at the University of Virginia. His work focuses on criminal law and law relating to mental health, substance abuse, and public health. His many public service activities have included serving as secretary of the first National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, chair of Virginia’s State Human Rights Committee, and, currently, chair of the Commission on Mental Health Law Reform established by the chief justice of Virginia. Bonnie is a recipient of the Ray Award of the American Psychiatric Association and a special presidential commendation for his contributions to American psychiatry. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies and received its Yarmolinsky Medal for his contributions to the institution.

Robert D. Crutchfield is professor and Clarence and Elissa Schrag fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of Washington. His current research focuses on social inequality as a cause of crime and racial inequality in the criminal justice system. Prior to his academic career, he was a juvenile probation officer and an adult parole officer in Pennsylvania. He also served on the Washington State Juvenile Sentencing Commission. He is a past vice president of the American Society of Criminology and is the coeditor of the third edition of Crime: Readings.

Eugenia Grohman (Staff Officer) is associate executive director of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council, with primary responsibility for the review, editing, publication, and release of the division’s reports. She served as study director for the Panel on Data Access for Research Purposes for the last stages of its work, and she has worked on many division reports, including Measuring Poverty: A New Approach; How People Learn; Understanding Risk; High Stakes: Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation; and A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Previously, she worked as a program and budget analyst in the federal government and in politics.

Mark A.R. Kleiman is professor of public policy at the School of Public Affairs of the University of California at Los Angeles where he teaches methods of policy analysis, and drug abuse and crime control policy. His primary research interests are drug abuse and crime control, with special attention to illicit markets and the design of deterrent regimes, and including simulation modeling of deterrence strategies and empirical work on the management of drug-involved offenders on probation and parole. Previously, he worked at the U.S. Department of Justice, the Office of Management and Budget for the city of Boston, the Polaroid Corporation, and for U.S. Representative Les Aspin. He is the author of Marijuana: Costs of Abuse, Costs of Control and Against Excess: Drug Policy for Results.

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