Session I:
Motivation

NEIL THOMPSON
CC TECHNOLOGIES

Corrosion of metallic structures has a significant impact on the U.S. economy. In a congressional study, the total economic impact of corrosion and corrosion control applications was estimated to be $276 billion annually, or 3.1 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP).1 Analyses of two key sectors show that indirect (user) costs, sometimes referred to as social costs, can exceed the direct cost by a factor of between 2 and 10.

Cost-of-corrosion studies have been undertaken by several countries; these studies show that corrosion has a major impact on the economies of industrial nations. Table 1 summarizes the costs of corrosion that have been gathered in studies undertaken in several countries since 1949.1 The total corrosion costs are shown as a percentage of gross national product (GNP) of the respective economies and vary between 1.5 and 5.2 percent. This variation clearly depends on the particular country and economy being examined but also on the method used to conduct the study.

TABLE 1 Corrosion Cost in Selected Nations

Country

Total Annual Cost of Corrosion

Percent of GNP

Year

United States

$5.5 billion

2.1

1949

India

$320 million

1960

Finland

$54 million

1965

West Germany

$6 billion

3.0

1967

United Kingdom

£1.365 billiona

3.5

1970

Japan

$9.2 billion

1.8

1974

United States

$70 billion

4.2

1975

Australia

$2 billion

1.5

1982

Kuwait

$1 billion

5.2

1987

United States

$276 billion

3.1

2002

aNot reported in U.S. dollars.

1

G.H. Koch, M.P.H. Brongers, N.G. Thompson, Y.P. Virmani, and J.H. Payer. Corrosion Cost and Preventive Strategies in the United States, Appendix A, FHWA-RD-01-156, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., March 2002.



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Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century Session I: Motivation NEIL THOMPSON CC TECHNOLOGIES Corrosion of metallic structures has a significant impact on the U.S. economy. In a congressional study, the total economic impact of corrosion and corrosion control applications was estimated to be $276 billion annually, or 3.1 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP).1 Analyses of two key sectors show that indirect (user) costs, sometimes referred to as social costs, can exceed the direct cost by a factor of between 2 and 10. Cost-of-corrosion studies have been undertaken by several countries; these studies show that corrosion has a major impact on the economies of industrial nations. Table 1 summarizes the costs of corrosion that have been gathered in studies undertaken in several countries since 1949.1 The total corrosion costs are shown as a percentage of gross national product (GNP) of the respective economies and vary between 1.5 and 5.2 percent. This variation clearly depends on the particular country and economy being examined but also on the method used to conduct the study. TABLE 1 Corrosion Cost in Selected Nations Country Total Annual Cost of Corrosion Percent of GNP Year United States $5.5 billion 2.1 1949 India $320 million – 1960 Finland $54 million – 1965 West Germany $6 billion 3.0 1967 United Kingdom £1.365 billiona 3.5 1970 Japan $9.2 billion 1.8 1974 United States $70 billion 4.2 1975 Australia $2 billion 1.5 1982 Kuwait $1 billion 5.2 1987 United States $276 billion 3.1 2002 aNot reported in U.S. dollars. 1 G.H. Koch, M.P.H. Brongers, N.G. Thompson, Y.P. Virmani, and J.H. Payer. Corrosion Cost and Preventive Strategies in the United States, Appendix A, FHWA-RD-01-156, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., March 2002.

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Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century The most recent U.S. cost study (normalized to 1998 costs) was performed by CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc., under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century in a cooperative effort with the DOT’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) International–The Corrosion Society.2 In this study, the cost of corrosion was determined for 27 specific industry sectors. Data collection, type of economic analysis, and elements included in the analysis differed significantly from sector to sector, depending on the type and availability of data for each sector. For many of the sectors, the information was public and was obtained from government reports and other public documents. Discussions with industry experts provided the basis for other industry sectors. Corrosion cost information from private industry sectors was often even more difficult to obtain. When available, records on operation, maintenance, and capitalized asset costs provided the basis for estimating the economic impact of corrosion. The industry sectors selected for corrosion cost analyses represented approximately 25 to 30 percent of the total U.S. economy. The total cost of corrosion was estimated by determining the percentage of the GDP made up by those industry sectors for which direct corrosion costs could be estimated and then extrapolating these numbers to the total U.S. GDP. The direct cost used in this analysis was the cost incurred by owners or operators of the structures, manufacturers of products, and suppliers of services. Summary of Industry Challenges Corrosion Awareness in Government and Industry The cost of corrosion is staggering. The direct costs are equivalent to 3 percent of the GDP, greater than the contribution of agriculture to the GDP. Corrosion is a process that produces waste. By preventing corrosion we are preventing waste; that is, savings that go straight to the bottom line, savings that can be used for new business development and expansion of the economy. An industry-wide effort to implement current technologies and best practices could result in savings of $80 billion annually, with even greater savings as new technologies are brought online. The Hurdle of Long-Term Investments Corrosion savings typically do not affect net income in near-term quarterly returns. Often the results of doing nothing or even of cutting current corrosion maintenance costs are not immediately seen. The government and industry must address the issue of incentives for investments in corrosion control that will significantly reduce the long-term costs of corrosion. Best-Practice Maintenance Program The best way to impact corrosion costs is through a best-practice maintenance program. Such a program must be initiated and implemented top-down, becoming a part of the culture within a company. Once implemented, the long-term costs of repairs and replacement can be brought under control, the reliability of assets will increase, and information feedback to design and purchasing will optimize the future costs of goods. In many industries employee safety, public safety, and environmental concerns 2 G.H. Koch, M.P.H. Brongers, N.G. Thompson, Y.P. Virmani, and J.H. Payer. Corrosion Cost and Preventive Strategies in the United States, Appendix A, FHWA-RD-01-156, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., March 2002.

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Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century related to corrosion are critical issues related to a specific operation or the transport of products or goods. The related costs are also increasing rapidly, resulting in an even greater focus on operational failures as a means to control these costs. New and Improved Corrosion Control Practices New corrosion control, monitoring, maintenance, and construction practices are critical to safe operation and to long-term savings in corrosion-related costs. Funding for new technology and science is often the most challenging because the payoff period is so long. This continues to be one of the greatest hurdles for the corrosion industry. Corrosion scientists and engineers must work together to meet long-term, broad-based industry needs as well as to develop technologies for specific applications. More than ever, there is a need for scientists to reach out to the engineering community to ensure that both practical, applied research and more fundamental research are being carried out. Preventive Strategies While corrosion management has improved over the past several decades, the United States is still far from implementing optimal corrosion control practices. There are significant barriers to both the development of advanced technologies for corrosion control and the implementation of those advances. Preventive strategies from the FHWA study on the cost of corrosion included these: Increase awareness of the costs of corrosion and the potential for cost savings. Correct the misconception that nothing can be done about corrosion. Change policies, regulations, standards, and management practices to lessen the costs of corrosion through sound corrosion management. Teach staff how to control corrosion. Implement advanced design practices for better corrosion management. Develop advanced methods to predict lifetimes and assess performance. Improve corrosion technology first through research and development, and then through implementation of the new technology. Incorporating the latest corrosion strategies requires changes in industry management and government policies, as well as advances in science and technology. It is necessary to engage a larger constituency that brings together the primary stakeholders, government and industry leaders, the general public, and consumers. A major challenge is the dissemination of the corrosion awareness and expertise that are currently scattered throughout government and industry organizations. In fact, there is no focal point for the effective development, articulation, and delivery of programs to save the costs associated with corrosion.

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Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century DANIEL DUNMIRE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Corrosion and its effects are recognized as a major problem throughout the military as well as in the civilian community. While we accept its existence because it is a natural phenomenon, that acceptance does not diminish the fact that corrosion is pervasive, insidious, and costly. And while it is preventable and treatable, it is also misunderstood and often ignored. We see corrosion in our bridges, vehicles, aircraft, pipelines, structures, and other systems and equipment. It often results from improper material selection, inadequate design, or poor production and assembly practices. Design and production decisions often sacrifice life-cycle cost savings for up-front savings. As a result, most of our corrosion dollars go to the detection, assessment, and treatment of corrosion on fielded systems and infrastructure or to the repair of corrosion-damaged equipment or facilities. We should instead be spending these corrosion dollars on preventing the onset or growth of corrosion by isolating corrosion mechanisms and protecting corrosion-prone materials. But this would require a cadre of corrosion-knowledgeable graduates in science and engineering to undertake the needed corrosion-related research, development, design, and production and to influence decision makers on how best to spend their corrosion dollars. When Congress read the 2003 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report estimating Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) annual cost of corrosion at between $10 and $20 billion, they enacted corrosion legislation. The legislation directed DoD to establish a corrosion prevention and mitigation program to develop strategies and take action to reduce the incidence and impact of corrosion. The strategies had to include the sharing of information and the development of a coordinated research and development (R&D) program. DoD responded to the congressional mandate by setting up an organization and policies and documented these in the DoD Corrosion Prevention and Mitigation Strategic Plan. The organization, policies, and strategies in the Strategic Plan reflect a clear requirement to address corrosion education and training needs. The Working Integrated Product Team (WIPT) for training and certification was one of seven WIPTs established to generate and implement strategies and actions to transcend the traditional approach to fighting corrosion. It recognized that education and training were paramount because decision makers, designers, engineers, and technicians at all levels do not comprehend the serious nature and effects of corrosion. Design trade-offs during system or facility development frequently do not take corrosion into account. In the operational world, because corrosion is considered an inherent element of maintenance, corrosion-related funding usually is not forthcoming. And in academia, if corrosion is taught, it is normally included in related technical or engineering curricula. It is not hard to understand why DoD supports corrosion education. Implementing a strategy to deal with corrosion depends on having educated scientists and engineers who can design systems and facilities to prevent or retard corrosion and to select appropriate materials, manufacturing processes, and assembly methods. Corrosion scientists and engineers are also needed to develop state-of-the-art inspection, detection, diagnostic, and prognostic technologies and methods; materials protection technologies; and better maintenance and repair techniques. In addition, the broad commercial/industrial community needs corrosion-knowledgeable scientists, engineers, and decision makers to reduce the impact (and cost) of corrosion on our country’s infrastructure and its industrial base. It is for these reasons that DoD is helping to fund the Materials Forum 2007 and this associated corrosion education workshop, as well as the NRC study being carried out by the Committee on Assessing Corrosion Education, which will assess corrosion education, provide information and expert support as required, publicize the initiative, and facilitate meetings with academia, industry, and government. In summary, a crucial part of DoD’s overall strategy is focused on corrosion education. DoD recognizes the need to prevent or retard corrosion during design and manufacture, mitigate corrosion effects and improve maintenance when prevention fails, and reduce the tremendous cost of corrosion in terms of dollars, readiness, and safety. DoD is convinced that higher education will play an important role in helping it achieve its objectives.

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Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century LEWIS SLOTER OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR, DEFENSE RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING DoD has a longstanding commitment to education and developing the technical workforce of the future. The future DoD force will include scientists and engineers vital to development and delivery of the military systems needed to retain technical superiority. DoD has several highly focused programs that support the development of the future technical workforce. Under the National Defense Education Program, DoD sponsors initiatives that encourage, stimulate, support, and educate the students that are vital to our future workforce. The Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation Defense Scholarship Program competitively awards scholarships and fellowships to U.S. citizens in defense-critical Science and Engineering (S&E) disciplines. Scholars are obligated to work 1 year at DoD in return for each year of scholarship support received. The National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellows creates an attractive, competitive award program for outstanding, clearable university faculty scientists and engineers that is long enough to produce solid research results. Pre-engineering curricula modules are practical middle school and high school curriculum enhancements that tie physical science and mathematics concepts to real-world applications and increase students’ interest in science and engineering, stress the value of college preparatory high school courses, and make college-bound students better prepared to succeed in science and engineering. The Materials World Modules program is an important part of this initiative. Corrosion is an especially important and interesting subject for discussion and exploration and warrants inclusion in general and higher education. Most engineers will be called upon to make design and materials selection decisions that will impact the environmental performance of products and systems. DoD recognizes that intelligent choices early in design and development can have a positive impact on environmental performance and the ultimate cost-effectiveness of systems. Choices and actions over the lifetime of a system, ranging from the scheduling of maintenance and the repair or replacement of coatings, to the application of new technology, also impact the longevity, affordability, and overall fitness-for-purpose of systems. Giving engineers and program managers the educational and experiential tools to make intelligent choices are important issues for us today. The challenge in engineering education continues and in all likelihood always will be balancing valuable didactic breadth with specialized disciplinary depth. Although there is a critical place for the specially educated corrosion scientist and engineer, the pervasiveness of corrosion suggests that general knowledge and a framework for understanding corrosion mechanisms and consequences are important for most engineers and scientists. For illustration, let us consider four aspects of corrosion prevention and mitigation that have proven useful in discussions related to defense systems: First, prevent. The prevention of corrosion requires an understanding of both materials and protective schemes and the environment of operation, especially the corrosivity of that environment. Many subtle factors are important when considering environmental interactions, including the weather; the chemistry of the environment and interfaces; and mechanical interactions at the macro scale like abrasion and the micro scale like corrosion fatigue. The probable performance of materials and the necessary mitigation schemes, such as coatings and application of corrosion prevention compounds, need to be part of the earliest design process and system choices. Second, assess. Corrosion prevention requires constant vigilance and ever improved tools for evaluation. Not surprisingly, the earlier corrosion is detected, the better in terms of taking remedial action in a deliberate rather than an emergency way. Some understanding of the progress of corrosion and the tools available to the field engineer or artisan is important. Third, predict. Elegant science and practical engineering come together in the area of prediction. Corrosion by its very nature is both environment- and time-dependent, often very complexly so. Great progress has been made in our ability to predict the probable progress of

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Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century corrosion, especially when tracking sensors can be included in the assessment. Nevertheless, prediction remains very much an area for the corrosion specialist. The important inclusion in education would appear to be an awareness of the techniques available and their capability and applicability. Fourth, manage. The affordable control of corrosion comes together in management—both technical management and systems engineering management. It is important that all engineers have a grasp of the implications of decisions for good or ill in corrosion management. The DoD Corrosion Initiative places great emphasis on improving the specificity and efficiency of continuing education for program managers to impart an appreciation for the intelligent integration of corrosion mitigation and control in the overall area of systems engineering and systems management. Specifically to address corrosion management, corrosion content was added to selected Defense Acquisition University (DAU) courses for program managers, acquisition logisticians, systems engineers, facility engineers, and contracting personnel. In addition, the Corrosion Initiative affected the development of a completely new DAU Continuous Learning Module (CLM) on corrosion. The corrosion prevention and control overview (CP&CO) CLM supplements classroom education with additional corrosion information for those students most likely to influence corrosion-related acquisition decisions or practitioners who must implement corrosion-prevention initiatives. The distance learning module consists of these six modules that students can self-navigate to cover specific subject areas: Introduction to corrosion; Planning, implementation, and management; Corrosion characteristics, effects, and treatment; Preventing corrosion; Controlling corrosion; and Nonmetallic material degradation. Two additional DAU CLM courses are planned: (1) corrosion prevention and control management and (2) corrosion prevention and control leadership. The three courses will, when fully developed, consist of an escalating level of comprehension from awareness to comprehension and, finally, application. This overall program will give DoD’s acquisition community the knowledge necessary to fully consider corrosion when making acquisition decisions. It is hoped that this program will assist in the discussion of the appropriate level of corrosion information and instruction associated with engineering curricula. The DoD Corrosion Initiative and the participants in all the activities of the CP&CO integrated products team are reaching out to managers, engineers, logisticians, artisans, and anyone who can assist in the perennial battle against corrosion to impart better understanding and provide the tools to make a difference.

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Proceedings of the Materials Forum 2007: Corrosion Education for the 21st Century AZIZ I. ASPHAHANI AND HELENA SEELINGER NACE FOUNDATION Materials are essential to daily living and to our quality of life. The degradation of materials owing to corrosion is a critical issue for many industrial sectors and governmental entities. Such degradation is of great concern as it endangers public and personnel safety, hampers environmental protection, and negatively impacts cost effectiveness and competitiveness. Despite the high cost (direct and indirect) of materials degradation and the threats of corrosion, many entities involved in corrosion protection and prevention rely on personnel with less-than-desired proficiency in corrosion in their formal education. Also, various U.S. industrial companies do not have corrosion engineers in residence. This is the result of cost-cutting (through layoffs and early retirement) coupled with an overall reduction in the number of college engineering degrees awarded, along with a paucity of corrosion courses in many engineering curricula. Furthermore, it is often difficult to find operators, technicians, and maintenance personnel who have been adequately trained in corrosion control. A survey by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) of its U.S. members in March 2007 reports as follows: Over one-half (~54 percent) of corrosion protection practitioners have not taken a course on corrosion during their formal education. A large number (~44 percent) of these practitioners began employment at the technician level, before moving into the field of corrosion control. A large number (~45 percent) of the active corrosion technologists plan to retire or move to another position in the next 10 years. About one-half of the respondents think his or her position will be filled by someone with similar credentials/experience. When asked about the future educational requirements, a large number (~43 percent) of respondents stated that their companies demand a 4-year technical degree for the position. From the last response and from the huge identified costs of corrosion, there is apparently a dire need to establish a curriculum for corrosion engineering at the university or college level. Also, it appears equally important to offer corrosion courses and corrosion control training to operators and technicians. In addition, there is a need to heighten awareness of the devastating impact of corrosion and to interest students in pursuing education in corrosion science and engineering. Professional engineering societies such as NACE have been providing training and certification to practitioners of corrosion control, along with getting high school students (and their teachers) interested in corrosion engineering. Interest is being raised through participation in the Materials Camp programs sponsored by the American Society of Materials (ASM) Foundation. The camps are succeeding not only because materials are able to whet students’ interest in science classes but also because the Materials Camp experience includes interactions with outstanding engineers, who are effective role models for these students. While great benefits are expected to be realized from a focused effort to improve corrosion education in the workforce, there is continuing concern about how to create demand on the part of employers for corrosion technologists. There is a correspondingly urgent need to connect corrosion education with metrics related to the ongoing major concerns of industry and governmental entities about safety, security, the environment, and overall competitiveness and cost effectiveness. Finally, collaboration and constructive interaction are needed between universities, colleges, schools, industries, and state/federal governmental agencies on the subject of corrosion education.