Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 41
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary 1 Vector-Borne Disease Emergence and Resurgence OVERVIEW The once limited geographic and host ranges of many vector-borne diseases are expanding, spurred largely by anthropogenic factors. Epidemics of malaria, dengue, and other formerly contained vector-borne diseases are on the rise in the developing world, and in recent years the United States has witnessed the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) in New York City and the emergence of previously unknown Lyme disease. Contributors to this chapter examine global, regional, and local phenomena associated with the emergence and resurgence of these and other vector-borne diseases, and explore the use of such information to predict future outbreaks and anticipate the geographic spread of vectors and pathogens. The chapter begins with a summary of the workshop’s keynote address, which was presented by Duane Gubler of the University of Hawai‘i. Gubler describes the “dramatic global reemergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases” of the past three decades, in parallel with influential demographic, economic, and societal trends. He considers the changing epidemiology of malaria, plague, dengue, yellow fever, and WNV, identifies key factors in the emergence and spread of vector-borne disease, and discusses the implications of these trends for public health. In particular, he notes that advances in transportation, which centuries ago removed infectious disease barriers between the Old and New Worlds (that is, the eastern and western hemispheres), now drive the rapid, global dispersion of pathogens and their vectors. “If we hope to reverse the trend of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases,” Gubler insists, “the movement of pathogens and arthropod vectors via modern transportation must be addressed.”
OCR for page 42
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary In his presentation on anthropogenic factors in tick-borne pathogen emergence, Durland Fish of Yale University focused on the “steadily increasing” presence of tick-borne disease in the northeastern United States associated with the reversal of deforestation in that region (see Summary and Assessment subsection entitled “Reforestation and Tick-Borne Disease”). In addition to Lyme disease, which rose from obscurity to become the country’s most common vector-borne disease within the span of two decades, black-legged deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) serve as the vector for Anaplasma phagocytophilum—a bacterium that causes a flu-like illness called human granulocytic anaplasmosis—and the protozoan Babesia microti can be spread by transfused blood from an infected human. The adults of this tick species feed exclusively on white-tailed deer; only the nymphs feed on and transmit pathogens to humans. The decline of agriculture in the northeastern United States and the subsequent reforestation of this region over the past several decades have provided an ideal habitat for increasing numbers of white-tailed deer, their attendant ticks, and the pathogens they bear. This trend may well continue and gain momentum, Fish noted, since various non-native tick-borne arboviruses could infect any of several hundred human-feeding species of ticks present in the United States. Although vector-borne plant diseases share many ecological and epidemiological features with their animal and human counterparts, they tend to be studied in isolation. In his contribution to this chapter, presenter Rodrigo Almeida of the University of California, Berkeley, argues that new insights on the nature of vector-borne diseases could be gained through the exchange of tools and ideas among disparate research communities. Plant systems, for example, “allow large experiments to be conducted, with multiple hosts, vector species and pathogen strains, which could be used to experimentally address ecological and evolutionary hypotheses on pathogen range and transmission efficiency,” he explains. In describing the rise of Pierce’s disease of grapevines in California following the recent introduction of a highly efficient insect vector for a local bacterial pathogen, Almeida explores a common pattern of vector-borne disease emergence from an agricultural perspective. The final essays in this chapter address the profound influence of climate on vector-borne disease distribution and transmission. The first, by presenter Kenneth Linthicum of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology and co-authors, focuses on the effects of regional variations in temperature and rainfall on vector-borne disease transmission. The primary driver of global climate variability, the periodic warming of the Pacific Ocean surface known as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), has been linked with outbreaks of a variety of arthropod-borne diseases, the authors note. In the case of Rift Valley fever (RVF), this association was sufficiently strong to permit them to develop risk maps that successfully predicted a major outbreak in Africa in
OCR for page 43
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary 2006-2007, providing an early warning that reduced the impact and spread of the disease. Such forecasts, they conclude, may potentially predict risk for the spread of diseases on a global scale and offer health and agricultural authorities the possibility of targeting disease surveillance and control efforts, and thereby improve their cost-effectiveness. Two consecutive contributions, from workshop speaker Jonathan Patz, of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and co-authors, discuss the possible effects of global climate change on vector-borne disease emergence. The first paper, by Patz and S. H. Olson, comprises an overview of the effects of climate change on disease risk at both global and local levels. It is followed by an update, by Patz and C. K. Uejio, which presents detailed evidence for the effects of climate change on Lyme disease and WNV, the two most prevalent vector-borne diseases in North America. Vector-borne pathogens are particularly sensitive to climatic conditions due to their influence on vector survival and reproduction, biting and feeding patterns, pathogen incubation and replication, and the efficiency of pathogen transmission among multiple hosts. The authors discuss evidence that an overall rise in global temperatures could enlarge the geographic range of malaria in Africa and increase the frequency of dengue outbreaks worldwide, but they place greater emphasis on opportunities for disease emergence in local environments driven by land use practices such as deforestation, cultivation, and dam construction. Given these influences, risk assessments for vector-borne diseases should incorporate appropriately scaled analyses of the effects of land use on microclimate and weather, habitat, and biodiversity, the authors conclude. The need for such considerations is clearly illustrated in their discussion of WNV distribution and transmission dynamics, which appear to be influenced by a broad and complex range of environmental factors. THE GLOBAL THREAT OF EMERGENT/REEMERGENT VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES Duane J. Gubler, Sc.D.1 University of Hawai‘i, Honolulu, Hawai‘i Introduction At the beginning of the 20th century, epidemic vector-borne diseases were among the most important global public health problems (Gubler, 1998, 2002a). 1 Director, Asia-Pacific Institute for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases; Professor and Chair, Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine.
OCR for page 44
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Diseases such as yellow fever (YF), dengue fever (DF), plague, louse-borne Typhus, malaria, etc., caused explosive epidemics affecting thousands of people. Subsequently, other vector-borne diseases were identified as major causes of disease in both humans and domestic animals. As the natural history of these diseases became better understood, prevention and control measures, primarily directed at the arthropod vectors, were highly successful in controlling disease transmission. Effective prevention and control accelerated in the post-World War II years with the advent of new insecticides, drugs, and vaccines. By the 1960s, the majority of important vector-borne diseases had been effectively controlled in most parts of the world, and those that were not yet controlled were targeted for more intensive programs using new vaccines, drugs, and insecticides. Unfortunately, “success led to failure”; some of the successful programs, such as the Aedes aegypti eradication program that effectively controlled epidemic YF and DF throughout the American tropics for over 40 years, and the global malaria eradication program that effectively controlled malaria in Asian and American countries, were disbanded in the 1970s because the diseases were no longer major public health problems (Gubler, 1989, 2004; Gubler and Wilson, 2005; IOM, 1992). Additionally, residual insecticides were replaced with less effective chemicals used as space sprays to control adult mosquitoes. The 1970s ushered in a 25-year period characterized by decreasing resources for infectious diseases, decay of the public health infrastructure to control vector-borne diseases, and a general perception that vector-borne diseases were no longer important public health problems. Coincident with this period of complacency, however, was the development of global trends that have contributed to the reemergence of epidemic infectious diseases in general, and vector-borne diseases in particular, in the past 25 years. In addition to the emergence of newly recognized diseases, there was increased incidence and geographic expansion of well-known diseases that were once effectively controlled (Gubler, 1989, 1998; IOM, 1992, 2003; Mahy and Murphy, 2005). This paper will briefly review the changing epidemiology of several of the most important vector-borne diseases and discuss the lessons learned from this global reemergence. The Reemergence of Epidemic Vector-Borne Diseases as Public Health Problems The earliest indications that epidemic vector-borne diseases might reemerge came in the early 1970s. Subsequent warnings were ignored by public health officials and policy makers because of competing priorities for limited resources (Gubler, 1980, 1987, 1989; IOM, 1992). The 1980s ushered in a period with increased epidemic vector-borne disease activity associated with expanding geographic distribution of both the vectors and the pathogens via modern transportation and globalization. It was not until the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on emerging infectious diseases that policy makers took notice (IOM, 1992), and not
OCR for page 45
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary until after the 1994 plague epidemic in India that new resources were allocated to emerging infectious diseases (Fritz et al., 1996; WHO, 1994). Parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens may be transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. Mosquitoes, which primarily transmit parasitic and viral diseases, are the most important arthropod vectors; ticks, which primarily transmit bacteria and viruses, are next in importance. Parasitic Diseases Of the parasitic infections transmitted by arthropods, malaria is by far the most important, although there has also been a reemergence of leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis. The principal problem area for malaria is Africa, where 95 percent of all global cases occur, most of them in children under 5 years of age (Gubler and Wilson, 2005). This disease is dealt with elsewhere and will not be considered further here. Bacterial Diseases Two newly recognized vector-borne bacterial diseases, Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, and ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia ewingui, have emerged as important public health problems in the past three decades (Dumler et al., 2007; Steere et al., 2004). Both have small rodents as their natural vertebrate reservoir host, with hard ticks as their principal vectors. Both diseases are found primarily in temperate regions of the world, where emergence has been associated with environmental change. Figure 1-1 shows the dramatic increase in reported cases of Lyme disease in the United States since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began surveillance in 1982. The increased transmission in the United States is directly related to reforestation of the northeastern United States, allowing the mouse and deer populations to increase unchecked, which in turn has allowed the tick population to increase. A final factor has been the trend in recent decades to build houses in woodlots where humans share the ecology with deer, mice, and ticks; thus most transmission to humans in the northeastern United States where the majority of cases of Lyme disease occur, is residential (Steere et al., 2004). Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, is the most important reemergent bacterial vector-borne disease. The current global increase in case reports of plague is primarily due to outbreaks in Africa. However, it is the potential of plague to cause explosive epidemics of pneumonic disease, transmitted person-to-person and with high mortality, that makes it important as a reemergent infectious disease and as a potential bioterrorist threat. This was illustrated in 1994 when an outbreak of plague occurred in Surat, Gujarat, India (WHO, 1994). Although this was a small outbreak (most likely less than 50 cases) that should have been
OCR for page 46
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary FIGURE 1-1 Reported Lyme disease cases by year, United States, 1982-2005. SOURCE: Adapted from Gubler (1998) and CDC (2006), courtesy, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, CO. a relatively unimportant local public health event, it became a global public health emergency. The reasons for this are complicated and beyond the scope of this article, but it is a classic case of “success breeding failure.” Briefly, because the Indian Health Service had successfully controlled epidemic plague in India for over 30 years (the last confirmed human plague case prior to 1994 was in 1966), laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic capacity to diagnose and control plague had deteriorated. Thus, when the Surat outbreak occurred, the clinical and laboratory diagnosis was confused, creating lack of confidence in public health agencies and ultimately panic when it was finally announced that the disease was pneumonic plague. Within a few weeks in early October 1994, an estimated 500,000 people fled Surat, a city of about 2 million people at that time. Many of these people traveled to other urban areas in India, and within days, newspapers were reporting plague cases in other cities. The World Health Organization implemented Article 11 of the International Health Regulations (WHO, 1983) for the first time in 33 years because it was thought that people with pneumonic plague might board airplanes in India and transport the disease to other urban centers around the world (Figure 1-2). Many countries stopped air travel and trade with India and most implemented enhanced surveillance for imported plague cases via airplane travel. This was the first global emerging infectious disease epidemic that impacted the global economy since infectious diseases were controlled in the 1950s. It is estimated that this small outbreak cost India US$3 billion (John, 1999) and the global economy US$5 to $6 billion. Fortunately, there were no
OCR for page 47
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary FIGURE 1-2 Suspected spread of pneumonic plague from India, 1994. SOURCE: Courtesy, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, CDC, Fort Collins, CO. cases of plague exported from India (Fritz et al., 1996), but this epidemic was the “wake-up call” that modern transportation and globalization were major drivers of pandemic infectious diseases. It was this epidemic that helped stimulate in the first funding of CDC’s Emerging Infectious Disease Program. Arboviral Diseases Of the vector-borne diseases, it is the arboviruses that have become the most important causes of reemergent epidemic disease (Gubler, 1996, 2002a). In 2007, there are few places on Earth where there is no risk of infection with one or more of these viral diseases, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes. The more important reemergent epidemic arboviral diseases are presented in Table 1-1. They include members of three families (Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae). Three diseases—dengue fever, West Nile, and yellow fever—will be discussed as case studies to illustrate the changing epidemiology of arboviral diseases.
OCR for page 48
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary TABLE 1-1 Emergent/Reemergent Arboviral Diseases of Humans Dengue hemorrhagic fever Yellow fever West Nile fever Japanese encephalitis Chikungunya Rift Valley fever Alkumra fever (Kyasanui Forest disease) Venezuelan equine encephalitis Epidemic polyarthritis Barmah Forest Oropouche California encephalitis Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever West Nile Virus2 West Nile virus (WNV) (Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus), an African virus, belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) sero-group, which includes a number of closely related viruses, including JEV in Asia, St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Americas, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus in Australia. All have a similar transmission cycle involving birds as the natural vertebrate hosts and Culex species mosquitoes as the enzootic/epizootic vectors, and all cause severe and fatal neurologic disease in humans and domestic animals, which are generally thought to be incidental hosts, as well as in birds. The clinical illness associated with WNV in humans ranges from asymptomatic infection to viral syndrome to neurologic disease (Hayes and Gubler, 2006), but historically it has been considered among the least virulent of the Japanese encephalitis sero-group viruses (Hayes, 1988); recent epidemics, however, have changed that perception. From the time WNV was first isolated from the blood of a febrile patient in the West Nile province of Uganda in 1937 (Smithburn, 1940) until the fall of 1999, it was considered relatively unimportant as a human and animal pathogen. The virus was enzootic throughout Africa, West and Central Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean, with occasional extension into Europe (Hayes, 1988). A subtype of WNV (Kunjin) is also found in Australia (Hall et al., 2002). A characteristic of WNV epidemiology during this 62-year history (1937-1999) was that it caused epidemics only occasionally, and the illness in humans, horses, 2 Reprinted in part with permission from Gubler (2008). Copyright 2008.
OCR for page 49
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary and birds was generally either asymptomatic or mild; neurologic disease and death were rare (Marfin and Gubler, 2001; Murgue et al., 2001, 2002). In late August 1999, an astute physician in Queens, New York, identified a cluster of elderly patients with viral encephalitis (Asnis et al., 2000). Because of the age group involved and the clinical presentation, these cases were initially thought to be St. Louis encephalitis, but subsequent serologic and virologic investigation showed them to be caused by WNV (Lanciotti et al., 1999). The epidemic investigation, which focused only on neurologic disease, identified 62 cases with 7 (11 percent) deaths, all of them in New York City (Nash et al., 2001). Epidemiologic studies, however, showed widespread transmission throughout New York City, with thousands of infections (Montashari et al., 2001; Nash et al., 2001). The virus caused a high fatality rate in birds, especially those in the family Corvidae (Komar, 2003). Genetic sequence of the infecting virus suggested it was imported from the Middle East, most likely from Israel (Lanciotti et al., 1999). Although it will never be known for sure, epidemiologic and virologic evidence suggests the virus was introduced in the spring or early summer of 1999, most likely via infected humans arriving from Israel, which was experiencing an epidemic of WNV in Tel Aviv at the time (Giladi et al., 2001; Marfin and Gubler, 2001). Over the next 5 years, WNV rapidly moved westward across the United States to the west coast (Figure 1-3), north into Canada, and south into Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America. In 2002, it caused the largest epidemic of meningoencephalitis in U.S. history with nearly 3,000 cases of neurologic disease and 284 deaths. That same year, there was a large epizootic in equines with over 14,500 cases of neurologic disease and a case fatality rate of nearly 30 percent (Campbell et al., 2002). The epidemic curve for human cases in the United States is shown in Figure 1-4. In 2003, another large epidemic occurred, but the epicenter of transmission was in the plains states and the majority of the reported cases were not neurologic disease (Hayes and Gubler, 2006). Since 2003, the virus has persisted with seasonal transmission during the summer months, but at a lower level; the majority of cases have been in the plains and western states. WNV was first detected south of the U.S. border in 2001 when a human case of neuro-invasive disease was reported in the Cayman Islands (Campbell et al., 2002), and birds collected in Jamaica in early 2002 were positive for WNV-neutralizing antibodies (Komar and Clark, 2006). In 2002, WNV activity was reported in birds and/or equines in Mexico (in six states) and on the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola (Greater Antilles) and Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles). Most likely, the virus was also present in Mexico in 2001, since a cow with WNV-neutralizing antibody was detected in the southern state of Chiapas in July of 2001 (Ulloa et al., 2003). In 2003, the virus was detected in 22 states of Mexico; in Belize, Guatemala, and El Salvador in Central America; and in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Bahamas in the Caribbean. In 2004, WNV activity was reported from northern Colombia, Trinidad, and Venezuela, the first reported activity in
OCR for page 50
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary FIGURE 1-3 The sequential westward movement of West Nile virus in the United States by year, reported to CDC as of January 31, 2006. Human infection was found in all states in the continental United States with the exception of Maine. SOURCE: Reprinted from Gubler (2007). South America; in 2006, Argentina reported WNV transmission (Komar and Clark, 2006; Morales et al., 2006). Migratory birds have likely played an important role in the spread of WNV in the western hemisphere (Owen et al., 2006; Rappole et al., 2000). This conclusion is supported by data on the movement of WNV in migratory birds in the Old World (Malkinson et al., 2002). Moreover, the westward movement of WNV across the United States and Canada can best be explained by introduction via migratory birds that fly south to Central and South America in the fall and north from those areas in the spring. Thus, the yearly movement westward in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 shows very good correlation with the Atlantic, Mississippi, Central, and Pacific flyways of migratory birds (Figures 1-3 and 1-5). After introduction to an area, local dispersion of WNV likely occurred via movement of resident birds, which often fly significant distances. Interestingly, the major epidemic in each region of the country occurred the following year after introduction, with the exception of the 1999 New York outbreak. The emergence of a WNV strain with greater epidemic potential and viru-
OCR for page 51
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary FIGURE 1-4 Epidemic West Nile virus in the United States, 1999-2006, reported to CDC as of May 2, 2007. SOURCE: CDC (2007). lence was likely a major factor in the spread of WNV in both the Old and the New Worlds (Marfin and Gubler, 2001). The first evidence of this new strain of WNV was in North Africa in 1994, when an epidemic/epizootic of serologically confirmed WNV occurred in Algeria; of 50 cases with neurologic disease 20 (40 percent) were diagnosed as encephalitis and 8 (16 percent) died (Murgue et al., 2002). Over the next 5 years, epidemics/epizootics occurred in Morocco, Romania, Tunisia, Israel, Italy, and Russia, as well as jumping the Atlantic and causing the epidemic in Queens, New York (Figure 1-6). All of these epidemics/ epizootics were unique from earlier epidemics in that they were associated with a much higher rate of severe and fatal neurologic disease in humans, equines, and/or birds. This virus most likely had better fitness and caused higher viremias in susceptible hosts, allowing it to take advantage of modern transportation and globalization to spread, first in the Mediterranean region and Europe, and then to the western hemisphere. This speculation is supported by sequence data documenting that the viruses isolated from these recent epidemics/epizootics are closely related genetically, most likely having a common origin; all belonged to the same clade (Lanciotti et al., 1999, 2002) (Figure 1-7). Moreover, experimental infection of birds has documented that viruses in this clade, represented by the
OCR for page 116
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Gubler, D. J. 2002a. The global emergence/resurgence of arboviral diseases as public health problems. Archives of Medical Research 33(4):330-342. Gubler, D. J. 2002b. Epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a public health, social and economic problem in the 21st century. Trends in Microbiology 10(2):100-103. Gubler, D. J. 2004. The changing epidemiology of yellow fever and dengue, 1900 to 2003: full circle? Comparative Immunology, Microbiology, and Infectious Diseases 27(5):319-330. Gubler, D. J. 2007. The continuing spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Clinical Infectious Diseases 45(8):1039-1046. Gubler, D. J. 2008. The 20th century re-emergence of arboviral diseases: lessons learned and prospects for the future. In Proceedings of the eighth Sir Dorabji Tata symposium on arthropod borne viral infections, Bangalore, India, edited by D. Raghunath and C. Durga Rao, Sir Dorabji Tata Centre for Research in Tropical Diseases. Bangalore, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Gubler, D. J. In press. Yellow fever. In Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases, 5th ed., edited by R. D. Feigin, J. D. Cherry, G. J. Demmler, and S. Kaplan. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders. Gubler, D. J., and D. W. Trent. 1994. Emergence of epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a public health problem in Americas. Infectious Agents and Disease 2:383-393. Gubler, D. J., and M. L. Wilson. 2005. The global resurgence of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from successful and failed adaptation. In Integration of public health with adaptation to climate change: lessons learned and new directions, edited by K. L. Ebi, J. Smith, and I. Burton. London: Taylor and Francis. Pp. 44-59. Gubler, D. J., R. Novak, and C. J. Mitchell. 1982. Arthropod vector competence—epidemiological, genetic, and biological considerations. In Proceedings of the international conference on genetics of insect disease vectors. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing. Pp. 343-378. Gubler, D. J., P. Reiter, K. L. Ebi, W. Yap, R. Nasci, and J. A. Patz. 2001. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(Suppl 2):223-233. Gubler, D. J., G. Kuno, and L. Markoff. 2007. Flaviviruses. In Fields virology, 5th ed., edited by D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins. Pp. 1153-1252. Guernier, V., M. E. Hochberg, and J. F. O. Guegan. 2004. Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PloS Biology 2(6):740-746. Guerra, C. A., R. W. Snow, and S. I. Hay. 2006. A global assessment of closed forests, deforestation and malaria risk. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100(3):189-204. Hagedorn, H. H. 1974. Control of vitellogenesis in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. American Zoologist 14(4):1207-1217. Hall, R. A., A. K. Broom, D. W. Smith, and J. S. MacKenzie. 2002. The ecology and epidemiology of Kunjin virus. Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 267:253-269. Halstead, S. B. 1980. Dengue hemorrhagic fever—public health problem and a field for research. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 58:1-21. Halstead, S. B. 1992. The 20th century dengue pandemic: need for surveillance and research. World Health Statistics Quarterly Report 45:292-298. Han, L. L., F. Popovici, J. P. Alexander, Jr., V. Laurentia, L. A. Tengelsen, C. Cernescu, H. E. Gary, Jr., N. Ion-Nedelcu, G. L. Campbell, and T. F. Tsai. 1999. Risk factors for West Nile virus infection and meningoencephalitis, Romania, 1996. Journal of Infectious Diseases 179(1):230-233. Hay, S. I., S. E. Randolph, and D. J. Rogers. 2000. Remote sensing and geographical information systems in epidemiology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Hay, S. I., A. Grahm, and D. J. Rogers. 2007. Global mapping of infectious, diseases: methods, examples and emerging applications. London, UK: Academic Press.
OCR for page 117
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Hayes, C. 1988. West Nile fever. In The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology, edited by T. P. Monath. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Pp. 59-88. Hayes, E. B., and D. J. Gubler. 2006. West Nile virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States. Annual Review of Medicine 57:181-194. Hayes, E. B., N. Komar, R. S. Nasci, S. P. Montgomery, D. R. O’Leary, and G. L. Campbell. 2005. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(8):1167-1173, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no08/05-0289a.htm (accessed September 6, 2007). Hendson, M., A. H. Purcell, D. Q. Chen, C. Smart, M. Guilhabert, and B. Kirkpatrick. 2001. Genetic diversity of Pierce’s disease strains and other pathotypes of Xylella fastidiosa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67(2):895-903. Herms, W. B., and H. F. Gray. 1944. Mosquito control. New York: The Commonwealth Fund. Hill, B. L., and A. H. Purcell. 1995a. Multiplication and movement of Xylella fastidiosa within grapevine and four other plants. Phytopathology 85(11):1368-1372. Hill, B. L., and A. H. Purcell. 1995b. Acquisition and retention of Xylella fastidiosa by an efficient vector, Graphocephala atropunctata. Phytopathology 85(2):209-212. Hill, B. L., and A. H. Purcell. 1997. Populations of Xylella fastidiosa in plants required for transmission by an efficient vector. Phytopathology 87(12):1197-1201. Holt, R. A., G. M. Subramanian, A. Halpern, G. G. Sutton, R. Charlab, D. R. Nusskern, P. Wincker, A. G. Clark, J. M. C. Ribeiro, R. Wides, S. L. Salzberg, B. Loftus, M. Yandell, W. H. Majoros, D. B. Rusch, Z. W. Lai, C. L. Kraft, J. F. Abril, V. Anthouard, P. Arensburger, P. W. Atkinson, H. Baden, V. de Berardinis, D. Baldwin, V. Benes, J. Biedler, C. Blass, R. Bolanos, D. Boscus, M. Barnstead, S. Cai, A. Center, K. Chatuverdi, G. K. Christophides, M. A. Chrystal, M. Clamp, A. Cravchik, V. Curwen, A. Dana, A. Delcher, I. Dew, C. A. Evans, M. Flanigan, A. Grundschober-Freimoser, L. Friedli, Z. P. Gu, P. Guan, R. Guigo, M. E. Hillenmeyer, S. L. Hladun, J. R. Hogan, Y. S. Hong, J. Hoover, O. Jaillon, Z. X. Ke, C. Kodira, E. Kokoza, A. Koutsos, I. Letunic, A. Levitsky, Y. Liang, J. J. Lin, N. F. Lobo, J. R. Lopez, J. A. Malek, T. C. McIntosh, S. Meister, J. Miller, C. Mobarry, E. Mongin, S. D. Murphy, D. A. O’Brochta, C. Pfannkoch, R. Qi, M. A. Regier, K. Remington, H. G. Shao, M. V. Sharakhova, C. D. Sitter, J. Shetty, T. J. Smith, R. Strong, J. T. Sun, D. Thomasova, L. Q. Ton, P. Topalis, Z. J. Tu, M. F. Unger, B. Walenz, A. H. Wang, J. Wang, M. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. J. Woodford, J. R. Wortman, M. Wu, A. Yao, E. M. Zdobnov, H. Y. Zhang, Q. Zhao, S. Y. Zhao, S. P. C. Zhu, I. Zhimulev, M. Coluzzi, A. della Torre, C. W. Roth, C. Louis, F. Kalush, R. J. Mural, E. W. Myers, M. D. Adams, H. O. Smith, S. Broder, M. J. Gardner, C. M. Fraser, E. Birney, P. Bork, P. T. Brey, J. C. Venter, J. Weissenbach, F. C. Kafatos, F. H. Collins, and S. L. Hoffman. 2002. The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Science 298(5591):129-149. Hopkins, D. L., and A. H. Purcell. 2002. Xylella fastidiosa: cause of Pierce’s disease of grapevine and other emergent diseases. Plant Disease 86:1056-1066. Hopp, M. J., and J. A. Foley. 2003. Worldwide fluctuations in dengue fever cases related to climate variability. Climate Research 25(1):85-94. Houghton, J. T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noquer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds. 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis: contribution of working group I to the third assessment report. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1992. Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2003. Microbial threats to health: emergence, detection, and response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001a. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis, summary for policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. P.3, figure 1.
OCR for page 118
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary IPCC. 2001b. Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. P. 469, table 9-3. John, J. T. 1999. Can plagues be predicted, prevented? Lancet 354(Suppl):54. Jouan, A., B. Le Guenno, J. P. Digoutte, B. Phillipp, O. Riou, and F. Adam. 1988. A RVF epidemic in southern Mauritania. Annales de L’Institute Pasteur de Virologie 139(3):307-308. Jupp, P. G., N. K. Blackburn, D. L. Thompson, and G. M. Meenehan. 1986. Sindbis and West Nile virus infections in the Witwatersrand-Pretoria region. South African Medical Journal 70(4):218-220. Kaufman, M. G., E. Wanja, S. Maknojia, M. N. Bayoh, J. M. Vulule, and E. D. Walker. 2006. Importance of algal biomass to growth and development of Anopheles gambiae larvae. Journal of Medical Entomology 43(4):669-676. Kilpatrick, A. M., L. D. Kramer, M. J. Jones, P. P. Marra, and P. Daszak. 2006. West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. PLoS Biology 4(4):e82. Knols, B. G. J., and T. W. Scott. 2002. Discussion—ecological challenges concerning the use of genetically modified mosquitoes for disease control: synthesis and perspectives. In Proceedings of the Frontis workshop on ecological challenges concerning the use of genetically modified mosquitoes for disease control, Wageningen, The Netherlands, June 26-29, 2002, edited by W. Takken and T. W. Scott. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Springer Science. Knutson, T. R., R. E. Tuleya, and Y. Kurihara. 1998. Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a CO2-warmed climate. Science 279(5353):1018-1020. Koelle, K., X. Rodo, M. Pascual, M. Yunus, and G. Mostafa. 2005. Refractory periods and climate forcing in cholera dynamics. Nature 436(7051):696-700. Komar, N. 2003. West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. Advances in Virus Research 61:185-225. Komar, N., and G. G. Clark. 2006. West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública/Pan American Journal of Public Health 19(2):112-117. Kosatsky, T. 2005. The 2003 European heat waves. Eurosurveillance 10(7):148-149. Kovats, R. S., S. J. Edwards, S. Hajat, B. G. Armstrong, K. L. Ebi, and B. Menne. 2004. The effect of temperature on food poisoning: a time-series analysis of salmonellosis in ten European countries. Epidemiology and Infection 132(3):443-453. Kramer, M. G. 2004. Recent advances in transgenic arthropod technology. Bulletin of Entomological Research 94(2):95-110. Ksiazek, T. G., A. Jouan, J. M. Meegan, B. Le Guenno, M. L. Wilson, C. J. Peters, J. P. Digoutte, M. Guillaud, N. O. Merzoug, and E. M. Touray. 1989. Rift Valley fever among domestic-animals in the recent West-African outbreak. Research in Virology 140(1):67-77. Lanciotti, R. S., J. T. Roehrig, V. Deubel, J. Smith, M. Parker, K. Steele, B. Crise, K. E. Volpe, M. B. Crabtree, J. H. Scherret, R. A. Hall, J. S. MacKenzie, C. B. Cropp, B. Panigrahy, E. Ostlund, B. Schmitt, M. Malkinson, C. Banet, J. Weissman, N. Komar, H. M. Savage, W. Stone, T. McNamara, and D. J. Gubler. 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286(5448):2333-2337. Lanciotti, R. S., G. D. Ebel, V. Deubel, A. J. Kerst, S. Murri, R. Meyer, M. Bowen, N. McKinney, W. E. Morrill, M. B. Crabtree, L. D. Kramer, and J. T. Roehrig. 2002. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology 298(1):96-105. Langevin, S. A., A. C. Brault, N. A. Panella, R. A. Bowen, and N. Komar. 2005. Variation in virulence of West Nile virus strains for house sparrows (Passer domesticus). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 72(1):99-102.
OCR for page 119
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Lindblade, K. A., E. D. Walker, A. W. Onapa, J. Katungu, and M. L. Wilson. 2000. Land use change alters malaria transmission parameters by modifying temperature in a highland area of Uganda. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5(4):263-274. Linthicum, K. J., F. G. Davies, A. Kairo, and C. L. Bailey. 1985. Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an interepizootic period in Kenya. Journal of Hygiene 95:197-209. Linthicum, K. J., C. L. Bailey, C. J. Tucker, S. W. Gordon, T. M. Logan, C. J. Peters, and J. P. Digoutte. 1994. Observations with NOAA and SPOT satellites on the effect of man-made alterations in the ecology of the Senegal River basin in Mauritania on Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Sistema Terra 3:44-47. Linthicum, K. J., A. Anyamba, C. J. Tucker, P. W. Kelley, M. F. Myers, and C. J. Peters. 1999. Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya. Science 285(5426):397-400. Linthicum, K. J., A. Anyamba, S. C. Britch, J.-P. Chretien, R. L. Erickson, J. Small, C. J. Tucker, K. E. Bennett, R. T. Mayer, E. T. Schmidtmann, T. G. Andreadis, J. F. Anderson, W. C. Wilson, J. E. Freier, A. M. James, R. S. Miller, B. S. Drolet, S. N. Miller, C. A. Tedrow, C. L. Bailey, D. A. Strickman, D. R. Barnard, G. C. Clark, and L. Zou. 2007. A Rift Valley fever risk surveillance system for Africa using remotely sensed data: potential for use on other continents. Veterinaria Italiana 43:663-674. Loretti, A., and Y. Tegegn. 1996. Disasters in Africa: old and new hazards and growing vulnerability. World Health Statistics Quarterly 49(3-4):179-184. Luterbacher, J., D. Dietrich, E. Xoplaki, M. Grosjean, and H. Wanner. 2004. European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500. Science 303(5663):1499-1503. Mac Kenzie, W. R., N. J. Hoxie, M. E. Proctor, M. S. Gradus, K. A. Blair, D. E. Peterson, J. J. Kazmierczak, D. G. Addiss, K. R. Fox, J. B. Rose, and J. P. David. 1994. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. New England Journal of Medicine 331(3):161-167. MacArthur, R. H., and E. O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. MacDonald, G. 1957. The epidemiology and control of malaria. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Mackenzie, J. S., D. J. Gubler, and L. R. Petersen. 2004. Emerging flaviviruses: the spread and resurgence of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and dengue viruses. Nature Medicine 10(12): s98-s109. Madder, D. J., G. A. Surgeoner, and B. V. Helson. 1983. Number of generations, egg production, and developmental time of Culex pipiens and Culex restauns (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Ontario. Journal of Medical Entomology 20(3):275-287. Mahy, B., and F. Murphy. 2005. The emergence and reemergence of viral diseases. Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10th ed., edited by B. W. J. Mahy and V. T. Muelen. Virology, vol 2. London: Hodder Arnold. Pp. 1646-1669 Malkinson, M., C. Banet, Y. Weisman, S. Pokamunski, R. King, M. T. Drouet, and V. Deubel. 2002. Introduction of West Nile virus in the Middle East by migrating white storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(4):392-397. Marfin, A. A., and D. J. Gubler. 2001. West Nile encephalitis: an emerging disease in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33(10):1713-1719. McCabe, G. J., and J. E. Bunnell. 2004. Precipitation and the occurrence of Lyme disease in the northeastern United States. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 4(2):143-148. McCarthy, J. J., O. Canziani, N. Leary, D. Kokken, and K. White. 2001. Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. New York: Cambridge University Press.
OCR for page 120
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary McIntosh, B. M., P. G. Jupp, I. Dos Santos, and G. M. Meenehan. 1976. Epidemics of West Nile and Sindbis viruses in South Africa with Culex (culex) univittatus Theobald as vector. South African Journal of Science 72:295-300. McMichael, A. J., D. H. Campbell-Lendrum, S. Kovats, S. Edwards, P. W. Wilkinson, T. Wilson, R. Nicholls, S. Hales, F. C. Tanser, D. Le Sueur, M. Schlesinger, and N. Andronova. 2004. Global climate change. In Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors, edited by M. Ezzati, A. D. Lopez, A. Rodgers, and C. J. L. Murray. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Pp. 1543-1649. Merritt, R. W., R. H. Dadd, and E. D. Walker. 1992. Feeding behavior, natural food, and nutritional relationships of larval mosquitoes. Annual Review of Entomology 37:349-374. Merritt, R. W., D. A. Craig, R. S. Wotton, and E. D. Walker. 1996. Feeding behavior of aquatic insects: case studies on black fly and mosquito larvae. Invertebrate Biology 115(3):206-217. Minakawa, N., G. Sonye, M. Mogi, A. Githeko, and G. Yan. 2002. The effects of climatic factors on the distribution and abundance of malaria vectors in Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 39(6):833-841. Molyneux, D. H. 2001. Sterile insect release and trypanosomiasis control: a plea for realism. Trends in Parasitology 17(9):413-414. Monath, T. P. 1988. Yellow fever. The arboviruses: epidemiology and ecology, vol. 5. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Pp. 139-231. Monath, T. P. 1989. The absence of yellow fever in Asia hypotheses: a cause for concern? Virus Info Exchange Newsletter 6:106-107. Monath, T. P. 1994. Dengue: the risk to developed and developing countries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 91(7):2395-2400. Montashari, F., M. L. Bunning, P. T. Kitsutani, D. A. Singer, D. Nash, M. J. Cooper, N. Katz, K. A. Liljebjelke, B. J. Biggerstaff, A. D. Fine, M. C. Layton, S. M. Mullin, A. J. Johnson, D. A. Martin, E. B. Hayes, and G. L. Campbell. 2001. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet 358(9278):261-264. Morales, M. A., M. Barrandeguy, C. Fabbri, J. B. Garcia, A. Vissani, K. Trono, G. Gutierrez, S. Pigretti, H. Menchaca, N. Garrido, N. Taylor, F. Fernandez, S. Levis, and D. Enria. 2006. West Nile virus isolation from equines in Argentina, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12(10):1559-1561. Morens, D. M., G. K. Folkers, and A. S. Fauci. 2004. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 430(6996):242-249. Munga, S., N. Minakawa, G. Zhou, E. Mushinzimana, O. O. Barrack, A. K. Githeko, and G. Yan. 2006. Association between land cover and habitat productivity of malaria vectors in western Kenyan highlands. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74(1):69-75. Murgue, B., S. Murri, H. Triki, V. Deubel, and H. G. Zeller. 2001. West Nile in the Mediterranean basin: 1950-2000. In West Nile virus, detection, surveillance and control, edited by D. J. White and D. L. Morse. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. Pp. 117-126. Murgue, B., H. Zeller, and V. Deubel. 2002. The ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in Africa, Europe, and Asia. In Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses, edited by J. S. MacKenzie, A. D. T. Barrett, and V. Deubel. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. Pp. 195-221. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 1999. NASA facts: the roles of the ocean in climate change, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/MediaResources/Roles_Ocean.pdf (accessed September 6, 2007). Nash, D., F. Mostashari, A. Fine, J. Miller, D. O’Leary, K. Murray, A. Huang, A. Rosenberg, A. Greenberg, M. Sherman, S. Wong, M. Layton, and 1999 West Nile Outbreak Response Working Group. 2001. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. New England Journal of Medicine 344:1807-1814.
OCR for page 121
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Nasidi, A., T. P. Monath, K. DeCock, O. Tomori, R. Cordellier, O. D. Odaleye, T. O. Harry, J. A. Adeniyi, A. O. Sorungbe, A. O. Ajose-Coker, G. Van Der Loane, and A. B. O. Oyedivan. 1989. Urban yellow fever epidemic in western Nigeria, 1987. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83(3):401-406. Nault, L. R. 1990. Evolution of an insect pest—maize and the corn leafhopper, a case-study. Maydica 35:165-175. Nault, L. R. 1997. Arthropod transmission of plant viruses: a new synthesis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90(5):521-541. Nene, V., J. R. Wortman, D. Lawson, B. Haas, C. Kodira, Z. J. Tu, B. Loftus, Z. Y. Xi, K. Megy, M. Grabherr, Q. H. Ren, E. M. Zdobnov, N. F. Lobo, K. S. Campbell, S. E. Brown, M. F. Bonaldo, J. S. Zhu, S. P. Sinkins, D. G. Hogenkamp, P. Amedeo, P. Arensburger, P. W. Atkinson, S. Bidwell, J. Biedler, E. Birney, R. V. Bruggner, J. Costas, M. R. Coy, J. Crabtree, M. Crawford, B. deBruyn, D. DeCaprio, K. Eiglmeier, E. Eisenstadt, H. El-Dorry, W. M. Gelbart, S. L. Gomes, M. Hammond, L. I. Hannick, J. R. Hogan, M. H. Holmes, D. Jaffe, J. S. Johnston, R. C. Kennedy, H. Koo, S. Kravitz, E. V. Kriventseva, D. Kulp, K. LaButti, E. Lee, S. Li, D. D. Lovin, C. H. Mao, E. Mauceli, C. F. M. Menck, J. R. Miller, P. Montgomery, A. Mori, A. L. Nascimento, H. F. Naveira, C. Nusbaum, S. O’Leary, J. Orvis, M. Pertea, H. Quesneville, K. R. Reidenbach, Y. H. Rogers, C. W. Roth, J. R. Schneider, M. Schatz, M. Shumway, M. Stanke, E. O. Stinson, J. M. C. Tubio, J. P. VanZee, S. Verjovski-Almeida, D. Werner, O. White, S. Wyder, Q. D. Zeng, Q. Zhao, Y. M. Zhao, C. A. Hill, A. S. Raikhel, M. B. Soares, D. L. Knudson, N. H. Lee, J. Galagan, S. L. Salzberg, I. T. Paulsen, G. Dimopoulos, F. H. Collins, B. Birren, C. M. Fraser-Liggett, and D. W. Severson. 2007. Genome sequence of Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector. Science 316(5832):1718-1723. Ng, J. C. K., and K. L. Perry. 2004. Transmission of plant viruses by aphid vectors. Molecular Plant Pathology 5(5):505-511. Nicholls, N. 1986. A method for predicting Murray Valley encephalitis in southeast Australia using the Southern Oscillation. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 64(Pt. 6):587-594. Nicholls, R., and S. Leatherman. 1995. Global sea-level rise. In As climate changes: international impacts and implications, edited by K. Strzepek and J. Smith. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 92-123. Nisalak, A., T. P. Endy, S. Nimmannitya, S. Kalayanarooj, U. Thisayakorn, R. M. Scott, D. S. Burke, C. H. Hoke, B. L. Innis, and D. W. Vaughn. 2003. Serotype-specific dengue virus circulation and dengue disease in Bangkok, Thailand from 1973 to 1999. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68(2):191-202. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Manpower needs and career opportunities in the field aspects of vector biology: report of a workshop. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Ogden, N. H., A. Maarouf, I. K. Barker, M. Bigras-Poulin, L. R. Lindsay, M. G. Morshed, C. J. O’Callaghan, F. Ramay, D. Waltner-Toews, and D. F. Charron. 2006. Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada. International Journal for Parasitology 36(1):63-70. Ostfeld, R. S., G. E. Glass, and F. Keesing. 2005. Spatial epidemiology: an emerging (or re-emerging) discipline. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20(6):328-336. Owen, J., F. Moore, and N. Panell. 2006. Migrating birds as dispersal vehicles for West Nile virus. EcoHealth 3(2):79-85. Park, Y. L., T. M. Perring, R. Yacoub, D. Bartel, and D. Elms. 2006. Spatial and temporal dynamics of overwintering Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) adults. Journal of Economic Entomology 99(6):1936-1942. Parry, M. L., C. Rosenzweig, A. Iglesias, M. Livermore, and G. Fischer. 2004. Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14:53-67.
OCR for page 122
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Pascual, M., X. Rodó, S. Ellner, R. Colwell, and M. Bouma. 2000. Cholera dynamics and El NiñoSouthern Oscillation. Science 289(5485):1766-1769. Pascual, M., J. A. Ahumada, L. F. Chaves, X. Rodo, and M. J. Bouma. 2006. Malaria resurgence in East African highlands: temperature trends revisited. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(15):5829-5834. Patterson, G. 2004. The mosquito wars. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida. Patz, J. A. 2005. Climate change. In Environmental health: from global to local, edited by H. Frumkin. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 238-268. Patz, J. A., and R. S. Kovats. 2002. Hotspots in climate change and human health. British Medical Journal 325(7372):1094-1098. Patz, J. A., and S. W. Lindsay. 1999. New challenges, new tools: the impact of climate change on infectious diseases. Current Opinion in Microbiology 2(4):445-451. Patz, J. A., and S. H. Olson. 2006. Climate change and health: global to local influences on disease risk. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100(5-6):535-549. Patz, J. A., W. J. Martens, D. A. Focks, and T. H. Jetten. 1998. Dengue fever epidemic potential as projected by general circulation models of global climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives 106(3):147-153. Patz, J. A., M. A. McGeehin, S. M. Bernard, K. L. Ebi, P. R. Epstein, A. Grambsch, D. J. Gubler, P. Reiter, I. Romieu, J. B. Rose, J. M. Samet, and J. Trtanj. 2001. The potential health impacts of climate variability and change for the United States. Executive summary of the report of the health sector of the U.S. National Assessment. Journal of Environmental Health 64(2):20-28. Patz, J. A., P. Daszak, G. M. Tabor, A. A. Aguirre, M. Pearl, J. Epstein, N. D. Wolfe, A. M. Kilpatrick, J. Foufopoulos, D. Molyneux, D. J. Bradley, and Members of the Working Group on Land Use Change and Disease Emergence. 2004. Unhealthy landscapes: policy recommendations on land use change and infectious disease emergence. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(10):1092-1098. Patz, J. A., D. Campbell-Lendrum, T. Holloway, and J. A. Foley. 2005. Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature 438(7066):310-317. Pinheiro, F. P. 1989. Dengue in the Americas, 1980-1987. Epidemiological Bulletin 10(1):1-7. Platonov, A. E., G. A. Shipulin, O. Y. Shipulina, E. N. Tyutyunnik, T. I. Frolochkina, R. S. Lanciotti, S. Yazyshina, O. V. Platonova, I. L. Obukhov, A. N. Zhukov, Y. Y. Vengerov, and V. I. Pokrovskii. 2001. Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, Volgograd region, Russia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(1):128-132. Power, A. G., and C. E. Mitchell. 2004. Pathogen spillover in disease epidemics. The American Naturalist 164(Suppl 5):S79-S89. ProMed-Mail. 2007 (April 16). Dengue/DHF update 2007 (16), Archive Number 20070416.1263, http://www.promedmail.org (accessed September 6, 2007). Purcell, A. H. 1997. Xylella fastidiosa, a regional problem or global threat? Journal of Plant Pathology 79(2):99-105. Purcell, A. H., and H. Feil. 2001 (October). Glassy-winged sharpshooter. Pesticide Outlook 12: 199-203. Purcell, A. H., and A. H. Finlay. 1979. Evidence for noncirculative transmission of Pierce’s disease bacterium by sharpshooter leafhoppers. Phytopathology 69(4):393-395. Purcell, A. H., and S. R. Saunders. 1999. Fate of Pierce’s disease strains of Xylella fastidiosa in common riparian plants in California. Plant Disease 83:825-830. Purcell, A. H., A. H. Finlay, and D. L. McClean. 1979. Pierce’s disease bacterium: mechanism of transmission by leafhopper vectors. Science 206(4420):839-841. Purcell, A. H., S. R. Saunders, M. Hendson, M. E. Grebus, and M. J. Henry. 1999. Causal role of Xylella fastidiosa in oleander leaf scorch disease. Phytopathology 89(1):53-58. Raddatz, R. L. 1986. A biometeorological model of an encephalitis vector. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 34(1-2):185-199.
OCR for page 123
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Raoult, D., T. Woodward, and J. S. Dumler. 2004. The history of epidemic typhus. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 18(1):127-135. Rappole, J. H., S. R. Derrickson, and Z. Hubálek. 2000. Migratory birds and spread of West Nile virus in the western hemisphere. Emerging Infectious Diseases 6(4):319-327. Redak, R. A., A. H. Purcell, J. R. S. Lopes, M. J. Blua, R. F. Mizell, and P. C. Andersen. 2004. The biology of xylem fluid-feeding insect vectors of Xylella fastidiosa and their relation to disease epidemiology. Annual Review of Entomology 49:243-270. Reisen, W. K., Y. Fang, and V. Martinez. 2006. Effects of temperature on the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 43(2):309-317. Rico-Hesse, R. 1990. Molecular evolution and distribution of dengue viruses type 1 and 2 in nature. Virology 174(2):479-493. Robertson, S. E., B. P. Hull, O. Tomori, O. Bele, J. W. LeDuc, and K. Esteves. 1996. Yellow fever: a decade of reemergence. Journal of the American Medical Association 276(14):1157-1162. Rodo, X., M. Pascual, G. Fuchs, and A. S. Faruque. 2002. ENSO and cholera: a non-stationary link related to climate change? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(20): 12901-12906. Rueda, L. M., K. J. Patel, R. C. Axtell, and R. E. Stinner. 1990. Temperature-dependent development and survival rates of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 27(5):892-898. Ruiz, M. O., E. D. Walker, E. S. Foster, L. D. Haramis, and U. D. Kitron. 2007. Association of West Nile virus illness and urban landscapes in Chicago and Detroit. International Journal of Health Geographics 6:10. Sanders, E. J., A. A. Marfin, P. M. Tukei, G. Kuria, G. Ademba, N. N. Agata, J. O. Ouma, C. B. Cropp, N. Karabatsos, P. Reiter, P. S. Moore, and D. J. Gubler. 1998. First recorded outbreak of yellow fever in Kenya, 1992-93; I. Epidemiologic investigations. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59(4):644-649. Schar, C., P. L. Vidale, D. Luthi, C. Frei, C. Haberli, M. A. Liniger, and C. Appenzeller. 2004. The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature 427(6972): 332-336. Schliessman, D. J., and L. B. Calheiros. 1974. A review of the status of yellow fever and Aedes aegypti eradication programs in the Americans. Mosquito News 34:1-9. Schuenzel, E. L., M. Scally, R. Stouthamer, and L. Nunney. 2005. A multigene phylogenetic study of clonal diversity and divergence in North American strains of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(7):3832-3839. Scott, T. W., W. Takken, B. G. J. Knols, and C. Boete. 2002. The ecology of genetically modified mosquitoes. Science 298(5591):117-119. Seawright, J. A., P. E. Kaiser, D. A. Dame, and C. S. Lofgren. 1978. Genetic method for preferential elimination of females of Anopheles albimanus. Science 200(4347):1303-1304. Service, M. W. 1983. Biological control of mosquitoes—has it a future. Mosquito News 43(2): 113-120. Severin, H. H. P. 1949. Transmission of the virus of Pierce’s disease of grapevines by leafhoppers. Hilgardia 19:190-206. Severin, H. H. P. 1950. Spittle-insect vectors of Pierce’s disease virus II. Life history and virus transmission. Hilgardia 19:357-381. Shaman, J., M. Stieglitz, C. Stark, S. Le Blancq, and M. Cane. 2002. Using a dynamic hydrology model to predict mosquito abundances in flood and swamp water. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8(1):6-13. Shaman, J., J. F. Day, and M. Stieglitz. 2005. Drought-induced amplification and epidemic transmission of West Nile virus in southern Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(2):134-141. Shapiro, J. P. 1980. Ovarian responsiveness to a brain hormone in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti—the role of juvenile hormone. American Zoologist 20(4):901.
OCR for page 124
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Smith, C. N., and M. M. Cole. 1943. Studies of hymenopterous parasites of the American dog tick. Journal of Economic Entomology 36:569-572. Smith, T. W., E. D. Walker, and M. G. Kaufman. 1998. Bacterial density and survey of cultivable heterotrophs in the surface water of a freshwater marsh habitat of Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 14(1):72-77. Smithburn, K. C., T. P. Hughes, A. W. Burke, and J. H. Paul. 1940. A neurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native of Uganda. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 20(4):471-492. Sorensen, J. T., and R. J. Gill. 1996. A range extension of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Clypeorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) to southern California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 72(3): 160-161. Southwood, T. R. E., M. Murdie, M. Yasuno, R. J. Tonn, and P. M. Reader. 1972. Studies on the life budget of Aedes aegypti in Wat Samphaya, Bangkok, Thailand. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 46(2):211-226. Speranca, M. A., and M. L. Capurro. 2007. Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era—a review. Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 102(4):425-433. Spielman, A. 1994. Why entomological antimalaria research should not focus on transgenic mosquitos. Parasitology Today 10(10):374-376. Spielman, A. 2003. Research approaches in the development of interventions against vector-borne infection. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:3727-3734. Spielman, A. 2006. U.S. capacity to confront emerging vector-borne pathogens. In Ensuring an infectious disease workforce: education and training needs for the 21st century. Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Steere, A. C., J. Coburn, and L. Glickstein. 2004. The emergence of Lyme disease. Journal of Clinical Investigation 113(8):1093-1101. Sumarmo, H. Wulur, E. Jahya, D. J. Gubler, and K. Sorensen.1983. Clinical observations virologically confirmed fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever in Jakarta, Indonesia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 61(4):693-701. Sutherst, R. W. 2004. Global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 17(1):136-173. Tabachnick, W. J. 2003. Reflections on the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence, transgenic mosquitoes and the prospect for controlling malaria and other vector-borne diseases. Journal of Medical Entomology 40(5):597-606. Takeda, T., C. A. Whitehouse, M. Brewer, A. D. Gettman, and T. N. Mather. 2003. Arbovirus surveillance in Rhode Island: assessing potential ecologic and climatic correlates. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19(3):179-189. Tanser, F. C., B. Sharp, and D. Le Sueur. 2003. Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa. Lancet 362(9398):1792-1798. Tesh, R. B., and H. Guzman. 1996. Sand flies and the agents they transmit. In The biology of disease vectors, edited by B. Beaty and W. C. Marquardt. Niwot: University Press of Colorado. Theiler, M., and C. R. Anderson. 1975. The relative resistance of dengue-immune monkeys to yellow fever virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 24(1):115-117. Thomson, M. C., F. J. Doblas-Reyes, S. J. Mason, R. Hagedorn, S. J. Connor, T. Phindela, A. P. Morse, and T. N. Palmer. 2006. Malaria early warnings based on seasonal climate forecasts from multimodel ensembles. Nature 439(7076):576-579. Torn, M. S., and J. Harte. 2006. Missing feedbacks, asymmetric uncertainties, and the underestimation of future warming. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L10703.
OCR for page 125
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Toure, Y., and L. Manga. 2004. Ethical, legal and social issues in the use of genetically modified vectors for disease control. In Proceedings of the joint WHO/TDR, NIAID, IAEA and Frontis workshop on bridging laboratory and field research for genetic control of vectors, Nairobi, Kenya, July 14-16, 2004, edited by B. G. J. Knols and C. Louis. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Springer Science. Trenberth, K. 2005. Uncertainty in hurricanes and global warming. Science 308(5729):1753-1754. Trevejo, R. T., J. G. Rigau-Perez, D. A. Ashford, E. M. McClure, C. Jarquan-Gonzalez, J. J. Amador, J. O. de los Reyes, A. Gonzalez, S. R. Zaki, W. J. Shieh, R. G. McLean, R. S. Nasci, R. S. Weyant, C. A. Bolin, S. L. Bragg, B. A. Perkins, and R. A. Spiegel. 1998. Epidemic leptospirosis associated with pulmonary hemorrhage—Nicaragua, 1995. Journal of Infectious Diseases 178(5):1457-1463. Tuno, N., W. Okeka, N. Minakawa, M. Takagi, and G. Yan. 2005. Survivorship of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in western Kenya highland forest. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(3):270-277. Turell, M. J., M. L. O’Guinn, D. J. Dohm, and J. W. Jones. 2001. Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 38(2):130-134. Ulloa, A., S. A. Langevin, J. D. Mendez-Sanchez, J. I. Arredondo-Jimenez, J. L. Raetz, A. M. Powers, C. Villarreal-Trevino, D. J. Gubler, and N. Komar. 2003. Serologic survey of domestic animals for zoonotic arbovirus infections in the Lacandon Forest region of Chiapas, Mexico. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 3(1):3-9. UN (United Nations). 2007. World population prospects: the 2006 revision. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat. Usinger, R. L. 1944. Entomological phases of the recent dengue epidemic in Honolulu. Public Health Reports 59:423-430. Uspensky, I. 1999. Ticks as the main target of human tick-borne disease control: Russian practical experience and its lessons. Journal of Vector Ecology 24(1):40-53. Van der Stuyft, P., A. Gianella, M. Pirard, J. Cespedes, J. Lora, C. Peredo, J. L. Pelegrino, V. Vorndam, and M. Boelaert. 1999. Urbanization of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Lancet 353(9164):1558-1562. Van Dolah, F. M. 2000. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(Suppl 1):133-141. Vandyk, J. K., and W. A. Rowley. 1995. Response of Iowa mosquito populations to unusual precipitation patterns as measured by New Jersey light trap collections. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 11:200-205. Vittor, A. Y., R. H. Gilman, J. Tielsch, G. Glass, T. Shields, W. S. Lozano, V. Pinedo-Cancino, and J. A. Patz. 2006. The effect of deforestation on the human-biting rate of Anopheles darlingi, the primary vector of falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74(1):3-11. Walker, E. D., E. J. Olds, and R. W. Merritt. 1988. Gut content-analysis of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) using dapi stain and epifluorescence microscopy. Journal of Medical Entomology 25(6):551-554. Walker, E. D., D. L. Lawson, R. W. Merritt, W. T. Morgan, and M. J. Klug. 1991. Nutrient dynamics, bacterial populations, and mosquito productivity in tree hole ecosystems and microcosms. Ecology 72(5):1529-1546. Walker, J., ed. 2004. World disasters report 2004. Geneva, Switzerland: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Watts, D., D. Burke, B. Harrison, R. Whitmire, and A. Nisalak. 1987. Effect of temperature on the vector efficiency of Aedes aegypti for dengue 2 virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 36(1):143-152.
OCR for page 126
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections - Workshop Summary Wayne, P., S. Foster, J. Connolly, F. Bazzaz, and P. Epstein. 2002. Production of allergenic pollen by ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is increased in CO2-enriched atmospheres. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 88(3):279-282. Wegbreit, J., and W. K. Reisen. 2000. Relationships among weather, mosquito abundance, and encephalitis virus activity in California: Kern County 1990-98. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 16(1):22-27. WHO (World Health Organization). 1983. International health regulations, 3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Pp. 26-29. WHO. 1994. Plague in India: World Health Organization team executive report. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO. 1997. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment and control, 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO. 2000. Strengthening implementation of the global strategy for dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever prevention and control. Report of the Informal Consultation, October 18-20, 1999. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO. 2002. The World Health Report 2002. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Wilcox, B. A., D. J. Gubler, and H. F. Pizer. 2007. Urbanization and the social ecology of emerging infectious diseases. In Social ecology of infectious diseases, edited by K. H. Mayer and H. F. Pizer. Boston, MA: Elsevier, Academic Press. Pp. 113-137. Wolfe, N. D., P. Daszak, A. M. Kilpatrick, and D. S. Burke. 2005. Bushmeat hunting, deforestation, and prediction of zoonotic disease emergence. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(12):1822-1827. Wong, F., D. A. Cooksey, H. S. Costa, and R. Hernandez. 2006. Documentation and characterization of Xylella fastidiosa strains in landscape hosts. In Proceedings: Pierce’s disease research symposium. Symposium held in San Diego, California, November 27-29. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Food and Agriculture. Pp. 191-197. Woodruff, R., C. Guest, M. G. Garner, N. Becker, J. Lindesay, T. Carvan, and K. Ebi. 2002. Predicting Ross River virus epidemics from regional weather data. Epidemiology 13(4):384-393. Woolhouse, M. E. J., and S. Gowtage-Sequeira. 2005. Host range and emerging and reemerging pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(12):1842-1847. Zhou, G., N. Minakawa, A. K. Githeko, and G. Yan. 2005. Climate variability and malaria epidemics in the highlands of East Africa. Trends in Parasitology 21(2):54-56. Ziska, L. H., and F. A. Caulfield. 2000. Rising carbon dioxide and pollen production of common ragweed, a known allergy-inducing species: implications for public health. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27:893-898. Ziska, L. H., D. E. Gebhard, D. A. Frenz, S. Faulkner, B. D. Singer, and J. G. Straka. 2003. Cities as harbingers of climate change: common ragweed, urbanization, and public health. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111(2):290-295. Zou, L., S. N. Miller, and E. T. Schmidtmann. 2007. A GIS tool to estimate West Nile virus risk based on a degree-day model. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 129(1-3):413-420.