Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 169
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Appendix C Measures Used in the Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Table begins on next page.
OCR for page 170
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Measure Description Scales/Factors Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised (ADIS-R) (DiNardo and Barlow, 1988) Assesses anxiety and affective disorders Structured diagnostic interview Likert rating scales Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) (Blake et al., 1990) Most widely used measure of PTSD (Weathers et al., 2001) Assesses all DSM-IV PTSD symptoms, impact on functioning, response validity, lifetime diagnosis, and overall PTSD severity Original version, based on DSM-III-R criteria: CAPS-1 (current and lifetime diagnosis, symptoms over past, or worst month since trauma) CAPS-2 (symptoms over past week for repeated assessments) DSM-IV revision with user feedback incorporated: CAPS-1 renamed CAPS-DX (diagnostic version) and CAPS-2 renamed CAPS-SX (symptom status version) Current version, CAPS, combined CAPS-1 and CAPS-2 Structured interview 45–60 minute administration by trained (para)professionals 34 items (17 items on frequency, 17 items on intensity) Dichotomous (diagnosis present/ absent) and continuous assessment Five-point Likert ratings of symptom severity (0–4) Time frames for assessment include: past week, month, or worst month since trauma Initially validated on combat veterans, subsequently applied in a wide variety of trauma populations including victims of rape, crime, motor vehicle accidents, incest, torture, and cancer (Weathers et al., 2001) Confirmatory factor analyses supported fit of two-factor structure (Buckley et al., 1998): Intrusion and avoidance, hyperarousal, and numbing Confirmatory factor analyses comparing solutions suggested an oblique 4-factor, first-order solution as the best fit to data (King et al., 1998): Reexperiencing, effortful avoidance, emotional numbing, hyperarousal
OCR for page 171
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Psychometric Properties Scoring and Interpretation Guidelines Sensitivity: 1.0 (Blanchard et al., 1986) Specificity: .91 (Blanchard et al., 1986) Inconsistent findings from two studies, better statistics in combat veterans than community-based study (Keane et al., 2000) Sensitivity: >.8, often >.9 (Weathers et al., 2001) Specificity: >.8, often >.9 (Weathers et al., 2001) Kappa: >.7 (criterion: SCID; Weathers et al., 2001) Internal consistency (alpha): typically .8–.9 for three clusters and for entire syndrome (Weathers et al., 2001) Test-retest reliability: .9–.98 (Weathers et al., 1992) Interrater reliability: ≥.9 (continuous); comparable, up to 100% (diagnosis) (Weathers et al., 2001) ≥.7 (typically .8–.9) correlations with self-report PTSD measures (Mississippi, Impact of Event Scale [IES], PTSD Checklist [PCL], Davidson Trauma Scale [DTS], Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2] Keane Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for PTSD [SCID-PTSD]) (for review: Weathers et al., 2001) Frequency scores: 0–68 Intensity scores: 0–136 Rating scales summed to create 9-point (0–8) severity score for each symptom Total Severity Score: 0–19: asymptomatic/few symptoms 20–39: mild PTSD/subthreshold 40–59: moderate PTSD/threshold 60–79: severe PTSD symptoms ≥80: extreme PTSD symptoms Clinically significant change: ≥15 pt change in CAPS total severity score Symptom Endorsement Scoring Rules: F1/I2: freq. ≥“1”, inten. ≥2 Rule of 2: severity ≥2 Rule of 3: severity ≥3 Rule of 4: severity ≥4 Diagnostic Rules “B” ≥1, “C” ≥3, “D” ≥2 TSEV65: total severity ≥65 Nine diagnostic scoring rules yield different prevalence rates (research setting: 26–49%, clinical: 47–82%) (Weathers et al., 1999) F1/I2 most lenient in clinical sample, second in research, clinician rating-based rules most stringent (Weathers et al., 1999) Explicit reporting and use of several scoring rules recommended Lenient rules recommended for screening purposes, while stringent rules appropriate for confirming diagnosis or creating case groups (Weathers et al., 1999)
OCR for page 172
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Measure Description Scales/Factors Clinical Global Impression (CGI) (Guy, 1976) 5-minute administration by trained Assesses treatment response in psychiatric patients rater or clinician 3-item scale Clinician rates severity of illness at time of assessment (severity of illness), how much the patient’s illness has improved/worsened since baseline (global improvement) and compares patient’s baseline condition with a ratio of current therapeutic benefit to severity of side effects (efficacy index) Administered at initial assessment and at least once after treatment is initiated Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I) Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) (Robins et al., 1981) Assesses DSM III-R/IV symptomatology Primarily used in community settings (Newman et al., 1996) Semistructured interview 15-minute administration by trained lay interviewer Dichotomous (yes/no) symptom ratings Does not assess symptom severity, can be used for diagnosis Requires patient to associate each symptom with a specific traumatic event PTSD section Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) (Davidson et al., 1997) Assesses DSM-IV PTSD criteria (B–D) Self-report questionnaire 17 items, 5-point (1–4) Likert rating scales <10 minute administration Principal components factor analysis yielded a 2-factor solution for general sample and a 6-factor solution with PTSD population (Davidson et al., 1997)
OCR for page 173
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Psychometric Properties Scoring and Interpretation Guidelines Item 1. Severity of Illness: 7-point scale (1 = normal to 7 = extremely ill) Item 2. Global Improvement: 7-point scale (1 = very much improved to 7 = very much worse) Item 3. Efficacy Index: 4-point scale (“none” to “outweighs therapeutic effect”) Sensitivity: community .22; clinical .81–.89, .23–.89 Specificity: community .98, clinical .92–.94, .92–.98 (Kulka et al., 1991) Diagnostic accuracy: 83% Internal consistency (alpha): .99 (Davidson et al., 1997) Test-retest reliability: .73–.93 (Wildes, 2007) Low to strong correlations with measures of similar constructs Effect sizes equal to or greater than those found for IES, CAPS, and SI-PTSD (Davidson et al., 2002) diagnosis (Wildes, 2007) Strong association with SCID-DSM-III-R Frequency: 0–68 Severity: 0–68 Total: 0–136 Diagnostic cutoff score: 40 (Davidson et al., 1997)
OCR for page 174
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Measure Description Scales/Factors Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (Horowitz et al., 1979; Weiss and Marmar, 1997) Assesses 14/17 DSM-III-R and DSM-IV PTSD criteria (B–D) Widely used PTSD-related scale across trauma populations (Newman et al., 1996) Self-report questionnaire 15 items, 4-point (0–5) Likert rating scales Intrusion, avoidance, hyperarousal CFA Los Angeles Symptom Checklist (LASC) (King et al., 1995) Assesses for PTSD symptoms and associated features including signs of distress and functional problems Self-report questionnaire 43 items, Likert scales Dichotomous and continuous assessment Studied across populations (e.g., males, females, various traumas) (Keane et al., 2000) 17-item PTSD index Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Keane PTSD Scale (PK) (Keane et al., 1984; Lyons and Keane, 1992) Originally composed of 29 items, revised for MMPI-2 by deleting 3 item repetitions Self-report questionnaire 46 MMPI items Norms available for different populations Mississippi Scale for Combat-related PTSD (M-PTSD) (Keane et al., 1988) Assesses DSM-III combat-related PTSD and related features (e.g., suicidality, depression, substance abuse) Self-report questionnaire 35 items, 5-point Likert scale 10–15 minute administration Civilian Mississippi Scale for PTSD version Principal components factor analysis (Keane et al., 1988): Factor 1 (9 items): Intrusive memories and depressive symptomatology Factor 2 (5 items): Interpersonal adjustment problems Factor 3 (3 items): Lability of affect and memory Factors 4 and 5 (3 items each): Ruminative features Factor 6 (2 items): Sleep problems
OCR for page 175
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Psychometric Properties Scoring and Interpretation Guidelines Internal consistency (alpha): .75–.93 (Wildes) Test-retest reliability: .87 Split-half reliability: .86 (Wildes, 2007) Low to moderate correlations with measures of similar constructs, strong correlation with CAPS Total score: 0–75 Two scoring systems available (Green, 1991) Sensitivity: .74 (PTSD index; King et al., 1995) Specificity: .77 (PTSD index, King et al., 1995) Internal consistency (alpha): .88–.95 (King et al., 1995) Test-retest reliability: .9–.94 Sensitivity: .57–.90 (Newman et al., 1996) Specificity: .55–.95 (Newman et al., 1996) Diagnostic accuracy: 82% (Keane et al., 1984; Watson et al., 1986) Internal consistency (alpha): .85–.87 (Graham, 1990); .95–.96 (combat, Newman et al., 1996) Test-retest reliability: .86–.94 (combat, Newman et al., 1996) Optimal cutoff score: 8.5–30 across populations and studies (Newman et al., 1996) Sensitivity: .77–.93 (Newman et al., 1996) Specificity: .83–.89 (Newman et al., 1996) Diagnostic Accuracy: .9 (Keane et al., 1988) Internal consistency (alpha): .94 Split-half: .93 Test-retest reliability: .97 (Keane et al., 1988) Low to strong correlations with measures of similar constructs Predictive of SCID-DSM-III-R diagnosis (McFall et al., 1990) Total: 35–175 Diagnostic cutoff score: 107 (Keane et al., 1988)
OCR for page 176
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Measure Description Scales/Factors Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress (Hammerberg, 1992) Self-report questionnaire 26 items Primarily used with male patients, including accident victims, veterans, and general psychiatric patients (Keane et al., 2000) Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PTDS) (Foa et al., 1997) Assesses DSM-IV PTSD criteria Self-report questionnaire 17 questions, including 12-item checklist of traumatic events 4-point Likert rating for frequency of PTSD symptoms in the past month and self-ratings of impairment across nine areas of functioning Validated across several populations, including combat veterans and sexual and nonsexual-assault survivors (Keane et al., 2000) PTSD Checklist (PCL) (Weathers et al., 1993) Assesses DSM PTSD diagnostic criteria Self-report questionnaire 10 minute administration 17 items, 5-point (0–4) Likert rating for past month PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) Principal components analysis indicated 1-factor solution (Wildes, 2007) PTSD Interview (Watson et al., 1991) Structured clinical interview Dichotomous and continuous assessment Patient given a copy of scale to read along with interviewer and asked to give subjective ratings for each symptom
OCR for page 177
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Psychometric Properties Scoring and Interpretation Guidelines Sensitivity comparable to Mississippi scale, specificity slightly lower (Keane et al., 2000) Sensitivity: .89 Specificity: .75 Kappa: .65 (criterion: SCID) Internal consistency (alpha): .92 Test-retest reliability: .74 (diagnosis), .83 (symptom severity) Sensitivity: .82 Specificity: .83 Overall diagnostic efficiency: .9 (criterion: CAPS) (Blanchard et al., 1996) Internal consistency (alpha): .97 (Weathers et al., 1993) Test-retest reliability: .96 (Weathers et al., 1993) Moderate to strong correlations, r > .75, with measures of similar constructs (Mississippi, PK, IES, CAPS) (Blanchard et al., 1996; Weathers et al., 1993) Reductions in diagnostic accuracy as symptoms improve and approach threshold for diagnostic criteria (Forbes et al., 2001) Individual symptom score: 0–8 Symptom endorsement cutoff: 3 or 4 (Blanchard et al., 1995; Forbes et al., 2001) Total severity: 17–85 Diagnostic cutoff score: 50 in veteran population (Blanchard et al., 1996; Forbes et al., 2001) Sensitivity: .89 Specificity: .94 Kappa: .82 (Criterion: DIS) (Watson et al., 1991) Internal consistency (alpha): .92 Test-retest reliability: .95
OCR for page 178
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Measure Description Scales/Factors PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I) (Foa et al., 1993) Assesses DSM criteria of PTSD Semistructured interview 20–30 minute administration Self-report questionnaire version (PSS-S): 10 minute administration Likert rating scales for criterion symptoms Dichotomous and continuous assessment 2-week time frame Subscales: reexperiencing (5 items) avoidance (7 items) arousal (5 items) Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) (Derogatis, 1977) Assesses a broad range of psychological problems, symptoms of psychopathology, patient progress, and treatment outcomes Self-report questionnaire 12–15 minute administration 90 items, 5-point Likert rating Global Severity Index: summary of test 9 primary symptom dimensions, 3 global indices 28-item Crime-Related PTSD Scale (Saunders et al., 1990) 12-item PTSD Subscale for Disaster Survivors (Green, 1991) 25-item War-Zone-Related PTSD Scale (Weathers et al., 1996) Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) PTSD Module (Spitzer et al., 1990) Assesses prevalence, absence, and subthreshold presence of PTSD Used across trauma populations Semistructured interview 25 minute administration Permits only dichotomous rating (present/absent) of symptoms, does not assess severity of symptoms
OCR for page 179
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Psychometric Properties Scoring and Interpretation Guidelines Sensitivity: .88 (PSS-I), .62 (PSS-S) Specificity: .96 (PSS-I) (Criterion: DIS; Foa et al., 1993) Internal consistency (alpha): .86 (PSS-I-total), .65–.74 (PSS-I subscales) (Foa and Tolin, 2000) Test-retest reliability: Strong (Foa et al., 1993) Interrater reliability: 98.3% (Foa and Tolin, 2000) Good agreement with CAPS and SCID (Foa and Tolin, 2000) War-Zone-Related PTSD Scale is only SCL-90 PTSD scale that has greater predictive validity than the Global Severity Index (Green, 1991) Sensitivity: .81 Specificity: .98 Kappa: .68 (Keane et al., 1998) Agreement across lifetime, current, and never PTSD 78% (Keane et al., 1998) Highly correlated with other measures of PTSD
OCR for page 180
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Measure Description Scales/Factors Structured Interview for PTSD (SI-PTSD or SIP) (Davidson et al., 1989) Assesses DSM PTSD criteria (reexperiencing, avoidance and numbing, and hyperarousal) and functional impairment Structured interview, including initial probes, behavioral observations and follow-up questions 20 minute administration Severity and frequency of symptoms rated on 5-point (0–4) Likert scale Dichotomous and continuous assessment Assesses lifetime PTSD by “worst ever” symptomatology Treatment Outcome PTSD Scale (TOP-8) (Connor and Davidson, 1999; Davidson and Colket, 1997) assesses treatment response: 8 items endorsed frequently and responded to treatment over time, drawn from 3 symptom clusters REFERENCES Blake, D. D., F. W. Weathers, L. M. Nagy, D. G. Kaloupek, G. Klauminzer, D. S. Charney, and T. M. Keane. 1990. A clinical rating scale for assessing current and lifetime PTSD: The CAPS-1. Behavior Therapist 18:187-188. Blanchard, E. B., R. J. Gerardi, L. C. Kolb, and D. H. Barlow. 1986. The utility of the anxiety disorders interview schedule (ADIS) in the diagnosis of the post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Behaviour Research and Therapy 18:187-188. Blanchard, E. B., E. J. Hickling, A. E. Taylor, C. A. Forneris, W. R. Loos, and J. Jaccard. 1995. Effects of varying scoring rules of the clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) for the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in motor vehicle accident victims. Behaviour Research and Therapy 33:471-475. Blanchard, E. B., J. Jones-Alexander, T. C. Buckley, and C. A. Forneris. 1996. Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL). Behaviour Research and Therapy 34:669-673. Buckley, T. C., E. B. Blanchard, and E. J. Hickling. 1998. A confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behavioral Research and Therapy 36:1091-1099. Connor, K. M., and J. R. Davidson. 1999. Further psychometric assessment of the TOP-8: A brief interview-based measure of PTSD. Depression and Anxiety 9:135-137. Davidson, J. R., and J. T. Colket. 1997. The eight-item treatment-outcome post-traumatic stress disorder scale: A brief measure to assess treatment outcome in post-traumatic stress disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 12:41-45. Davidson, J. R. T., R. D. Smith, and H. S. Kudler. 1989. Validity and reliability of the DSM-III criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder: Experience with a structured interview. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 177:336-341. Davidson, J. R. T., S. W. Book, J. T. Colket, L. A. Tupler, S. Roth, D. David, M. Hertzberg, T. Mellman, J. C. Beckham, R. D. Smith, R. M. Davison, R. Katz, and M. E. Feldman. 1997. Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine 27(1):153-160. Davidson, J. R. T., H. M. Tharwani, and K. M. Connor. 2002. Davidson trauma scale (DTS): Normative scores in the general population and effect sizes in placebo-controlled SSRI trials. Depression and Anxiety 15(2):75-78. Derogatis, L. R. 1977. The scl-90 manual: Vol. 1. Scoring, administration and procedures for the SCL-90. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Clinical Psychometrics Unit.
OCR for page 181
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Psychometric Properties Scoring and Interpretation Guidelines Sensitivity: .96 Specificity: .8 (Davidson et al., 1989) Diagnostic cutoff score: 20 DiNardo, P. A., and D. H. Barlow. 1988. Anxiety disorders interview scale-revised. Albany, NY: Center for Phobia and Anxiety Disorders. Foa, E. B., and D. F. Tolin. 2000. Comparison of the PTSD symptom scale-interview version and the clinician-administered PTSD scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress 13(2):181-191. Foa, E. B., D. S. Riggs, C. V. Dancu, and B. O. Rothbaum. 1993. Reliability and validity of a brief instrument for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress 6:459-473. Foa, E. B., L. Cashman, L. Jaycox, and K. Perry. 1997. The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: The posttraumatic diagnostic scale. Psychological Assessment 9:445-451. Forbes, D., M. Creamer, and D. Biddle. 2001. The validity of the PTSD checklist as a measure of symptomatic change in combat-related PTSD. Behaviour Research and Therapy 39:977-986. Graham, J. R. 1990. MMPI-2: Assessing personality and psychopathology. New York: Oxford University Press. Green, B. L. 1991. Evaluating the effects of disasters. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 3:538-546. Guy, W. 1976. Clinical global impression, ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology, revised. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health. Hammerberg, M. 1992. Penn inventory for posttraumatic stress disorder: Psychometric properties. Psychological Assessment 4:67-76. Horowitz, M. J., N. R. Wilner, and W. Alvarez. 1979. Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective distress. Psychosomatic Medicine 41(208-218). Keane, T. M., P. F. Malloy, and J. A. Fairbank. 1984. Empirical development of an MMPI subscale for the assessment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 52:888-891. Keane, T. M., J. M. Caddell, and K. L. Taylor. 1988. Mississippi scale for combat-related PTSD: Three studies in reliability and validity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56:85-90.
OCR for page 182
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Keane, T. M., L. C. Kolb, D. G. Kaloupek, S. P. Orr, E. B. Blanchard, R. G. Thomas, F. W. Hsieh, and P. W. Lavori. 1998. Utility of psychophysiological measurements in the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder: Results from a Department of Veterans Affairs cooperative study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 66:914-923. Keane, T. M., F. W. Weathers, and E. B. Foa. 2000. Diagnosis and assessment. In Effective treatments for PTSD. Edited by E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, and M. J. Friedman. New York: Guilford Publications. Pp. 18-36. King, D. W., G. A. Leskin, and F. W. Weathers. 1998. Confirmatory factor analysis of the clinician-administered PTSD scale: Evidence for the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment 10:90-96. King, L. A., D. W. King, G. A. Leskin, and D. W. Foy. 1995. The Los Angeles symptom checklist: A self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder. Assessment 2:1-17. Kulka, R. A., W. E. Schlenger, J. A. Fairbank, B. K. Jordan, R. L. Hough, C. R. Marmar, and D. S. Weiss. 1991. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: Prospects and pitfalls from recent studies of Vietnam veterans. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 3:547-560. Lyons, J. A., and T. M. Keane. 1992. Keane PTSD scale: MMPI and MMPI-2 update. Journal of Traumatic Stress 5:111-117. McFall, M. E., D. E. Smith, P. W. Mackay, and D. J. Tarver. 1990. Reliability and validity of Mississippi scale for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment 2:114-121. Newman, E., D. G. Kaloupek, and T. M. Keane. 1996. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in clinical and research settings. In Traumatic stress. Edited by B. A. van der Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, and L. Weisaeth. Pp. 242-275. Robins, L. N., J. E. Helzer, J. L. Croughan, and K. S. Ratliff. 1981. National institute of mental health diagnostic interview schedule: Its history, characteristics and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry 38:381-389. Saunders, B. E., C. M. Arata, and D. G. Kilpatrick. 1990. Development of a crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale for women within the symptom checklist-90- revised. Journal of Traumatic Stress 3:439-448. Spitzer, R. L., J. B. Williams, M. Gibbon, and M. B. First. 1990. Structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R- patient edition (SCID-P). New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute. Watson, C. G., T. Kucala, and V. Manifold. 1986. A cross-validation of the Keane and Penk MMPI scales as measures of post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology 42:727-732. Watson, C. G., M. P. Juba, V. Manifold, T. Kucala, and P. E. Anderson. 1991. The PTSD interview: Rationale, description, reliability, and concurrent validity of a DSM-III-based technique. Journal of Clinical Psychology 47:179-188. Weathers, F. W., D. D. Blake, K. E. Krinsley, W. Haddad, J. A. Huska, and T. M. Keane. 1992 (November). The clinician-administered PTSD scale: Reliability and construct validity. Paper presented at 26th annual convention of the Association for Advancement Behavior Therapy, Boston, MA. Weathers, F. W., B. T. Litz, D. S. Herman, J. A. Huska, and T. M. Keane. 1993 (October). The PTSD checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity and diagnostic utility. Paper presented at 9th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, San Antonio, TX. Weathers, F. W., B. T. Litz, D. S. Herman, J. A. Huska, and T. M. Keane. 1996. The utility of the SCL-90-R for the diagnosis of war-zone-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress 9:111-128.
OCR for page 183
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence Weathers, F. W., A. M. Ruscio, and T. M. Keane. 1999. Psychometric properties of nine scoring rules for the clinician-administered post-traumatic stress disorder scale. Psychological Assessment 11:124-133. Weathers, F. W., T. M. Keane, and J. R. T. Davidson. 2001. Clinician-administered PTSD scale: A review of the first ten years of research. Depression and Anxiety 13:132-156. Weiss, D. S., and C. R. Marmar. 1997. The impact of event scale-revised. In Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. Edited by J. P. Wilson and T. M. Keane. New York: The Guilford Press. Pp. 399-428. Wildes, K. R. 2007. Comparison of PTSD symptom assessment instruments. http://www.hsrd.research.va.gov/for_researchers/measurement/practice/ptsd_measures.cfm (accessed May 17, 2007).
OCR for page 184
Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence This page intentionally left blank.