FIGURE 2-2 Biologic responses viewed as results of an intersection of exposure and biologic function. The intersection leads to perturbation of biologic pathways. When perturbations are sufficiently large or when the host is unable to adapt because of underlying nutritional, genetic, disease, or life-stage status, biologic function is compromised, and this leads to toxicity and disease. Source: Adapted from Andersen et al. 2005. Reprinted with permission; copyright 2005, Trends in Biotechnology.

Figure 2-3 illustrates the major components of the committee’s proposed vision: chemical characterization, toxicity testing, and dose-response and extrapolation modeling. Each component is discussed in further detail in Chapter 3, and the tools and technologies that might play some role in the future paradigm are discussed in Chapter 4.

Chemical characterization involves consideration of physicochemical properties, environmental persistence, bioaccumulation potential, production volumes, concentration in environmental media, and exposure data. Computational tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship models and bioinformatics,

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