Marital and family therapy is often used in combination with other therapies (Foa et al., 2000; Friedman, 2003). These approaches focus on symptom relief through increasing help and understanding in the family unit and fostering communication and support, or by treating marital or family disruption (Foa et al., 2000). Marital and family therapy approaches are typically time-limited, problem-focused interventions with courses of treatment varying depending on format of therapy (Foa et al., 2000).


Peer counseling is not a psychotherapy, but rather a supportive group approach. Voluntary group members convene, without an authority figure or expert, to give to and receive assistance from one another through honest disclosure and response (Friedman, 2003).


Psychosocial rehabilitation is currently suggested only as an adjunct to other forms of treating PTSD, since it is not typically trauma focused (Foa et al., 2000). Techniques are effective, but none listed here have been studied with PTSD patients using randomized, controlled trials (Foa et al., 2000). Techniques include health education and psychoeducational techniques, self-care and independent-living skills training, supported housing, family skills training, social skills training, vocational rehabilitation, and case management.


Beck, A. T. 1976. Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.

Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. 2003. Prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress. (accessed September 2007).

Foa, E. B., T. M. Keane, and M. J. Friedman. 2000. Effective treatments for PTSD. New York: The Guilford Press.

Friedman, M. J. 2003. Post traumatic stress disorder: The latest assessment and treatment strategies. Kansas City, MO: Compact Clinicals.

Harvey, A. G., R. A. Bryant, and N. Tarrier. 2003. Cognitive behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review 23(3):501-522.

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