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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Joan Petersilia (Cochair) is a professor of criminology, law, and society in the School of Social Ecology and director of the Center for Evidence-Based Corrections at the University of California at Irvine. Previously, she was director of the criminal justice program at RAND and has directed major studies in policing, sentencing, career criminals, juvenile justice, correc- tions, and racial discrimination. Her current work focuses on parole and prisoner reintegration. She has served as president of both the American Society of Criminology and of the Association of Criminal Justice Research in California, and she is an elected fellow of both the American Society of Criminology and the National Academy of Public Administration. She has a B.A. degree in sociology from Loyola University, an M.A. degree in sociology from Ohio State University, and a Ph.D. in criminology from the University of California at Irvine. Richard Rosenfeld (Cochair) is professor of criminology and criminal jus- tice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He is coauthor with Steven F. Messner of Crime and the American Dream (Wadsworth) and has written extensively on the social sources of violent crime. His current research fo- cuses on the effects of economic conditions on crime trends. Rosenfeld is a fellow of the American Society of Criminology. Richard J. Bonnie is John S. Battle professor of law, professor of psychiatric medicine, and director of the Institute of Law, Psychiatry, and Public Policy 100

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APPENDIX B 101 at the University of Virginia. ­­His work focuses on criminal law and law re- lating to mental health, substance abuse, and public health. His many pub- lic service activities have included serving as secretary of the first National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, chair of Virginia’s State Human Rights Committee, and, currently, chair of the Commission on Mental Health Law Reform established by the chief justice of Virginia. Bonnie is a recipient of the Ray Award of the American Psychiatric Association and a special presidential commendation for his contributions to American psychiatry. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies and received its Yarmolinsky Medal for his contributions to the institution. Robert D. Crutchfield is professor and Clarence and Elissa Schrag fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Washington. His current research focuses on social inequality as a cause of crime and racial inequal- ity in the criminal justice system. Prior to his academic career, he was a juvenile probation officer and an adult parole officer in Pennsylvania. He also served on the Washington State Juvenile Sentencing Commission. He is a past vice president of the American Society of Criminology and is the coeditor of the third edition of Crime: Readings. Eugenia Grohman (Staff Officer) is associate executive director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council, with primary responsibility for the review, editing, pub- lication, and release of the division’s reports. She served as study director for the Panel on Data Access for Research Purposes for the last stages of its work, and she has worked on many division reports, including Measuring Poverty: A New Approach; How People Learn; Understanding Risk; High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation; and A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Previously, she worked as a program and budget analyst in the federal government and in politics. Mark A.R. Kleiman is professor of public policy at the School of Public Affairs of the University of California at Los Angeles where he teaches methods of policy analysis, and drug abuse and crime control policy.   His primary research interests are drug abuse and crime control, with special attention to illicit markets and the design of deterrent regimes, and includ- ing simulation modeling of deterrence strategies and empirical work on the management of drug-involved offenders on probation and parole.  Previ- ously, he worked at the U.S. Department of Justice, the Office of Manage- ment and Budget for the city of Boston, the Polaroid Corporation, and for U.S. Representative Les Aspin. He is the author of Marijuana:  Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control and Against Excess:  Drug Policy for Results.  

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102 PAROLE, DESISTANCE FROM CRIME, AND COMMUNITY INTEGRATION John H. Laub is professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice and an affiliate faculty member in the Department of Sociology at the University of Maryland and a visiting scholar at the Institute for Quan- titative Social Science at Harvard University. He is a fellow of the American Society of Criminology and has served as its president, and in 2005 he re- ceived its Edwin H. Sutherland Award. His areas of research include crime and deviance over the life course, juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice, and the history of criminology. Two of his books, coauthored with Robert Sampson, Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life and Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives: Delinquent Boys to Age 70, have won several major awards. Carol Petrie (Study Director) is director of the Committee on Law and Jus- tice, a standing committee at the National Research Council. She develops and supervises a wide range of projects on the nature of crime and crime prevention and control. Previously, she was director of planning and man- agement at the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the U.S. Department of Justice, working in the area of criminal justice research, statistics, and public policy. She was also a senior project officer at NIJ and served as its acting director in 1994. She has conducted research on violence and man- aged numerous research projects on the operations of the criminal justice system. Christy A. Visher is principal research associate with the Justice Policy Cen- ter at the Urban Institute in Washington, D.C.  Previously, she was science adviser to the director of the National Institute of Justice, the research arm of the U.S. Department of Justice. Her research focuses on criminal careers, communities and crime, and the evaluation of strategies for crime control and prevention. She is coeditor with Jeremy Travis of Prisoner Reentry and Crime in America and the author of several recent publications on prisoner reintegration.