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The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon F Biographies of Committee Members and Staff GEORGE A. PAULIKAS, Chair, has been at the forefront of advances in space science and space systems and has made many technical contributions to the development of national security space systems. He retired after 37 years at the Aerospace Corporation, having joined Aerospace in 1961 as a member of the technical staff and later becoming department head, laboratory director, vice president, and senior vice president. He became executive vice president in 1992. He received the company’s highest award, the Trustees’ Distinguished Achievement Award, in 1981 in recognition of research leading to a new understanding of the dynamics of space radiation and its effect on spacecraft. Dr. Paulikas was vice chair of the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Space Studies Board (SSB) from 2003 to 2006. He has also served on a number of NRC study committees, including the Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs (vice chair), the Committee on the Scientific Context for Space Exploration, the Committee on Systems Integration for Project Constellation, the Workshop Committee on Issues and Opportunities Regarding the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Committee to Review the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan. CARLÉ M. PIETERS, Vice Chair, is a professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at Brown University. Her research areas include the study of lunar evolution, asteroid-meteorite links, space weathering of materials, Mars mineralogy, and planetary exploration; she also conducts laboratory spectroscopy experiments on planetary materials. She was a member of the science team for the DOD-NASA Clementine mission. Dr. Pieters is active in international cooperation on lunar research with European, Russian, and Indian scientists. She is principal investigator (PI) of a Discovery Mission of Opportunity for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper to be flown on Chandrayaan-1, India’s mission to the Moon to be launched in 2008. Her NRC service includes membership on the SSB, the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, the Study Team on the Terrestrial Planets, and the Task Group on Research Prioritization, and as chair of the Inner Planets Panel of the Committee on a New Science Strategy for Solar System Exploration. WILLIAM B. BANERDT is a principal research scientist at the California Institute of Technology’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. His research interests cover planetary science, geophysics, gravity, and seismology. He serves as project scientist for the Mars Exploration Rovers project, is a participating scientist for the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Investigation on the Mars Global Surveyor, and is a co-investigator on the Rosetta Surface Electrical, Seismic and Acoustic Monitoring Experiment Team. Dr. Banerdt served as PI on the Discovery Mars NetLander Project (2001-2003), PI on the NetLander Short-Period Seismometer (1998-2003), guest investigator on the Magel-
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The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon lan Radar Investigation Team (1990-1994), and chair of the NASA Mars Data Analysis Program Review Panel (2004-2005). He currently serves on the NRC Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. JAMES L. BURCH is a vice president at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in the Space Science and Engineering Division. Dr. Burch was a space physicist at NASA for 6 years prior to his taking a position at SwRI in 1977. In 1996, he was selected as the PI for the NASA Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration mission, which provided global images of key regions of Earth’s magnetosphere as they respond to variations in the solar wind. He now serves as PI and chair of the Science Working Group for the NASA Magnetospheric Multiprobe mission. Dr. Burch was elected a fellow of the American Geophysical Union in recognition of his work in the field of space physics and aeronomy, including research on the interaction of the solar wind with Earth’s magnetosphere and the physics of the aurora. He recently served on the governing board of the American Institute of Physics and previously chaired the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics. He also served on the NRC Committee for the Review of NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Plan. ANDREW CHAIKIN is a science journalist, a space historian, and a commentator for National Public Radio, and has been an adviser to NASA on space policy and public communications. Mr. Chaikin has authored books and articles about space exploration and astronomy for more than two decades. He is also active as a lecturer at museums, schools, corporate events, and in radio and television appearances. He is best known as the author of A Man on the Moon: The Triumphant Story of the Apollo Space Program, first published in 1994. Mr. Chaikin spent 8 years writing and researching A Man on the Moon, including hundreds of hours of personal interviews with the 23 surviving lunar astronauts. He co-edited The New Solar System, a compendium of writings by planetary scientists, and he is also the author of Air and Space: The National Air and Space Museum Story of Flight. He collaborated with moonwalker-turned-artist Alan Bean to write Apollo: An Eyewitness Account, and he co-authored the text for the collection of Apollo photography, Full Moon. Mr. Chaikin served on the Viking missions to Mars team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and he was a researcher at the Smithsonian’s Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. BARBARA A. COHEN is a research assistant professor and assistant curator of meteorites in the Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico. Her research efforts combine geochemistry and geochronology of terrestrial, lunar, and meteoritic samples to contribute to the understanding of planetary surface processes, including impact processing, igneous magmatism, and aqueous alteration. She has served on the Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM) and the CAPTEM lunar sample subcommittee. She is currently a member of the Athena Science team for the Mars Exploration Rovers mission. MICHAEL DUKE is a planetary geologist who recently retired as the director of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space at the Colorado School of Mines. His principal research focuses on the general area of study that relates to the use of in situ resources to support human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. His planetary science interests relate to the mineralogy and petrology of meteorites and lunar materials. Dr. Duke worked at the NASA Johnson Space Center for 25 years prior to accepting the position at the Colorado School of Mines in 1998. He has also been a research scientist at the U.S. Geological Survey (1963-1970) and curator of NASA’s lunar sample collection (1970-1977). Dr. Duke received the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Award (1973) and the AIAA’s Space Science Medal (1998), and he was a Distinguished Federal Executive (1988). He served as a member of the NRC Panel on Solar System Exploration of the Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion. ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan, resigned from the committee on August 11, 2006, because of other commitments. HARALD HIESINGER is a professor of geological planetology at Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster. He was formerly a senior research associate in geological sciences at Brown University and an assistant professor
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The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon of planetary sciences at Central Connecticut State University. His research focuses on the new imaging data of the martian surface provided by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera and on dating lunar mare basalts to investigate the thermal and mineralogical evolution of the Moon and their consequences for volcanism. He is co-investigator on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, scheduled for launch in 2008. Dr. Hiesinger is currently involved in three international space missions—the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the European Mars Express, and the European Bepi Colombo. He has published many scientific papers on the Moon, Mars, and Ganymede and has written and/or contributed to two book chapters. NOEL W. HINNERS is a senior research associate at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and lecturer on space policy at the University of Colorado. He retired in January 2002 from Lockheed Martin Astronautics where he was vice president of light systems with responsibility for NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the Stardust and Genesis Discovery missions. Dr. Hinners served as an associate deputy administrator and the NASA chief scientist (1987-1989), director of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1982-1987), director of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum (1979-1982), NASA associate administrator for space science (1974-1979), and director of NASA’s Lunar Programs (1972-1974). He served on the NRC Committee on Technology for Human/Robotic Exploration and Development of Space (2001), the Committee on Human Exploration (chair, 1996-1997), and the Committee on Human Exploration (chair, 1990-1993). AYANNA M. HOWARD is an associate professor of systems and controls in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and is the founder of the Human-Automation Systems Laboratory at Georgia Tech. From 1993 to 2005, Dr. Howard was at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) where she led research efforts on various robotic projects utilizing vision, fuzzy logic, and neural network methodologies. As a robotic scientist at JPL, she specialized in the study of artificial intelligence. Her area of research at Georgia Tech focuses on the concept of humanized intelligence—the process of embedding human cognitive capability into the control path of autonomous systems. This work, which addresses issues of autonomous control as well as aspects of interaction with humans and the surrounding environment, has resulted in more than 60 publications covering topics ranging from autonomous rover navigation for planetary surface exploration to intelligent terrain assessment algorithms for landing on Mars. Dr. Howard’s unique accomplishments have been documented in more than 12 featured articles, and she was named as one of the world’s top young innovators of 2003 by Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Technology Review and in TIME’s “Rise of the Machines” article in 2004. DAVID J. LAWRENCE is a technical staff member in the Space Science and Applications Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and recently served as acting director of the LANL Center for Space Science and Exploration, which oversees all NASA-funded programs at LANL. Dr. Lawrence specializes in the study of planetary compositions using various nuclear detection techniques as well as in Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored treaty verification efforts. He has extensive instrumentation and data analysis experience for spaceflight missions funded by NASA and DOE. His involvement in NASA missions includes Deep Space-1, Lunar Prospector, Mars Odyssey, and MESSENGER, as well as the European Space Agency’s SMART-1 mission. Dr. Lawrence is PI for two neutron instruments that will fly on DOE-funded space-based treaty-monitoring missions. He is PI or co-investigator on numerous NASA-funded planetary science and instrument development grants and has also served on various NASA review panels. Dr. Lawrence is the author or co-author of more than 60 peer-reviewed publications in the areas of space and planetary sciences and instrumentation. He served on the NRC Committee for the Review of NASA’s Capability Roadmaps Panel A: In-Situ Resource Utilization (2005). DANIEL F. LESTER is a research scientist at the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas. His research specialty is infrared studies of star formation in galaxies. Dr. Lester was previously a staff scientist at the University of Hawaii’s Institute for Astronomy. He has also worked closely on the conceptual development of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy and has been active in community strategic planning and policy development for space astronomy. Dr. Lester was the PI and team leader for NASA’s Single Aperture Far Infrared
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The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon “Vision Mission” study. He served on the NRC Panel on Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion. He currently serves on the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee, a multiagency oversight committee for astronomy. PAUL G. LUCEY is a professor in the Department of Geology and Geophysics and the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the University of Hawaii. His research focuses on the development of remote sensing instruments. His planetary science interests focus on the study of the Moon and asteroids, but he has also conducted research and published papers on Mercury, Venus, and Mars. Dr. Lucey’s lunar research has primarily involved the examination of remote sensing data as it relates to the composition of the lunar crust and the surfaces of asteroids. His spacecraft experience includes being a member of the science team on the Department of Defense/NASA Clementine lunar orbiter and a participating scientist for NASA’s Near-Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission. Dr. Lucey also served as one of the lead authors for a white paper drafted by the NASA Astrobiology Institute entitled “Astrobiology Science Goals and Lunar Exploration.” S. ALAN STERN, Southwest Research Institute, resigned from the committee on September 24, 2006, to join the NASA Advisory Committee Science Subcommittee (and on April 2, 2007, became Associate Administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate). STEFANIE TOMPKINS is a deputy operations manager at Science Applications International Corporation, where she manages research and development projects for hyperspectral image exploitation and conducts independent research as a NASA PI. Her research efforts focus on reflectance spectroscopy as it applies to remote geochemical analysis of planetary surfaces, including Earth’s Moon and Earth itself. Her most recent publications discuss her work in mapping the subsurface composition of the Moon using spectroscopic signatures of rocks excavated by impact craters and in algorithm development for modeling mixed pixels in spectral imagery. FRANCISCO P.J. VALERO is the associate director of the Center for Atmospheric Sciences at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) at the University of California, San Diego. His research interests include climate studies, atmospheric radiative transfer, and solar system exploration. Dr. Valero joined SIO in 1993 after many years as a senior scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center, where he began his career as a specialist in spectroscopy of stellar and planetary atmospheres. While at Ames, he pioneered advanced radiometric instrumentation for climate studies from research aircraft. Dr. Valero’s instruments continue to play a role in many meteorological and climate experiments led by NASA and the Department of Energy. He was the PI for the TIREX experiment in NASA’s Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby and NASA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory satellite mission that was built to make high-time-resolution multispectral observations of the entire Earth disk from the Lagrange L-1 point. JOHN W. VALLEY is the Charles R. Van Hise Professor of Geology in the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His primary areas of interest are in stable isotope geochemistry, with particular emphasis on the evolution of Earth’s crust. In 2005, he established WiscSIMS, a laboratory dedicated to in situ microanalysis of stable isotope ratios with applications to Earth, materials, and biological sciences. In 2003, Dr. Valley received the American Geophysical Union Bowen Award, presented by the Volcanology, Geochemistry, and Petrology Section for work on zircons from early Archean rocks of northwestern Australia, which provide documentation of previously missing Earth history with evidence of an early ocean and a relatively cool history during the Hadean Era. In 2005 to 2006, he was president of the Mineralogical Society of America. CHARLES D. WALKER is an independent consultant and the former director of NASA Systems Government Relations at the Boeing Company. From 1979 to 1986, he was chief test engineer and payload specialist for the McDonnell Douglas Electrophoresis Operations in Space (EOS) commercialization project, where he led the EOS laboratory test and operations team in developing biomedical products. His contributions to the program included engineering planning, design and development, product research, and spaceflight and the evaluation of the continuous flow electrophoresis system (CFES) device. He was responsible for training NASA astronaut crews in
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The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon the operation of the CFES payload on STS-4, STS-6, STS-7, and STS-8. Although never an employee of NASA, Mr. Walker was confirmed in 1983 as the first industry payload specialist, and he accompanied the McDonnell Douglas CFES equipment as a crew member on Space Shuttle missions 41-D, 51-D, and 61-B. In May 1986, Mr. Walker was appointed as a special assistant to the president of McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company. He served on the NRC Steering Committee for Workshops on Issues of Technology Development for Human and Robotic Exploration and Development of Space and on the Space Applications Board. NEVILLE J. WOOLF is a professor in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona and director of the university’s Life and Planets Astrobiology Center. His research interests focus on astronomical instrumentation. He is particularly interested in the development of interferometric techniques and in their application in the search for extrasolar planets. His recent research has included studies of the potential use of the lunar surface as an astronomical observing location. He has a longstanding interest in the characterization of the spectra of planetary bodies and in the identification of spectral features in planetary atmospheres that may be indicative of the presence of life. He is currently a member of the NRC Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, and he served as a member of the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions (2005) and the Committee on the Astrophysical Context of Life (2003-2004). Staff ROBERT L. RIEMER, Study Director, joined the staff of the NRC in 1985. He is a senior program officer and served in that capacity for the two most recent decadal surveys of astronomy and astrophysics and has worked on studies in many areas of physics and astronomy for the Board on Physics and Astronomy (where he served as associate director from 1988 to 2000) and the SSB. Prior to joining the NRC, Dr. Riemer was a senior project geophysicist with Chevron Corporation. He received his Ph.D. in experimental high-energy physics from the University of Kansas-Lawrence and his B.S. in physics and astrophysics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. DAVID H. SMITH joined the staff of the SSB in 1991. He is the senior staff officer and study director for a variety of NRC activities, including the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, the Mars Astrobiology Task Group, the Mars Architecture Assessment Task Group, the Committee on the Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, the Task Group on Organic Environments in the Solar System, the Nuclear Systems Committee, and the proposed Lunar Science Strategy Committee. He also organizes the SSB’s summer intern program and supervises most, if not all, of the interns. He received a B.Sc. in mathematical physics from the University of Liverpool in 1976 and a D.Phil. in theoretical astrophysics from Sussex University in 1981. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Queen Mary College, University (1980-1982), he held the position of associate editor and, later, technical editor of Sky and Telescope. Immediately prior to joining the staff of the SSB, Dr. Smith was a Knight Science Journalism Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1990-1991). STEPHANIE BEDNAREK, working as a research assistant during her SSB space policy internship, is attending University of Virginia (UVA) for a bachelor of science degree in aerospace engineering with a minor in astronomy. Ms. Bednarek has worked as an intern with Aerospace Industries Association and Orbital Sciences Corporation. At UVA, she served as the student director of engineering visitation and undergraduate recruitment and secretary of UVA’s American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics student chapter. In addition, she served as vice president of UVA’s Equestrian Team and is a member of Alpha Delta Pi sorority. After graduation in May 2007, she plans to attend graduate school to study science and technology and policy and to pursue a career in space policy. CATHERINE A. GRUBER, an assistant editor for the SSB, joined the board as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and has also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Academy of Sciences-Smithsonian Institution’s National Science Resources Center. She was a research assistant (chemist) in the National Institute
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The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. RODNEY N. HOWARD joined SSB as a senior project assistant in 2002. Before joining SSB, most of his vocational life was spent in the health profession as a pharmacy technologist at Doctor’s Hospital in Lanham, Maryland, and as an interim center administrator at the Concentra Medical Center in Jessup, Maryland. During that time, he participated in a number of Quality Circle Initiatives that were designed to improve relations between management and staff. Mr. Howard obtained his B.A. in communications from the University of Baltimore County in 1983.
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