The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program

LOOKING BACK, MOVING FORWARD

MRSEC Impact Assessment Committee

Solid State Sciences Committee

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program LOOKING BACK, MOVING FORWARD MRSEC Impact Assessment Committee Solid State Sciences Committee Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. DMR-0446470 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10961-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10961-2 Cover: An electric field can cause a polymer film to be unstable. If, in addition, the polymer does not stick to the surface of the underlying support, the polymer will withdraw from the surface, like water on a nonstick pan. These two factors produce an instability that can be seen with an optical microscope by the interference colors. The instability, in this case, has caused the formation of this unusual structure, since the electric field that was used was not uniform across the film. The fingerlike texture can be used to measure the properties of the polymer. Courtesy of T. Xu, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), http://www.nap.edu; and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, http://www.national-academies.org/bpa. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward MRSEC IMPACT ASSESSMENT COMMITTEE MATTHEW V. TIRRELL, University of California at Santa Barbara, Chair KRISTI S. ANSETH, University of Colorado at Boulder MEIGAN ARONSON, Brookhaven National Laboratory DAVID M. CEPERLEY, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign PAUL M. CHAIKIN, New York University RONALD C. DAVIDSON, Princeton University DUANE B. DIMOS, Sandia National Laboratories FRANCIS J. DiSALVO, Cornell University EDITH M. FLANIGEN, UOP, Inc. (retired) THOMAS F. KUECH, University of Wisconsin-Madison DIANDRA L. LESLIE-PELECKY, University of Nebraska-Lincoln BRUCE H. MARGON, University of California at Santa Cruz ANDREW MILLIS, Columbia University VENKATESH NARAYANAMURTI, Harvard University RALPH G. NUZZO, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign DOUGLAS D. OSHEROFF, Stanford University STUART PARKIN, IBM Almaden Research Center JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (retired) ELI YABLONOVITCH, University of California at Los Angeles NEIL E. PATON, LiquidMetal Technologies, Consultant Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Senior Program Officer DAVID B. LANG, Research Associate VAN AN, Financial Associate

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward SOLID STATE SCIENCES COMMITTEE PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan, Chair BARBARA JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center, Vice Chair COLLIN L. BROHOLM, Johns Hopkins University ELBIO DAGOTTO, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and University of Tennessee DUANE B. DIMOS, Sandia National Laboratories JAMES P. EISENSTEIN, California Institute of Technology SHARON C. GLOTZER, University of Michigan MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology STEVEN A. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles SIDNEY R. NAGEL, University of Chicago MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University ARTHUR P. RAMIREZ, Lucent Technologies, Inc. A. DOUGLAS STONE, Yale University ANTOINETTE “TONI” TAYLOR, Los Alamos National Laboratory Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy NATALIA J. MELCER, Program Officer CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Senior Program Assistant

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY ANNEILA L. SARGENT, California Institute of Technology, Chair MARC A. KASTNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vice Chair JOANNA AIZENBERG, Lucent Technologies JONATHAN A. BAGGER, Johns Hopkins University JAMES E. BRAU, University of Oregon RONALD C. DAVIDSON, Princeton University ANDREA M. GHEZ, University of California at Los Angeles PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan WICK C. HAXTON, University of Washington FRANCES HELLMAN, University of California at Berkeley JOSEPH HEZIR, EOP Group, Inc. ERICH P. IPPEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALLAN H. MacDONALD, University of Texas at Austin CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California at Berkeley HOMER A. NEAL, University of Michigan JOSE N. ONUCHIC, University of California at San Diego WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS, National Institute of Standards and Technology THOMAS N. THEIS, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center C. MEGAN URRY, Yale University Staff DONALD C. SHAPERO, Director TIMOTHY I. MEYER, Senior Program Officer ROBERT L. RIEMER, Senior Program Officer NATALIA J. MELCER, Program Officer BRIAN D. DEWHURST, Senior Program Associate DAVID B. LANG, Research Associate CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Senior Program Assistant VAN AN, Financial Associate SHARON FORETIA, Anderson-Commonweal Intern (Summer 2007)

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward Preface The MRSEC Impact Assessment Committee was convened by the National Research Council in response to an informal request from the National Science Foundation. Charged to examine the impact of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers program (MRSEC program) and to provide guidance for the future (see Appendix A), the committee included experts from across materials research as well as several from outside the field (see Appendix G for biographical sketches of the committee members). The committee describes its analysis in this report at three different levels of detail in order to make the analysis accessible to the broadest possible audience. The Executive Summary provides a brief summary of the report. The Overview describes the complete chain of reasoning and includes all of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Chapters 1 through 6 then present detailed discussions and evidence. In preparing its report, the committee found it necessary to distinguish among three types of key statements. All appear in boldface within this report but are to be distinguished as follows: General finding: A nontrivial observation that, in the committee’s judgment, arises from the evidence examined in the course of its work. These general findings express general principles that are not unique to the MRSEC program performance and impact assessment. Conclusion: A nontrivial observation that the committee derived during

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward its work that pertains directly to the MRSEC program’s performance and impact assessment. Recommendation: An action item assigned to specific entities that the committee believes will enhance the future performance and impact of the MRSEC program for materials research. The committee thanks its generous hosts at each of its site visits (Boston University, California Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Michigan State University, University of California at San Diego, University of California at Santa Barbara, University of Florida, University of Michigan, University of Southern California, and University of Southern Mississippi); these half-day meetings were an invaluable data-gathering tool for the committee. The warm hospitality provided an environment for frank discussion and insightful suggestions that contributed to the committee’s understanding of the issues. At each of its meetings, many invited experts gave testimony on their experiences working in materials research (see Appendix B). The committee greatly appreciates the time and effort that these individuals put into preparing their remarks. The committee gratefully acknowledges the thoughtful and very helpful participation of the staff from the National Research Council’s Board on Science Education, including Jean Moon, Andrew Shouse, and Yan Liu. These experts helped the committee to collect and analyze data on the education and outreach activities at Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers as well as understand the frontiers of research in science education. Matthew V. Tirrell, Chair MRSEC Impact Assessment Committee

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Elihu Abrahams, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Paul A. Fleury, Yale University, Jerry Gollub, Haverford College, Fiona Goodchild, California NanoSystems Institute, Arthur F. Hebard, University of Florida, Joseph S. Hezir, EOP Group, Inc., Marc A. Kastner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Linda (Lee) J. Magid, University of Tennessee, Christopher Monroe, University of Michigan, Donald W. Murphy, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, N.P. Ong, Princeton University, Thomas Russell, University of Massachusetts at Amherst,

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward Dan J. Thoma, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Julia R. Weertman, Northwestern University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Donald M. Tennant, Cornell University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1     OVERVIEW   7 1   INTRODUCTION   29      The Landscape of Materials Research,   29      National Science Foundation,   36      Research Centers,   37      Looking Forward,   44 2   THE OVERALL CONTEXT OF THE MATERIALS RESEARCH SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CENTERS PROGRAM   45      Scientific Context,   47      Historical Context,   48      Budget Context,   55      International Context,   68 3   ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH AND FACILITIES IMPACT   71      Introduction,   71      Analysis of Selected Contributions from Materials Research,   78      Publication Citation Analyses,   85      Demographics of Research Performers,   99      The Leading Groups in Materials Research,   104

OCR for page R1
The National Science Foundation’s Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program: Looking Back, Moving Forward      Research Impact Versus Funding: Quality per Dollar,   107      Shared Experimental Facilities,   110      Findings and Recommendations,   114 4   ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MRSEC EDUCATION AND OUTREACH   118      Introduction,   118      Overview of MRSEC Education and Outreach Activities,   120      Impact of MRSEC Education and Outreach Programs,   128      Findings and Recommendations,   137 5   ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MRSEC COLLABORATION WITH INDUSTRY   143      Current Industrial Collaboration and Knowledge-Transfer Activities,   145      Assessing the Effectiveness of Industrial Collaboration,   150      Findings and Recommendations,   158 6   THE FUTURE OF NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION MATERIALS CENTERS   162      Perceived and Measured Impact of MRSECs,   162      Challenges Going Forward,   165      A New Look,   167      Outlook,   175     APPENDIXES          A  Charge to the Committee   179      B  Meeting Agendas   180      C  List of Current Research Topics of MRSEC Interdisciplinary Research Groups   185      D  Further Information on Education and Outreach Activities   191      E  Selected Acronyms   194      F  Data-Gathering Tools   196      G  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff   204