harvard University. george P. vogler is director of the Center for Developmental and Health Genetics at Pennsylvania State University and professor of biobehavioral health. His research interests include genetic epidemiology of complex traits, quantitative trait loci mapping, cardiovascular disease, method- ological issues in genetic models and structural equation models, and behavioral moderation of expression of biological traits. His applied inter- ests span human development, with interests in childhood development of cognitive abilities, substance use and abuse in adolescence, cardiovas- cular risk factors in adulthood, and maintenance of functional abilities in aging. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Colorado, Boulder. kenneth W. Wachter is chair of the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley. Previously he taught at Harvard Uni- versity and has published numerous articles and books on mathematical demography, statistical analysis, historical demography, nutrition, aging, and kinship models. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and received the Mindel Sheps award in 1988 from the Popula- tion Association of America. He serves on the board of directors of the Social Science Research Council and has served on the special advisory panel on 1990 census adjustment for the U.S. Department of Commerce and on the National Science Foundation Panel on Measurement Methods and Data Resources. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the current chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Population. He has a master’s degree in applied mathematics from Oxford University and a Ph.D. in statistics from Cambridge University.

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413 APPENDIX Robert B. Wallace is Irene Ensminger Stecher professor of epidemiology and internal medicine at the University of Iowa Colleges of Public Health and Medicine and director of the university’s Center on Aging. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, past chair of its Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, and current chair of its Board on Military and Veterans Health. He is the author or coauthor of numerous publications and book chapters and has been the editor of four books, including the current edition of Maxcy-Rosenau-Last’s Public Health and Preventive Medicine. His research interests are in clinical and population epidemiology and focus on the causes and prevention of disabling condi- tions of older persons. He has had substantial experience in the conduct of both observational cohort studies of older persons and clinical trials, including preventive interventions related to fracture, cancer, coronary disease, and women’s health. He is the site principal investigator for the Women’s Health Initiative and a co-principal investigator of the Health and Retirement Study. He has been a collaborator in several international studies of the causes and prevention of chronic illness in older persons. He has B.S.M. and M.D. degrees from Northwestern University and an M.Sc. in epidemiology from the State University of New York at Buffalo. Maxine Weinstein is distinguished professor of population and health in the Center for Population and Health of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Georgetown University, where she has been since 1987. She is also principal investigator, along with Noreen Goldman, of the Taiwan project, a study that explores the reciprocal relations among stress, health, and the social environment among the elderly. Her work explores the behavioral and biological dimensions of reproduction and aging. She is also heading up the MIDUS II biology substudy at Georgetown. She has M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Princeton University. David Weir is research affiliate in Population Studies Center of the Uni- versity of Michigan and research professor in the Survey Research Center. Previously he was research associate in the Harris School of Public Policy at the University of Chicago. His current research interests include the measurement of health-related quality of life; the use of cost-effectiveness measures in health policy and medical decision making; the role of sup- plemental health insurance in the Medicare population; the effects of health, gender, and marital status on economic well-being in retirement; and, the effects of early life experience on longevity and health at older ages. He has a Ph.D. from Stanford University.

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 BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS kenneth M. Weiss is Evan Pugh professor of anthropology and genetics and professor of biology in the Department of Anthropology at Pennsyl- vania State University. His research interests focus on genetic epidemiol- ogy and the genetic basis, nature, and evolution of complex biological traits. These areas also raise issues about the nature of knowledge when effects are rather weak and causation probabilistic and must largely be approached through observational rather than experimental studies. His research has concerned the amount and origin of human genetic variation and the genetic basis of complex patterning during development of such structures as the skull and dentition. He has a B.A. from Oberlin College and a Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. Mary jane West-Eberhard is a senior scientist at the Smithsonian Tropi- cal Research Institute, resident in Costa Rica. She studied zoology at the University of Michigan, was a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard Univer- sity, and has lived and worked since 1969 in Latin America (Colombia and Costa Rica). Her research interests include fieldwork on the social behavior of tropical wasps, the evolution of social behavior, kin selection theory, sexual and social selection, speciation, and developmental plastic- ity and evolution. She is a past president of the Society for the Study of Evolution and a member of Phi Beta Kappa, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences of Costa Rica, and the Accademia Nationale dei Lincei of Rome. She has B.A., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees, all from the Uni- versity of Michigan.