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Protecting Building Occupants and Operations from Biological and Chemical Airborne Threats: A Framework for Decision Making References AIA (American Institute of Architects). 2001. Building Security Through Design. Washington, D.C. Alion Science and Technology. 2007. CounterMeasures™.Accessed on May 13, 2007, at http://www.countermeasures.com/. Allen, C., W. Jackson, L. Saubier, and C. Powell. 2006. Smart Building, Volume 1—Executive Summary, Report DTRA-TR-03-41-V1, Defense and Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Va. American Lung Association. 2007. Factors to Consider Before Using/Buying an Air Cleaner. Accessed on February 1, 2007, at http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=39310. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers). 1992. ASHRAE Standard 52.1: Gravimetric and Dust-Spot Procedures for Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter. Atlanta, Ga. ASHRAE. 1999. ASHRAE Standard 52.2: Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size. Atlanta, Ga. ASHRAE. 2001. ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals. Atlanta, Ga. ASHRAE. 2002. Risk Management Guidance for Health and Safety Under Extraordinary Incidents. Atlanta, Ga. ASHRAE. 2003. Risk Management Guidance for Health, Safety and Environmental Security Under Extraordinary Incidents. Atlanta, Ga. ASHRAE. 2004a. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Atlanta, Ga. ASHRAE. 2004b. HVAC Systems and Equipment, SI Edition. Atlanta, Ga. ASHRAE. Forthcoming. ASHRAE Guideline 29P, Guideline for Risk Management of Public Health and Safety in Buildings. Atlanta, Ga. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials). 1998. E964 Standard Practice for Measuring Benefit-to-Cost and Savings-to-Investment Ratios for Buildings and Building Systems. West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM. 1999. E917-99 Standard Practice for Measuring Life-Cycle Costs of Buildings and Building Systems. West Conshohocken, Pa. Bauman, F. 2003. Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta, Ga.
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Protecting Building Occupants and Operations from Biological and Chemical Airborne Threats: A Framework for Decision Making Braun, R.H. 1986. Problem and solution to plugging of a finned-tube cooling coil in an air handler. ASHRAE Transactions 92:385-389. Bryden, W. 2006. Building Protection Toolkit. Accessed on December 14, 2006, at http://www.darpa.mil/sto/chembio/pdf/BPTK.pdf. Campbell, L., S. Talmont, R. Relyea, R. Cain, A. Policastro, W. Dunn, G. Lurie, and D. Brown. 2004. Integration of the PROTECT Chemical Detection System into WMATA Operations. In Proceedings of the Rail Transit Conference, Miami, Fl.: American Public Transportation Association. CRS (Congressional Research Service). 2004. Risk Management and Critical Infrastructure: Assessing, Integrating, and Managing Threats, Vulnerabilities, and Consequences. RL32561. Washington, D.C. DHHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 1984. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), 1st Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. DHHS. 2000. Chemical and Biological Respiratory Protection Workshop Report, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2000-122. Accessed on March 26, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/2000122.html. DHHS. 2007. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL), 5th Edition. Accessed on April 19, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm. DHS (Department of Homeland Security). 2006. BioWatch: Early Detection, Early Response. Accessed on December 12, 2006, at http://www.milnet.com/wh/DoHS/BioWatchFactSheetFINAL. pdf. DOD (Department of Defense). 2002. Design and O&M: Mass Notification Systems. UFC 4-021-01. Washington, D.C. DOD. 2003. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC). DOD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for Buildings. UFC 4-010-01. Washington, D.C. DOD. 2005. Security Engineering: Procedures for Designing Airborne Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Protection for Buildings. UFC 4-024-01. Washington, D.C. DOE (Department of Energy). 2004. Building Vulnerability Assessment & Mitigation Program (BVAMP). Accessed on January 9, 2007, at http://securebuildings.lbl.gov/BVAMP/BVAMP_brochure.pdf. DOJ (Department of Justice). 1995. Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Buildings. Washington, D.C. DOJ. 2000. Guide for the Selection of Chemical Agent and Toxic Industrial Material Detection Equipment for Emergency First Responders. Accessed on April 24, 2007, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/184449.pdf. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. Human Health Metrics for Environmental Decision Support Tools: Lessons for Health Economics and Decision Analysis. EPA /600/R-01/104. Cincinnati, Ohio. EPA. 2006. Research Highlights 6/26/06. HVAC In-duct UV Light Systems. Accessed on February 28, 2007, at http://www.epa.gov/nhsrc/news/news062606.html. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). 2003. Risk Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings, Publication No. FEMA-426. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Fisk, W.J. 2000a. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25:537-566. Fisk, W.J. 2000b. Estimates of potential nationwide productivity and health benefits from better indoor environments: An update. In Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J.D. Spengler, J.M. Samet, and J.F. McCarthy, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. GAO (Government Accountability Office). 2002. Building Security, Security Responsibilities for Federally Owned and Leased Facilities. GAO-03-8. Washington, D.C.
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Protecting Building Occupants and Operations from Biological and Chemical Airborne Threats: A Framework for Decision Making Harris, J., W. Tschudi, and B. Dyer. 2002. Securing Buildings and Saving Energy: Opportunities in the federal sector. In The Austin Papers: Best of the 2002 International Green Building Conference. Brattleboro, Vt. Heyman, D.L. 2005. Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, 18th Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. Hinds, W.C. 1999. Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles, 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Hitchcock, P.J., M. Mair, T.V. Inglesby, J. Gross, D.A. Henderson, T. O’Toole, J. Ahern-Seronde, W.P. Bahnfleth, T. Brennan, H.E. Burroughs, C. Davidson, W. Delp, D.S. Ensor, R. Gomory, P. Olsiewski, J.M. Samet, W.M. Smith, A.J. Streiffel, R. H. White, and J.E. Woods. 2006. Improving performance of HVAC systems to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings: Recommendations to reduce risks posed by biological attacks. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 4:1-14. IES (Institute of Environmental Sciences). 1992 IES-RP-CC007.1: Testing ULPA Filters (Recommended Practice). Mount Prospect, Il. IFMA (International Facility Management Association). 2002. Addressing the Threat of Terrorism: Guidelines for Prevention and Response. Houston, Tx. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1999. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Research and Development to Improve Civilian Medical Response, pp. 41-42. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISC (Interagency Security Committee). 2004a. Security Design Criteria for New Federal Office Buildings and Major Modernization Projects: Part I. For Official Use Only. ISC. 2004b. ISC Security Design Criteria for New Federal Office Buildings and Major Modernization Projects: Part II: Tables, Design Tactics, and Additional Risk Guidelines. For Official Use Only. LBNL (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2003. Protecting Buildings from a Biological or Chemical Attack: Actions to Take Before or During a Release. LBNL/PUB-51959. Berkeley, Ca. Martin, S.B., B.R. Beamer, and E.S. Moyer. 2006. Evaluation of a high-efficiency, filter-bank system. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 3:204-213. Merrill, L., J. Dunbar, J. Richardson, and C.R. Kuske. 2006. Composition of Bacillus species in aerosols from 11 U.S. cities. Journal of Forensic Science 51:559-565. NAFA (National Air Filtration Association). 2001. NAFA Position Statement on Bio-Terrorism. Washington, D.C. NAFA. 2004. Types of HEPA filters. Air Media (winter). NFPA (National Fire Protection Association). 2001. NFPA 1994: Standard on Protective Ensembles for Chemical/Biological Terrorism Incidents, Quincy, Ma. NICS (National Institute for Chemical Studies). 2001. Sheltering in Place as a Public Protective Action. Charleston, Wv. NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1999. Cost-Benefit Analysis Guide for NIH IT Projects. Accessed on February 7, 2007, at http://irm.cit.nih.gov/itmra/cbaguide.html#3. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2002. Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks. DHHS (NIOSH), Publication No. 2002-139. Cincinnati, Ohio. NIOSH. 2003. Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks. DHHS (NIOSH), Publication No. 2003-136. Cincinnati, Ohio. NIOSH. 2004. NIOSH Respirator Selection Logic 2004. DHHS (NIOSH), Publication No. 2005-100. Cincinnati, Ohio. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). 2006a. NIST Multizone Modeling Website. Accessed on January 8, 2006, at http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/IAQanalysis/index.htm.
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Protecting Building Occupants and Operations from Biological and Chemical Airborne Threats: A Framework for Decision Making NIST. 2006b. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Tool for Chem/Bio Protection of Buildings. Accessed on March 15, 2007, at http://www2.bfrl.nist.gov/software/LCCchembio/index.htm. NIST. 2007. Building Retrofits for Increased Protection Against Chemical and Biological Airborne Releases. NISTIR 7379. Gaithersburg, Md. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2000. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2003a. Testing and Evaluation of Standoff Chemical Agent Detectors. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2003b. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 3. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 4. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2005a. Reopening Public Facilities After a Biological Attack: A Decision Making Framework. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2005b. Sensor Systems for Biological Agent Attacks: Protecting Buildings and Military Bases. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2005c. Monitoring at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2006. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 5. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2007. Interim Report on Methodological Improvements to the Department of Homeland Security’s Biological Agent Risk Analysis. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. OSHA (Occupational Health and Safety Administration). 1999. Personal Protective Equipment: Respiratory Protection. Occupational Health and Safety Standards 1910.134. Washington, D.C. Ottney, T.C. 1993. Particle management for HVAC systems. ASHRAE Journal 35:26. Richmond, J.Y., and R.W. McKinney. 1999. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 4th Edition, HHS Publication Number (CDC) 93-8395. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Seppänen, O., and W. Fisk. 2006. Some quantitative relations between indoor environmental quality and work performance or health. HVAC&R Research 12:957-973. SRA (Society for Risk Analysis). 2006. Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting 2006. Accessed on January 10, 2007, at http://birenheide.com/sra/2006AM/program/sessionlist.php3. Stetzenbach, L.D. 2002. Introduction to aerobiology. Pp. 801-813 in Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 2nd edition, C.J. Hurst, R.L. Crawford, G. Knudsen, M. McInerney, and L.D. Stetzenbach, ed. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). 1999. Engineering and Design—Design of Collective Protection Shelters to Resist Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Agents. Washington, D.C. USACE. 2001. Protecting Buildings and Their Occupants from Airborne Hazards. TI 853-01. Washington, D.C. Vogt, F. 2006. Trends in remote spectroscopic sensing and imaging—Experimental techniques and chemometric concepts. Current Analytical Chemistry 2(2):107-127. Walter, K. 2006. An Action Plan to Reopen a Contaminated Airport. Science and Technology Review, December 2006. Accessed on January 5, 2007, at http://www.llnl.gov/str/Dec06/pdfs/12_06.2.pdf. Walton, G.N., and W.S. Dols. 2006. CONTAM 2.4 User Guide and Program Documentation (NISTIR 7251). Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Standards and Technology.
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Protecting Building Occupants and Operations from Biological and Chemical Airborne Threats: A Framework for Decision Making White House. 1992. Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs. Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-94 revised. Accessed on February 7, 2007, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a094/a094.html. White House. 2004. Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10: Biodefense for the 21st Century. Accessed on January 29, 2007, at http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/20040430.html.
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