Coordinates Reference Frame

  1. Lunar mission teams should archive final mission data products in a PDS-compatible form, to implement international standards for access, and to support Unicode, or other necessary format

  2. The establishment of Common standards for S-band spacecraft communication, with potential for common tracking operations and backup support to other missions, if necessary

  3. A coordinated campaign to provide data cross-check and validation for modern-era missions that have overlap in coverage, with data and experience from Past missions (including archived and digitized Apollo and Soviet-era lunar data) is recommended

  4. Information about the five impact events/probes (SMART-1, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, SELENE RSAT, and VSAT) and subsequent impacts of lunar crafts should be coordinated with other space missions. Ground- and space-based measurements should be conducted for near-side events. All of the planned four orbital missions are asked observe the SMART-1 impact site. Before, after, and real-time measurements should be planned by all spacecraft that are in orbit during the impact events

To strengthen exchange between lunar experts and to enhance collaboration, we recommend to international science and space organizations join in and support the International Lunar Decade.

For the subsequent phase of Lunar Global Robotic Village and preparation for human exploration, we further recommend:

  1. To promote use of standardized telecommunications, navigation, and VLBI support for future orbiter, lander and rover missions. We propose that ILEWG and agencies study the opportunity to embark some payload technologies for navigation and guidance on orbiters and landers as part of a Global Moon Navigation and Positioning System

  2. Lunar Missions should document their plans for end of operations. Before completing their mission, future orbiters could be placed on frozen stable orbits where they can participate in a joint infrastructure for data relay, aid to navigation and lunar internet, in addition to landed surface beacons

  3. Recognizing the importance of the geophysical studies of the interior of the Moon for understanding its formation and evolution, the necessity for a better monitoring of all natural hazards (radiation, meteorites impacts and shallow moonquakes) on the surface, and the series of landers planned by agencies in the period 2010-2015 as an unique opportunity for setting up a geophysical network on the Moon, we recommend the creation of an international scientific working group for definition of a common standard for future Moon network instruments, in a way comparable to Earth seismology and magnetism networks. Interested agencies and research organizations should study inclusion of network instruments in the Moon landers payload and also piggyback deployment of a Moon Geophysical and Environmental Suitcase

  4. The importance of protecting the Moon becomes more urgent than ever before, as we enter a decade with many planned lunar exploration missions, including orbiters, impactors, penetrators and landers. Space agencies should give their attention to the protection of the Moon for sustainable exploration, research and utilization. A dedicated task force should be set up to study this issue and produce a recommendation for all future missions

  5. Lunar Exploration is ideal for outreach activities that are accessible and inspiring for the next generation of explorers. Students should work on lunar payloads and participate in missions. We propose to use milestones of lunar missions for public outreach events promoting exploration, space science and technology

We reaffirm our commitment, with the international lunar missions and research community, to prepare the way for global participation in the extension of human presence on the Moon and beyond, for the benefit of all mankind.

Beijing, July 27, 2006

Unanimously approved by the participants

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement