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BIOSOCIAL SURVEYS

Committee on Advances in Collecting and Utilizing Biological Indicators and Genetic Information in Social Science Surveys

Maxine Weinstein, James W. Vaupel, and Kenneth W. Wachter, Editors

Committee on Population

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Biosocial surveys Committee on Advances in Collecting and Utilizing Biological Indicators and Genetic Information in Social Science Surveys Maxine Weinstein, James W. Vaupel, and Kenneth W. Wachter, Editors Committee on Population Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. N01-4-OD-2139 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health and National Institute on Aging. Any opinions, findings, conclusion, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10867-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10867-5 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10868-3 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10868-3 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number: 2007939988 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2008). Biosocial Surveys. Committee on Advances in Collecting and Utilizing Biological Indicators and Genetic Infor- mation in Social Science Surveys. M. Weinstein, J.W. Vaupel, and K.W. Wachter, Eds. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstand- ing engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal govern- ment. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing ser- vices to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communi- ties. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON ADvANCES IN COLLECTINg AND UTILIzINg BIOLOgICAL INDICATORS AND gENETIC INFORMATION IN SOCIAL SCIENCE SURvEyS JAMES W. VAUPEL (Chair), Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany KAARE CHRISTENSEN, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark SUSAN HANKINSON, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health TERESA E. SEEMAN, Division of Geriatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles KENNETH W. WACHTER, Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley KENNETH M. WEISS, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University National Research Council Staff BARNEY COHEN, Director, Committee on Population ANTHONY S. MANN, Program Associate Consultant to the Committee MAXINE WEINSTEIN, Center for Population and Health, Georgetown University v

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COMMITTEE ON POPULATION 2006-2007 KENNETH W. WACHTER (Chair), Department of Demography, University of California, Berkeley ANNE C. CASE, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University EILEEN M. CRIMMINS, Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California BARBARA ENTWISLE, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina JOSHUA R. GOLDSTEIN, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University BARTHéLéMY KUATE-DEFO, Department of Demography, University of Montreal CYNTHIA B. LLOYD, Policy Research Division, Population Council, New York THOMAS W. MERRICK, Center for Global Health, George Washington University RUBéN G. RUMBAUT, Department of Sociology and Center for Research on Immigration, Population, and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine ROBERT J. WILLIS, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan BARNEY COHEN, Director MONIQUE WILLIAMS, Program Officer ANTHONY S. MANN, Program Associate vi

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Acknowledgments T he Committee on Population was established in 1983 by the National Research Council (NRC), under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, to bring population sciences to bear on issues affecting public policy. A dozen years ago, with sponsorship from the U.S. National Institute on Aging (NIA), the Committee embarked on a series of projects relating to the emerging field of biodemography. In 1997, the Committee on Population published Between Zeus and the Salmon: The Biodemography of Longevity, edited by K.W. Wachter and C.E. Finch. This pioneering volume brought together demographers, evolutionary theo- rists, genetic epidemiologists, anthropologists, and biologists, describing implications of their disciplines for understanding and foreseeing the trajectory of human longevity. With support from the U.S. National Insti- tute on Child Health and Human Development, the Committee went on to explore biodemographic aspects of fertility and family formation in the 2003 volume Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspec� tive, edited by K.W. Wachter and R.A. Bulatao. The call in the 1997 volume for more interdisciplinary work con- tributed to demand for collecting biological data in the context of large, population-based social and demographic surveys. Advances in biode- mography would require data with better linkages between social and biological domains. Techniques under development made the collection of biological measurements and samples in nonclinical settings more fea- sible. With renewed support from the NIA, the Committee on Population held workshops that led in 2001 to the volume, Cells and Surveys: Should vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Biological Measures Be Included in Social Science Research?, edited by C.E. Finch, J.W. Vaupel, and K. Kinsella. The volume is a sequel to Cells and Surveys. It takes stock of the rapid advances made in the field since 2001. The volume is based on a work- shop that was held at the National Research Council’s Keck Center in Washington, D.C., in June 2006. In the forefront is the question, what has been learned so far from the inclusion of biological indicators in social surveys? What changes in perspective are emerging from the interdisci- plinary communication associated with the enterprise? What biological and genetic data promise to be most useful? How can better models integrate biological information with social, behavioral, and demographic information? The chapters of this volume were enriched by free-flowing discussion and debate at the workshop. In response to suggestions, several addi- tional chapters were added after the workshop. We owe a debt of grati- tude to the individuals who gave of their time to evaluate and strengthen the contributions, providing authors with candid comments to assist them with revisions. The independent review also seeks to ensure that the vol- ume meets the institutional standards of the National Research Council for objectivity, balance, faithfulness to evidence, and responsiveness to the original charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review: Dan G. Blazer, Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center; Floyd E. Bloom, Department of Molecular and Integrative Neuroscience (emeritus), The Scripps Research Institute; James R. Carey, Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis; Kaare Christensen, Insti- tute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark; Christopher L. Coe, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin; Caleb E. Finch, Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California; Vicki A. Freedman, Department of Health Systems and Policy, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Public Health; Guang Guo, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina; Judith R. Kidd, Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine; Chris Kuzawa, Department of Anthropology, Laboratory for Human Biology Research, Northwestern University; Margie E. Lachman, Psychology Department, Brandeis University; Partha P. Majumder, Human Genet- ics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India; Carlos F. Mendes de Leon, Rush Institute for Healthy Aging and the Department of Preven- tive Medicine, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center, Chicago; Robert Millikan, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina; Kathleen A. O’Connor, Department of Anthropology and Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology, University of Washington, Seattle;

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ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Jose M. Ordovas, Nutrition and Genomics Laboratory, Tufts University; Alberto Palloni, Department of Sociology, Northwestern University; Germán Rodríguez, Office of Population Research, Princeton University; Luis Rosero-Bixby, Centro Americano de Población, University of Costa Rica; Michael L. Rutter, Institute of Psychiatry, Social, Genetic and Devel- opment, Psychiatry Centre, London; Carol D. Ryff, Institute on Aging, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin; Nicolas J. Schork, Research and Scripps Genomic Medicine and Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute; Christopher L. Seplaki, Center on Aging and Health and Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Mikhail S. Shchepinov, Office of the President, Ret- rotope, Inc., Oxford, U.K.; Jean Chen Shih, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Science Center, University of Southern California; Burton H. Singer, Office of Population Research, Princeton University; MaryFran Sowers, Department of Epidemiology, Center for Integrated Approaches to Complex Diseases, University of Michigan; Duncan Thomas, Department of Economics, Duke University; Kenneth W. Wachter, Department of Demography, University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley; and Keith E. Whitfield, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University. The Committee on Population expresses its warm appreciation to Jim Vaupel, who chaired the planning meetings and workshop and took charge as editor of the volume. Special thanks are also due to the mem- bers of the Steering Committee who advised and assisted the chair: Kaare Christensen, Susan Hankinson, Teresa Seeman, Kenneth Wachter, and Kenneth Weiss. Their intellectual contributions can be found throughout this volume. Jennifer Harris at the NIA also provided valuable input and guidance. Committee on Population member Eileen Crimmins, of the Davis School of Gerontology, oversaw the review process. Particular thanks go to Maxine Weinstein who served as consultant on the project and took responsibility for the broad range of practical and intellectual tasks that have gone into shaping it and bringing it to completion. From identifying and recruiting participants to putting the final touches on the work, her efforts have been indispensable. Funding from the NIA has made this volume possible. Richard Suzman, director of the NIA for Behavioral and Social Research, has long been a lively supporter of NRC endeavors, relying on the NRC to assemble appropriate scholars and craft reliable, influential reports. His vision has been crucial in launching and developing the field of biode- mography. John Haaga, Georgeanne Patmios, and Erica Spotts at the NIA have encouraged and guided us in our biodemographic emphases. Thanks are also due to the staff of the NRC. Anthony Mann coordi-

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS nated the logistics and travel arrangements for the meetings and prepared the final manuscript. Christine McShane edited the manuscript. Kirsten Sampson-Snyder coordinated the review of the volume. Development and execution of the project occurred under the guidance of the director of the Committee on Population, Barney Cohen. Kenneth W. Wachter Barney Cohen Chair, Committee on Population Director, Committee on Population

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Contents Introduction 1 James W. Vaupel, Kenneth W. Wachter, and Maxine Weinstein PART I: WHAT WE’vE LEARNED SO FAR 1 Biological Indicators and Genetic Information in Danish Twin and Oldest-Old Surveys 15 Kaare Christensen, Lise Bathum, and Lene Christiansen 2 Whitehall II and ELSA: Integrating Epidemiological and Psychobiological Approaches to the Assessment of Biological Indicators 42 Michael Marmot and Andrew Steptoe 3 The Taiwan Biomarker Project 60 Ming�Cheng Chang, Dana A. Glei, Noreen Goldman, ng�Cheng Goldman and Maxine Weinstein 4 Elastic Powers: The Integration of Biomarkers into the Health and Retirement Study 78 David Weir xi

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xii CONTENTS 5 An Overview of Biomarker Research from Community and Population-Based Studies on Aging 96 Jennifer R. Harris, Tara L. Gruenewald, and Teresa Seeman 6 The Women’s Health Initiative: Lessons for the Population Study of Biomarkers 136 Robert B. Wallace 7 Comments on Collecting and Utilizing Biological Indicators in Social Science Surveys 149 Duncan Thomas and Elizabeth Frankenberg 8 Biomarkers in Social Science Research on Health and Aging: A Review of Theory and Practice 156 Douglas C. Ewbank PART II: THE POTENTIAL AND PITFALLS OF gENETIC INFORMATION 9 Are Genes Good Markers of Biological Traits? 175 Mary Jane West�Eberhard 10 Genetic Markers in Social Science Research: Opportunities and Pitfalls 194 George P. Vogler and Gerald E. McClearn 11 Comments on the Utility of Social Science Surveys for the Discovery and Validation of Genes Influencing Complex Traits 208 Harald H.H. Göring 12 Overview Thoughts on Genetics: Walking the Line Between Denial and Dreamland, or Genes Are Involved in Everything, But Not Everything Is “Genetic” 231 Kenneth M. Weiss PART III: NEW WAyS OF COLLECTINg, APPLyINg, AND THINkINg ABOUT DATA 13 Minimally Invasive and Innovative Methods for Biomeasure Collection in Population-Based Research 251 Stacy Tessler Lindau and Thomas W. McDade

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xiii CONTENTS 14 Nutrigenomics 278 John Milner, Elaine B. Trujillo, Christine M. Kaefer, and Sharon Ross 15 Genoeconomics 304 Daniel J. Benjamin, Christopher F. Chabris, Edward L. Glaeser, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B. Harris, David I. Laibson, Lenore J. Launer, and Shaun Purcell 16 Mendelian Randomization: Genetic Variants as Instruments for Strengthening Causal Inference in Observational Studies 336 George Davey Smith and Shah Ebrahim 17 Multilevel Investigations: Conceptual Mappings and Perspectives 367 John T. Cacioppo, Gary G. Berntson, and Ronald A. Thisted 18 Genomics and Beyond: Improving Understanding and Analysis of Human (Social, Economic, and Demographic) Behavior 381 John Hobcraft Appendix Biographical Sketches of Contributors 401

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