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REFERENCES
A report of this nature touches on issues related to a very
broad literature, from demographic analyses to mathemati-
cal research, from educational policy to pedagogical theories.
Because of heightened interest in educational reform and
rapid changes in the mathematical sciences, this literature
has expanded greatly in recent years. While many of the is-
sues addressed in the report have been studied and thought
about for a very long time, some of the most urgent mat-
ters (for example, changing demographics and the impact of
computing) have emerged only in recent years.
Virtually every issue treated in Everybody Counts has roots
in studies or reports of the past ten years. Some matters
come directly from this literature; many other statements,
however, are more the product of expert consensus than of
documentable research. As a result, the references to this
report provide not so much a record of evidence as a resource
for action.
To guide readers to the most current sources, the bibliog-
raphy stresses works published in the 1980's. The absence of
much of the older literature is a result of this choice, not a
judgment about relative merits of classics in the field. Point-
ers to important earlier analyses can readily be found among
the books and papers in the bibliography.
Notes
The following notes suggest references that relate to particular
sections. Because of the complex interactions among sections of
this report interactions which are reflected also in many of the
references the linkage of references to report sections is at most
a very rough guide.
OPPORTUNITY
Context for Change: Nat. Comm. (1983~; NSB (1983~.
Mathematics for Tomorrow: Koerner ~ 1981); Steen ~ 1988~.
A Pump, Not a Filter: Mosaic (1987~; OTA (1988~; Turner (1986~.
Numeracy: Bennett ~ 1984~; Bennett ~ 1987~; Boyer ~ 1983~; Boyer ~ 1987~;
Cockcroft (1986~; Heckert (1984~; IEA (1988~; Miller (1988~.
Attitudes: McKn ight ~ 1987 ~ .
...documer`ting the challenge
99

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ReSerences
100
Goals: Johnston (1987); Resnick (1987); Romberg (1988).
Students at Risk: ACE ( 1988); Norman (1988); Oaxaca (1988).
HUA~4N RESOURCES
Demographic Trends: Coyle ~ 1986); Galambos ~ 1980); Hodgkinson
~ 1985); Hum. Cap. ~ 1988); Johnston ~ 1987); Jones ~ 1982); Taylor
(1984).
Minorities: Baratz ~ 1986); Ford ~ 1986); Ford ~ 1987); Kozlov ~ 1987);
Malcom ~ 1984); McBay ~ 1986); NSF ~ 1988); What Works ~ 1987).
Women: Harnisch ~ 1986); Oaxaca ~ 1988); Widnall ~ 1988).
Disabled Persons: Oaxaca ~ 1988).
Graduate Students: Case (1988); Simon (1987); Stewart (1987~.
Supply and Demand: Connors (1988~.
Equity and Excellence: Oaxaca ~ 1988); Widnall ~ 1988).
M'4THEMA TICS
Our Invisible Culture: Bd. Math. Sci. (1986); Murnane (1988).
From Abstraction to Application: Bd. Math. Sci. (1986); Bd. Math.
Sci. (1988); Browder (1983); Feigenbaum (1988); Gleick (1987); Pe-
terson ~ 1988); Rheinboldt ~ 1984); Rheinboldt ~ 1985); Steen ~ 1988).
Computers: Heppenheimer (1985); Howson (1986); Zorn (1987).
The Mathematical Community: Albers (1987); David (1984); Gil
feather ~ 1987~; Madison ~ 1989~.
Undergraduate Mathematics: Albers (1985); Assoc. Amer. Coll.
~ 1985); David ~ 1988); Lucas ~ 1980); NSB ~ 1986); NSB ~ 1987).
CURRICULUM
Philosophy: CBMS ~ 1984); Cockcroft ~ 1986); D'Ambrosio ~ 1981);
Davis ~ 1988); Freudenthal ~ 1973); Freudenthal ~ 1983); Romberg
~ 1983); Romberg ~ 1984).
Standards: CBMS (1983); Chambers (1986); Crosswhite (1986); Den
ham (1985); Dossey (1988); Naumer (1986); NCTM (1989); Tyson-
Bernstein ~ 1988).
Elementary Education: Byrd ~ 1987); Flanders ~ 1987); Steen ~ 1986).
Secondary Education: California ~ 1982); CEEB ~ 1985); Dessart ~ 1983);
Dossey ~ 1988); Hirsch ~ 1985); Howson ~ 1986~; Maurer ~ 1983); SUNY
~ 1983).
Higher Education: Albers (1985); Assoc. Amer. Coll. (1985); CUPM
1981); Davis-Van Atta ~ 1985); Howson ~ 1988); May ~ 1961); NIE
1984); Ralston ~ 1983); Steen ~ 1988).

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...dFocume1lting the challenge
TEACHING
Understanding Mathematics: Fey ~ 1981); ICMI ~ 1979~.
Learning Mathematics: MSEB ~ 1987~; Schoenfeld ~ 1987~; Tobias
~ 1988~; What Works ~ 1986~.
Engaging Students: Burton ~ 1984~; Cooney ~ 1988~; Davis ~ 1984~; Gins-
burg ~ 1983~; Grouws ~ 1988~; Kilpatrick ~ 1987~; Lampert ~ 1986~; Lesh
~ 1983~; Mason ~ 1982~; Mestre ~ 1987~; Nisbett ~ 1987~; Resnick ~ 1983~;
Resnick ~ 1987~; Schoenfeld ~ 1985~.
Impact of Computers: Fey (1984~; Howson (1986~; NCTM (1986~;
Smith ~ 1988~; Wilf ~ 1982~; Zorn ~ 1987~.
Education of Teachers: Carnegie (1986~; Cooney (1985~; CUPM
~ 1983~; Holmes ~ 1986~; Shulman ~ 1986~; Thompson ~ 1984~.
Resources: Tyson-Bernstein (1988~.
Assessment: Charles ~ 1988~; James ~ 1987~; Murnane ~ 1988~; Romberg
~ 1987~; State Educ. Assess. Ctr. ~ 1987~.
CHANGE
Challenges: AAAS (1984); Kelly (1986~; NCTM (1981~; NSB (1982~;
NSB ~ 1983~; NSF ~ 1979~.
Counterproductive Beliefs: Stevenson ~ 1986~; Willoughby ~ 1981).
The American Way: GAO (1984~; Wirszup (1987~.
Modern Mathematics: NACOME (1975~.
Lessons from the Past: Crosswhite (1985~; IEA (1988~; NACOME
~ 1975~; Tammadge ~ 1977~.
Transitions: AAAS ~ 1982~; Ralston ~ 1988~; Romberg ~ 1988~.
ACTION
National Goals: NSB ~ 1983~; Steen ~ 1987~.
Reaching Consensus: AAAS ~ 1987~; ACS ~ 1984~; MAA ~ 1978~; NCTM
(1980~; NCTM (1989~; Price (1981~.
National Strategy: Kelly (1986~; Knapp (1987~.
Support Structures: CCSO (1987~; Driscoll (1987~; Nat. Gov. Assoc.
~ 1987~; Sanders ~ 1987~.
Leadership: What Works (1987~.
Taking Action: Carnegie ~ 1988~; NCTM ~ 1989~.
101

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References
Sources
. . ~.. · ~.
To keep the text uncluttered, it contains few reference notes concerning individuals or data. For those
who want further information, the following notes identify people, data, and figures mentioned explicitly
in the text:
p. 1 Lester Thurow is an economist and dean of the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
p. 2 The quotation from Workforce 2000 is from p. 99 of Johnston (1987~.
p. 6 Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The quotation is from
keynote remarks he presented at the October 1987 National Research Council colloquium "Calculus
for a New Century"; see p. 9 of Steen (19883.
p. 6 Data for the Mathematics Pipeline graph are derived from Thomas D. Snyder, Digest of Education
Statistics 1987, Center for Education Statistics, May 1987, and from Alexander W. Astin, Kenneth
C. Green, and William S. Korn, The American Freshman: Twenty Year Trends, American Council
on Education, January 1987.
p. 7 The quotation from Mathematics Counts is from p. 11 of Cockcroft (19863.
p. 9 William R. Graham was science adviser to President Reagan. The quotation is from p. 247 of
Graham (1987).
p. it Some of the "Back to School" sample problems were adapted from curriculum material under
development by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project.
p. 12 Jaime Escalante is a mathematics teacher at Garfield High School in East Los Angeles; his work
was featured in the film Stand and Deliver. The quotation is from an interview in the July-August
1988 issue of N.S.F. Directions
.
p. 13 The quotation from One Third of a Nation is from American Council on Education (1988~.
p. 17 Data for the graph on Intended Mathematics Majors of Top High School Seniors are taken from
Science and Engineering Indicators 1987, National Science Foundation, 1987.
p. 18 Data for the graph on Shifting Student Interests are taken from Alexander W. Astin, et al., The
American Freshman: National Norms for Fad 1987, American Council on Education, December
p. 20
p. 20
1 987.
The quotation from Workforce 2000 is from p. 95 of Johnston (1987~.
p. 18
p. 19 Harold L. Hodgkinson is senior fellow and director of the Center for Demographic Policy at the
Institute for Educational Leadership. The quotation is from Hodgkinson (1985~.
Jaime Escalante; see p. 12.
Philip Uri Treisman is associate director of the Professional Development Project at the University
of California at Berkeley.
p. 21 Sheila Widnall is professor of aeronautical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
and past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The quotation is
from Widnall (1988~.
102

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...documenting file challenge
p. 22 Data for the graph on Distribution of Ph.D. Degrees are taken from "1987 Annual AMS-MAA
Survey First Report," Notices of the American Mathematical L9~ri~v Nov~mh~r 1 9~7
p. 83 Kenneth Summons Is emeritus professor of mathematical sciences at Kent State University.
p. 84 Marc S. Tucker is president of the National Center on Education and the Economy.
p. 96 Clay Morgan is a writer from McCall, Idaho. This quotation is adapted from remarks delivered at
the September 29, 1 98S, launch of the shuttle Discovery.
p. 23 I. Richard Savage is professor of statistics at Yale University and a member of the Conference
Board of the Mathematical Sciences Advisory Committee on Disabled Mathematicians.
p. 25 Data for the graph on Decline in Mathematics Ph.D.'s are adapted from the series "Annual AMS-
MAA Survey Reports" 1973-1986, Notices of the American Mathematical Society.
p. 27 Data for the graph on Bachelor's Degrees come from Thomas D. Snyder, Digest of Education
Statistics 1987, May 1987.
p. 29 Harvey Keynes is professor of mathematics at the University of Minnesota and director of the
UMTYMP, the University of Minnesota Talented Youth Mathematics Project.
p. 33 Nobel laureate Richard Feynman was professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology.
p. 35 The quotation by Eugene Wigner is on p. 14 of "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics
in the Natural Sciences," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 13 ( 19609.
p. 35 Stephen Hawking, a cosmologist, is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University.
p. 39 The quotation from Workforce 2000 is from p. 1 16 of Johnston ( 1987~.
p. 40 Edward E. David, Jr., is president of EED, Inc. He was formerly president of Exxon Research and
Engineering Company and was science adviser to President Nixon. The quotation is from p. 1 122
of David (1988~.
p. 44 See NCTM (1989~.
p. 5 1 Data for the graph on Undergraduate Mathematics are adapted from Albers ( 1987), the 1985 annual
survey of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences.
p. 67 See Tyson-Bernstein ( 1988), pp. 1 1-12.
p. 70 Ray Whinnem is principal of Martin Elementary School and K-6 mathematics coordinator for
Manchester Public Schools, Manchester, Connecticut.
p. 73 See National Commission (1983~.
p. 74 John A. Dossey is professor of mathematics at Illinois State University and past president of the
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1986-1988~.
p. 77 For data on international comparisons, see McKnight (1987) and Crosswhite (19863.
p. 78 See David (1988), p. 1122; also, see note for p. 40.
o. 81 Jon Brice is a mathematics teacher at Marion High School, Marion, Indiana.
~ ~ . ~ ~ . . .
~ rim

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References
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Credits
114
Credits for EVERYBODYCOUNTS
Composition contributed by the American Mathematical Society.
Editorial coordination by Audrey Pendergast.
Graphic design by Permut & Associates.
Models on cover courtesy of Camera-Reacly Kids Talent
Management anti Permut & Associates.
Cover photography by Frank Capri Photography.
Photographs courtesy of: p. xiv-NASA; p. I-NASA; p. 15-Wis-
consin Center for Education Research; p. 16-Danny Lyon,
EPA-Documerica; p. 17-U.S. Congress, Office of Technology
Assessment, Educating Scientists and Engineers: Grade School to
Grad School, OTA-SET-377, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, June 1988, p. 95; p. 20-Tom Keller/The Founda-
tion for Advancements in Science and Education; p. 24-GoUfrey
Argent; p. 30-Charies Frizzell/Wisconsin Center for Education
Research; p. 31-The George Washington University; p. 42-Car!
Zitzmann/George Mason University; p. 43-Houston Inclependent
School District (blinc! teacher anti blind student); p. 55-The
George Washington University; p. 56-Wisconsin Center for
Eclucation Research; p. 57- The George Washington
University; p. 71-Wisconsin Center for Education Research;
p. 72-The George Washington University; p. 73-Wisconsin Center
for Eciucation Research; p. 85-H.-O. Peitgen and P. H. Richter,
The Beaus of Fractals, Berlin: Springer-Veriag, 1986, p. 22; p. 86-
Katherine Lambert/Special Projects Division, National Science
Teachers Association (Erich Bloch, Director, National Science
Founclation and Sue Poole White, Washington, D.C., mathema-
tics teacher, winner of 1987 Presidential Award for Excellence
in Science and Mathematics Teaching); p. 87-Special Projects
Division, National Science Teachers Association; p. 98-
Houston Tn(lepenclent School District; p. 99-The George Wash-
ington University.