of planetary sciences at Central Connecticut State University. His research focuses on the new imaging data of the martian surface provided by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera and on dating lunar mare basalts to investigate the thermal and mineralogical evolution of the Moon and their consequences for volcanism. He is co-investigator on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, scheduled for launch in 2008. Dr. Hiesinger is currently involved in three international space missions—the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the European Mars Express, and the European Bepi Colombo. He has published many scientific papers on the Moon, Mars, and Ganymede and has written and/or contributed to two book chapters.


NOEL W. HINNERS is a senior research associate at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and lecturer on space policy at the University of Colorado. He retired in January 2002 from Lockheed Martin Astronautics where he was vice president of light systems with responsibility for NASA’s Mars Global Surveyor, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the Stardust and Genesis Discovery missions. Dr. Hinners served as an associate deputy administrator and the NASA chief scientist (1987-1989), director of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1982-1987), director of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum (1979-1982), NASA associate administrator for space science (1974-1979), and director of NASA’s Lunar Programs (1972-1974). He served on the NRC Committee on Technology for Human/Robotic Exploration and Development of Space (2001), the Committee on Human Exploration (chair, 1996-1997), and the Committee on Human Exploration (chair, 1990-1993).


AYANNA M. HOWARD is an associate professor of systems and controls in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and is the founder of the Human-Automation Systems Laboratory at Georgia Tech. From 1993 to 2005, Dr. Howard was at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) where she led research efforts on various robotic projects utilizing vision, fuzzy logic, and neural network methodologies. As a robotic scientist at JPL, she specialized in the study of artificial intelligence. Her area of research at Georgia Tech focuses on the concept of humanized intelligence—the process of embedding human cognitive capability into the control path of autonomous systems. This work, which addresses issues of autonomous control as well as aspects of interaction with humans and the surrounding environment, has resulted in more than 60 publications covering topics ranging from autonomous rover navigation for planetary surface exploration to intelligent terrain assessment algorithms for landing on Mars. Dr. Howard’s unique accomplishments have been documented in more than 12 featured articles, and she was named as one of the world’s top young innovators of 2003 by Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Technology Review and in TIME’s “Rise of the Machines” article in 2004.


DAVID J. LAWRENCE is a technical staff member in the Space Science and Applications Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and recently served as acting director of the LANL Center for Space Science and Exploration, which oversees all NASA-funded programs at LANL. Dr. Lawrence specializes in the study of planetary compositions using various nuclear detection techniques as well as in Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored treaty verification efforts. He has extensive instrumentation and data analysis experience for spaceflight missions funded by NASA and DOE. His involvement in NASA missions includes Deep Space-1, Lunar Prospector, Mars Odyssey, and MESSENGER, as well as the European Space Agency’s SMART-1 mission. Dr. Lawrence is PI for two neutron instruments that will fly on DOE-funded space-based treaty-monitoring missions. He is PI or co-investigator on numerous NASA-funded planetary science and instrument development grants and has also served on various NASA review panels. Dr. Lawrence is the author or co-author of more than 60 peer-reviewed publications in the areas of space and planetary sciences and instrumentation. He served on the NRC Committee for the Review of NASA’s Capability Roadmaps Panel A: In-Situ Resource Utilization (2005).


DANIEL F. LESTER is a research scientist at the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas. His research specialty is infrared studies of star formation in galaxies. Dr. Lester was previously a staff scientist at the University of Hawaii’s Institute for Astronomy. He has also worked closely on the conceptual development of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy and has been active in community strategic planning and policy development for space astronomy. Dr. Lester was the PI and team leader for NASA’s Single Aperture Far Infrared



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