Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$8.95



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 98


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 97

OCR for page 97

OCR for page 97
REFERENCES A report of this nature touches on issues related to a very broad literature, from demographic analyses to mathemati- cal research, from educational policy to pedagogical theories. Because of heightened interest in educational reform and rapid changes in the mathematical sciences, this literature has expanded greatly in recent years. While many of the is- sues addressed in the report have been studied and thought about for a very long time, some of the most urgent mat- ters (for example, changing demographics and the impact of computing) have emerged only in recent years. Virtually every issue treated in Everybody Counts has roots in studies or reports of the past ten years. Some matters come directly from this literature; many other statements, however, are more the product of expert consensus than of documentable research. As a result, the references to this report provide not so much a record of evidence as a resource for action. To guide readers to the most current sources, the bibliog- raphy stresses works published in the 1980's. The absence of much of the older literature is a result of this choice, not a judgment about relative merits of classics in the field. Point- ers to important earlier analyses can readily be found among the books and papers in the bibliography. Notes The following notes suggest references that relate to particular sections. Because of the complex interactions among sections of this report interactions which are reflected also in many of the references the linkage of references to report sections is at most a very rough guide. OPPORTUNITY Context for Change: Nat. Comm. (1983~; NSB (1983~. Mathematics for Tomorrow: Koerner ~ 1981); Steen ~ 1988~. A Pump, Not a Filter: Mosaic (1987~; OTA (1988~; Turner (1986~. Numeracy: Bennett ~ 1984~; Bennett ~ 1987~; Boyer ~ 1983~; Boyer ~ 1987~; Cockcroft (1986~; Heckert (1984~; IEA (1988~; Miller (1988~. Attitudes: McKn ight ~ 1987 ~ . ...documer`ting the challenge 99

OCR for page 97
ReSerences 100 Goals: Johnston (1987); Resnick (1987); Romberg (1988). Students at Risk: ACE ( 1988); Norman (1988); Oaxaca (1988). HUA~4N RESOURCES Demographic Trends: Coyle ~ 1986); Galambos ~ 1980); Hodgkinson ~ 1985); Hum. Cap. ~ 1988); Johnston ~ 1987); Jones ~ 1982); Taylor (1984). Minorities: Baratz ~ 1986); Ford ~ 1986); Ford ~ 1987); Kozlov ~ 1987); Malcom ~ 1984); McBay ~ 1986); NSF ~ 1988); What Works ~ 1987). Women: Harnisch ~ 1986); Oaxaca ~ 1988); Widnall ~ 1988). Disabled Persons: Oaxaca ~ 1988). Graduate Students: Case (1988); Simon (1987); Stewart (1987~. Supply and Demand: Connors (1988~. Equity and Excellence: Oaxaca ~ 1988); Widnall ~ 1988). M'4THEMA TICS Our Invisible Culture: Bd. Math. Sci. (1986); Murnane (1988). From Abstraction to Application: Bd. Math. Sci. (1986); Bd. Math. Sci. (1988); Browder (1983); Feigenbaum (1988); Gleick (1987); Pe- terson ~ 1988); Rheinboldt ~ 1984); Rheinboldt ~ 1985); Steen ~ 1988). Computers: Heppenheimer (1985); Howson (1986); Zorn (1987). The Mathematical Community: Albers (1987); David (1984); Gil feather ~ 1987~; Madison ~ 1989~. Undergraduate Mathematics: Albers (1985); Assoc. Amer. Coll. ~ 1985); David ~ 1988); Lucas ~ 1980); NSB ~ 1986); NSB ~ 1987). CURRICULUM Philosophy: CBMS ~ 1984); Cockcroft ~ 1986); D'Ambrosio ~ 1981); Davis ~ 1988); Freudenthal ~ 1973); Freudenthal ~ 1983); Romberg ~ 1983); Romberg ~ 1984). Standards: CBMS (1983); Chambers (1986); Crosswhite (1986); Den ham (1985); Dossey (1988); Naumer (1986); NCTM (1989); Tyson- Bernstein ~ 1988). Elementary Education: Byrd ~ 1987); Flanders ~ 1987); Steen ~ 1986). Secondary Education: California ~ 1982); CEEB ~ 1985); Dessart ~ 1983); Dossey ~ 1988); Hirsch ~ 1985); Howson ~ 1986~; Maurer ~ 1983); SUNY ~ 1983). Higher Education: Albers (1985); Assoc. Amer. Coll. (1985); CUPM 1981); Davis-Van Atta ~ 1985); Howson ~ 1988); May ~ 1961); NIE 1984); Ralston ~ 1983); Steen ~ 1988).

OCR for page 97
...dFocume1lting the challenge TEACHING Understanding Mathematics: Fey ~ 1981); ICMI ~ 1979~. Learning Mathematics: MSEB ~ 1987~; Schoenfeld ~ 1987~; Tobias ~ 1988~; What Works ~ 1986~. Engaging Students: Burton ~ 1984~; Cooney ~ 1988~; Davis ~ 1984~; Gins- burg ~ 1983~; Grouws ~ 1988~; Kilpatrick ~ 1987~; Lampert ~ 1986~; Lesh ~ 1983~; Mason ~ 1982~; Mestre ~ 1987~; Nisbett ~ 1987~; Resnick ~ 1983~; Resnick ~ 1987~; Schoenfeld ~ 1985~. Impact of Computers: Fey (1984~; Howson (1986~; NCTM (1986~; Smith ~ 1988~; Wilf ~ 1982~; Zorn ~ 1987~. Education of Teachers: Carnegie (1986~; Cooney (1985~; CUPM ~ 1983~; Holmes ~ 1986~; Shulman ~ 1986~; Thompson ~ 1984~. Resources: Tyson-Bernstein (1988~. Assessment: Charles ~ 1988~; James ~ 1987~; Murnane ~ 1988~; Romberg ~ 1987~; State Educ. Assess. Ctr. ~ 1987~. CHANGE Challenges: AAAS (1984); Kelly (1986~; NCTM (1981~; NSB (1982~; NSB ~ 1983~; NSF ~ 1979~. Counterproductive Beliefs: Stevenson ~ 1986~; Willoughby ~ 1981). The American Way: GAO (1984~; Wirszup (1987~. Modern Mathematics: NACOME (1975~. Lessons from the Past: Crosswhite (1985~; IEA (1988~; NACOME ~ 1975~; Tammadge ~ 1977~. Transitions: AAAS ~ 1982~; Ralston ~ 1988~; Romberg ~ 1988~. ACTION National Goals: NSB ~ 1983~; Steen ~ 1987~. Reaching Consensus: AAAS ~ 1987~; ACS ~ 1984~; MAA ~ 1978~; NCTM (1980~; NCTM (1989~; Price (1981~. National Strategy: Kelly (1986~; Knapp (1987~. Support Structures: CCSO (1987~; Driscoll (1987~; Nat. Gov. Assoc. ~ 1987~; Sanders ~ 1987~. Leadership: What Works (1987~. Taking Action: Carnegie ~ 1988~; NCTM ~ 1989~. 101

OCR for page 97
References Sources . . ~.. ~. To keep the text uncluttered, it contains few reference notes concerning individuals or data. For those who want further information, the following notes identify people, data, and figures mentioned explicitly in the text: p. 1 Lester Thurow is an economist and dean of the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. p. 2 The quotation from Workforce 2000 is from p. 99 of Johnston (1987~. p. 6 Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The quotation is from keynote remarks he presented at the October 1987 National Research Council colloquium "Calculus for a New Century"; see p. 9 of Steen (19883. p. 6 Data for the Mathematics Pipeline graph are derived from Thomas D. Snyder, Digest of Education Statistics 1987, Center for Education Statistics, May 1987, and from Alexander W. Astin, Kenneth C. Green, and William S. Korn, The American Freshman: Twenty Year Trends, American Council on Education, January 1987. p. 7 The quotation from Mathematics Counts is from p. 11 of Cockcroft (19863. p. 9 William R. Graham was science adviser to President Reagan. The quotation is from p. 247 of Graham (1987). p. it Some of the "Back to School" sample problems were adapted from curriculum material under development by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project. p. 12 Jaime Escalante is a mathematics teacher at Garfield High School in East Los Angeles; his work was featured in the film Stand and Deliver. The quotation is from an interview in the July-August 1988 issue of N.S.F. Directions . p. 13 The quotation from One Third of a Nation is from American Council on Education (1988~. p. 17 Data for the graph on Intended Mathematics Majors of Top High School Seniors are taken from Science and Engineering Indicators 1987, National Science Foundation, 1987. p. 18 Data for the graph on Shifting Student Interests are taken from Alexander W. Astin, et al., The American Freshman: National Norms for Fad 1987, American Council on Education, December p. 20 p. 20 1 987. The quotation from Workforce 2000 is from p. 95 of Johnston (1987~. p. 18 p. 19 Harold L. Hodgkinson is senior fellow and director of the Center for Demographic Policy at the Institute for Educational Leadership. The quotation is from Hodgkinson (1985~. Jaime Escalante; see p. 12. Philip Uri Treisman is associate director of the Professional Development Project at the University of California at Berkeley. p. 21 Sheila Widnall is professor of aeronautical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The quotation is from Widnall (1988~. 102

OCR for page 97
...documenting file challenge p. 22 Data for the graph on Distribution of Ph.D. Degrees are taken from "1987 Annual AMS-MAA Survey First Report," Notices of the American Mathematical L9~ri~v Nov~mh~r 1 9~7 p. 83 Kenneth Summons Is emeritus professor of mathematical sciences at Kent State University. p. 84 Marc S. Tucker is president of the National Center on Education and the Economy. p. 96 Clay Morgan is a writer from McCall, Idaho. This quotation is adapted from remarks delivered at the September 29, 1 98S, launch of the shuttle Discovery. p. 23 I. Richard Savage is professor of statistics at Yale University and a member of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences Advisory Committee on Disabled Mathematicians. p. 25 Data for the graph on Decline in Mathematics Ph.D.'s are adapted from the series "Annual AMS- MAA Survey Reports" 1973-1986, Notices of the American Mathematical Society. p. 27 Data for the graph on Bachelor's Degrees come from Thomas D. Snyder, Digest of Education Statistics 1987, May 1987. p. 29 Harvey Keynes is professor of mathematics at the University of Minnesota and director of the UMTYMP, the University of Minnesota Talented Youth Mathematics Project. p. 33 Nobel laureate Richard Feynman was professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology. p. 35 The quotation by Eugene Wigner is on p. 14 of "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 13 ( 19609. p. 35 Stephen Hawking, a cosmologist, is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. p. 39 The quotation from Workforce 2000 is from p. 1 16 of Johnston ( 1987~. p. 40 Edward E. David, Jr., is president of EED, Inc. He was formerly president of Exxon Research and Engineering Company and was science adviser to President Nixon. The quotation is from p. 1 122 of David (1988~. p. 44 See NCTM (1989~. p. 5 1 Data for the graph on Undergraduate Mathematics are adapted from Albers ( 1987), the 1985 annual survey of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. p. 67 See Tyson-Bernstein ( 1988), pp. 1 1-12. p. 70 Ray Whinnem is principal of Martin Elementary School and K-6 mathematics coordinator for Manchester Public Schools, Manchester, Connecticut. p. 73 See National Commission (1983~. p. 74 John A. Dossey is professor of mathematics at Illinois State University and past president of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1986-1988~. p. 77 For data on international comparisons, see McKnight (1987) and Crosswhite (19863. p. 78 See David (1988), p. 1122; also, see note for p. 40. o. 81 Jon Brice is a mathematics teacher at Marion High School, Marion, Indiana. ~ ~ . ~ ~ . . . ~ rim

OCR for page 97
References Bibliography | Albers, Donald J.; Anderson, Richard D.; Loftsgaarden, Don O. Undergraduate Programs in the Math- ematical and Computer Sciences: The 1985-1986 Survey. MAA Notes No. 7. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America, 1987. Albers, Donald J.; Rodi, Stephen B.; Watkins, Ann E. (eds.). New Directions in Two-Year College Mathe- matics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985. American Association for the Advancement of Science. A Report on the Crisis in Mathematics and Science Education: What Can Be Done Now? New York: J. C. Crimmins, 1984. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Education in the Sciences: A Developing Crisis. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1982. American Association for the Advancement of Science. What Science Is Most Worth Knowing? Draft Report of Phase I, Project 2061. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1987. American ChemicalSociety. Tomorrow: The Report ofthe Task Forcefor the Study of Chemistry Education in the United States. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society, 1984. Amencan Council on Education. One Third of a Nation. Report of the Commission on Minonty Partici- pation in Education and American Life. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1988. Association of American Colleges. Integrity in the College Curriculum. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges, 1985. Baratz, Joan C. Black Participation in the Teacher PooL New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 1986. Bennett, William J. James Madison High School: A Curriculum forAmerican Students. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1987. Bennett, William J. To Reclaim a Legacy. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities, 1984. Board on Mathematical Sciences, Panel on Mathematical Sciences, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council. Mathematical Sciences: A Unifying and Dynamic Resource. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986. Board on Mathematical Sciences, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, Na- tional Research Council. Mathematical Sciences: Some Research Trends. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988. Board on Mathematical Sciences. "Mathematics: The Unifying Thread in Science." Notices of the Amer- ican Mathematical Society, 33 (1986), 716-733. Boyer, Ernest L. High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1983. Boyer, Ernest L. College: The Undergraduate Experience. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. 104

OCR for page 97
...documenting the challenge Browder, William (ed.~. "Report of the Research Briefing Panel on Mathematics." Research Briefings l9S3. Research Briefing Panel on Mathematics, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1983, 1-1 8. Burton, Leone. "Mathematical Thinking: The Struggle for Meaning." Journalfor Research in Mathematics Ed uca tio n, 1 5 :4 (January 1 9 ~ 4 ), 3 5 -4 9. Byrd, Jr., Manford. Implementation Handbook for the Comprehensive Mathematics Program: Kindergarten-Grade S. Chicago, Ill.: Board of Education, City of Chicago, 1987. California Round Table on Educational Opportunity. Statement on Competencies in English and Mathe- matics Expected of Entering Freshmen. Sacramento, Calif.: California State Department of Education, 1 982. Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the 21st Century. Report of the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. New York: Carnegie Corporation, 1986. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Report Card on School Reform. Carnegie Foun- dation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1988. Case, Bettye Anne. Teaching Assistants and Part-time Instructors. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Asso- ciation of America, 1988. Chambers, Donald L. A Guidle to Curriculum Planning in Mathematics. Madison, Wis.: Wisconsin De- partment of Public Instruction, 1986. Charles, R. and Silver, E. (eds.~. Teaching and Evaluating Mathematical Problem Solving. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1988. Cockcroft, Wilfred H. Mathematics Counts. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1986. College Entrance Examination Board. Academic Preparation in Mathematics: Teaching for Transition from High School to College. New York: The College Board, 1985. Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics. Recommendations for a General Mathematical Sciences Program. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America, 1981. Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics, Panel on Teacher Training. Recommendations on the Mathematical Preparation of Teachers. MAA Notes No. 2. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America, 1983. Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. New Goals for Mathematical Sciences Education. Wash- ington, D.C.: Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 1984. Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. "The Mathematical Sciences Curriculum K-12: What Is Still Fundamental and What Is Not." In Educating Americans for the 21st Century: Source Materials. National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1983, 1-23. Connors, Edward A. "A Decline in Mathematics Threatens Science and the U.S." The Scientist, 2:22 (November 28, 1988), 9, 12. 105

OCR for page 97
References Cooney, Thomas J. "A Beginning Teacher's View of Problem Solving." Journal for Research in Mathe- matics Education, 16 ~ 1985), 324-336. Cooney, Thomas J. "The Issue of Reform: What Have We Learned from Yesteryear?" Mathematics Teacher, 81 (May 1988), 352-363. Council of Chief State School Officers. Equity and Excellence: A Dual Thrust in Mathematics and Science Education: Model State Education Agency Exhorts. Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1987. Coyle, Susan L. and Syverson, Peter D. (eds.~. Summary Report 1984: Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, National Research Council. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986. Crosswhite, F. Joe, et al. Second International Mathematics Study: Summary Reportfor the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, 1985. Crosswhite, F. Joe, et al. Second International Mathematics Study: Detailed Report for the United States. Champaign, Ill.: Stipes Publishing Company, 1986. D'Ambrosio, Ubiratan. "Uniting Reality and Action: A Holistic Approach to Mathematics Education." In Lynn Arthur Steen and Donald J. Albers (eds.~: Teaching Teachers, Teaching Students: Reflections on Mathematical Education. Boston, Mass.: Birkhauser Boston, 1981, 33-42. David, Jr., Edward E. (ed.). Renewing U.S. Mathematics: Critical Resource for the Future. Ad Hoc Com- mittee on Resources for the Mathematical Sciences, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1984. David, Jr., Edward E. "Renewing U.S. Mathematics: An Agenda to Begin the Second Century." Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 35 (October 1988), 1119-1123. Davis, Philip J. "Applied Mathematics as Social Contract." Mathematics Magazine, 61:3 (1988), 139-147. Davis, Robert B. Learning Mathematics: The Cognitive Science Approach to Mathematics Education. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, 1984. Davis-Van Atta, David, et al. Educating America's Scientists: The Role of the Research College. Oberlin, Ohio: Oberlin College, 1985. Denham, Walter F. and O'Malley, Edward T. (eds.). Mathematics Frameworkfor California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, Calif.: California State Department of Education 1985. Dessart, Donald J. and Suydam, Marilyn N. Classroom Ideas from Research on Secondary School Mathe- matics. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1983. Dossey, John A. "Learning, Teaching, and Standards." Mathematics Teacher, 81 (1988), 290-293. Dossey, John A.; Mullis, Ina V. S.; Lindquist, Mary M.; Chambers, Donald L. The Mathematics Report Card: Are We Measuring Up? Princeton, N. J.: Educational Testing Service, 1988. Driscoll, Mark. Stories of Excellence: Ten Case Studies from a Study of Exemplary Mathematics Programs. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1987. 106

OCR for page 97
...documenting the challenge Feigenbaum, Mitchell J. and Kruskal, Martin (eds.~. "Order, Chaos, and Patterns: Aspects of Nonlin earity." Research Briefings 1987. Research Briefing Panel on Order, Chaos, and Patterns: Aspects of Nonlinearity, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988. Fey, James T. Mathematics Teaching Today: Perspectives from Three National Surveys. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1981. Fey, James T. (ed.), et al. Computing and Mathematics: The Impact on Secondary School Curricula. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1984. Flanders, James. "How Much of the Content in Mathematics Textbooks Is New?" Arithmetic Teacher, 35:1 (September 1987), 18-23. Ford Foundation. And Gladly Teach: A Forc! Foundation Report on Urban Mathematics ColIaboratives. New York: The Ford Foundation, 1987. Ford Foundation. Minorities and Mathematics. New York: A Ford Foundation Stab Paper, 1986. Freudenthal, Hans. "Major Problems of Mathematics Education." In M. Zweng, et al. (eds.~: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Mathematical Education. Boston, Mass.: Birkhauser Boston, 1983, 1-7. Freudenthal, Hans. Mathematics as an Educational Task. Norwell, Mass.: Reidel, 1973. Galambos, Eva C. Engineering and High Tech noilogy Manpower Shortages: The Connection with Mathe- matics. Atlanta, Gal: Southern Regional Education Board, 1980. General Accounting Office. New Directions for Federal Programs to Aid Mathematics and Science Teaching. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984. Gilfeather, Frank. "University Support for Mathematical Research." Notices of the American Mathemat- ical Society, 34 (November 1 987), 1067-1070. Ginsburg, H. P. feds. The Development of Mathematical Thinking. New York: Academic Press, 1983. Gleick, James. Chaos. New York: Viking Press, 1987. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. Nurturing Science anclEngineering Talent: A Discussion Paper. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, July 1987. Graham, William R. "Challenges to the Mathematics Community." Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 34 (February 1987), 245-250. Grouws, Douglas A.; Cooney, Thomas J.; Jones, Douglas (eds.~. Perspectives on Research on Elective Mathematics Teaching, Volume 1. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1988. Harnisch, Delwyn L., et al. "Cross-National Differences in Mathematics Attitude and Achievement Among Seventeen-Year-Olds." International Journal of Educational Development, 6:4 ~1986), 233-244. Heckert, Richard E. (chrism. High Schools and the Changing Workplace: The Employers' View. Panel on Secondary School Education for the Changing Workplace, Committee on Science, Engineering,and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1984. 107

OCR for page 97
References Heppenheimer, T. A. "Mathematicians at the Receiving End." Mosaic, 16:4 (1985), 37-47. Hirsch, Christian R. and Zweng, Marilyn J. (eds.). The Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum: 1985 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Yearbook. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1985. Hodgkinson, Harold L. All One System: Demographics of Education-Kindergarten Through Graduate School. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Educational Leadership, 1985. Holmes Group. Tomorrow's Teachers: Report of the Holmes Group. East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University, 1986. Howson, Geoffrey; Kahane, J.-P.; Lauginie, P.; de Turckheim, E. (eds.). Mathematics as a Service Sub- ject. International Commission on Mathematical Instruction Study Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Howson, Geoffrey and Kahane, J.-P. (eds.). The Influence of Computers and Informatics on Mathematics and Its Teaching. International Commission on Mathematical Instruction Study Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. Howson, Geoffrey and Wilson, Bryan (eds.). School Mathematics in the 1990s. International Commission on Mathematical Instruction Study Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. `'Human Capital: The Decline of America's Work Force." Business Week, Special Report, September 19, 1988, 100-141. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Science Achievement in Seven- teen Countries. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1988. International Commission on Mathematical Instruction. New Trends in Mathematics Teaching, Volume IV. Paris: United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization, 1979. James, H. Thomas and Glaser, Robert. The Nation's Report Card: Improving the Assessment of Student Achievement. Cambridge, Mass.: National Academy of Education, 1987. | Johnston, William B. and Packer, Arnold E. (eds.). Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the Twenty- First Century. Indianapolis, Ind.: Hudson Institute, 1987. | Jones, Lyle V.; Lindzey, Gardner; Coggeshall, Porter E. (eds.). An Assessment of Research Doctorate I Programs in the United States: Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Committee on an Assessment of Quality-Related Characteristics of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States, National Re search Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1982. Kelly, James A. Financing Education Reform. New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 1986. Kilpatrick, Jeremy. "Inquiry in the Mathematics Classroom." Academic Connections, The College Board (1987), 1-2. Kirsch, Irwin S. and Jungeblut, Ann. Literacy Profiles of America's Young Adults. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1986. Knapp, Michael S., et al. Opportunities for Strategic Investment in K-12 Science Education, Volume l: Problems and Opportunities. Menlo Park, Calif: SRI International, 1987. 108

OCR for page 97
...documenting the challenge Koerner, James D. (ed.~. The New Liberal Arts: An Exchange of Views. New York: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 1981. Kozlov, Alex. "Urban Mathematics Collaboratives: Getting Teachers Plugged in." SIAM News (September 1987), 24. Lampert, Magdalene. "Knowing, Doing, and Teaching Mathematics." Cognition and Instruction, 3:4 ( 1 986), 305-342. Lesh, Richard (ed.). Acquisition of Mathematics Concepts and Processes. New York: Academic Press, 1 983. Lucas, William F. "New Directions for Undergraduate Mathematics." In Lynn Arthur Steen ted.): Math- ematicsCurriculumConference. Northfield,Minn.: St. OlafCollege,1980, 1-21. Madison, Bernard L. and Hart, Therese A. "Supply, Utilization and Prospects of Talent from the Mathe- matical Sciences in U.S. Colleges and Universities." (Draft). Committee on the Mathematical Sciences '' in the Year 2000, Mathematical Sciences Education Board and Board on Mathematical Sciences, Com- mission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press (forthcoming). Malcom, Shirley M. Equity and Excellence: Compatible Goals. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1984. Mason, I.; Burton, L.; Stacey, K. Thinking Mathematically. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1982. Mathematical Association of America. PRIME-8 O: Proceedings of the Conference on Prospects in Mathe- matics Education in the l9SO,s. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America, 1978. Mathematical Sciences Education Board, National Research Council. The Teacher of Mathematics: Issues for Today and Tomorrow. Proceedings of a Conference. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 1 987. Maurer, Stephen B. "The Effects of a New College Mathematics Curriculum on High School Mathemat- ics." In Ralston, Anthony and Young, Gail S. (eds.~: The Future of College Mathematics. New York: Springer-Verlag, l 983, 1 53-1 75. May, Kenneth O. and Schuster, Seymour (eds.~. Undergraduate Research in Mathematics. Northfield, Minn.: Carleton College, 1961. McBay, Shirley M. Increasing the Number and Quality of Minority Science and Mathematics Teachers. New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 1986. McKnight, Curtis C., et al. The Underachieving Curriculum: Assessing U.S. School Mathematics from an International Perspective. Champaign, Ill.: Stipes Publishing Company, 1987. Mestre, Jose. "Why Should Mathematics and Science Teachers Be Interested in Cognitive Research Find- ings?" Academic Connections, The College Board (1987),3-5,8-11. Miller, George A. "The Challenge of Universal Literacy." Science, 241 (September 9, 1988), 1293-1299. Mosaic. "Education and the Professional Workforce: A Mosaic Special." Mosaic, 18:1 (Spring), 1987. 109 l

OCR for page 97
References Murnane, Richard J. and Raizen, Senta A. (eds.). Improving Indicators of the Quality of Science and Math- ematics Education in Grades K-12. Committee on Indicators of Precollege Science and Mathematics Education, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1988. National Advisory Committee on Mathematics Education. Overview and Analysis of School Mathematics, Grades K-12. Washington, D.C.: Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 1975. National Commission on Excellence in Education. A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. An Agenda for Action: Recommendations for School Math- ematics of the 1980s. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1980. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathe- matics. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1989. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Priorities in School Mathematics: Executive Summary of the PRISM Project. Reston, Va.: Natinnal (~olinnil of Tt?~oh~rc Of M~th`~m~tirc 1 (A 1 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The Impact of Computing Technology on School Mathe- matics. Report of a Conference. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1986. National Governors' Association. Results in [Education 1987: The Governors' 1991 Report on Education. Washington, D.C.: National Governors' Association, 1987. National Institute of Education. Involvement in Learning: Realizing the Potential of American Higher Education. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education, 1984. National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Educating Americans for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1983. National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Today's Problems, Tomorrow's Crises. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1982. National Science Board. Science and Engineering Education for the 1980s and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1980. National Science Board Task Committee on Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education. Un- dergraduate Science, Mathematics and Engineering Fdur~ztion Washington TO (A N~tinn~1 ~riPnr~ Foundation, March 1986. _ A A _ ^ V ~~ ~ ^ _ AL ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~ ~ ~ V ~ - - (> ~-Cat ~-- ~ ~ ~- ~- ~ ~ -~ ~ ^ ~ ~ ^ V ~ ~--~ V _ National Science Board Task Committee on Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education. Undler- graduate Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education. Volume II: Source Materials. Washington D.C.: National Science Foundation, November 1987. National Science Foundation. What Are the Needs in Precollege Science, Mathematics, and Social Science Education? Views from the Field Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1979. National Science Foundation. Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1988. Naumer, Jr., Walter W.; Sanders, Ted. State Goals for Learning and Sample Learning Objectives: Mathe- matics, Grades 3' 6, 8' 10' 12. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois State Board of Education, 1986. 110 ~c, ,

OCR for page 97
...documenting the challenge Nisbett, Richard E., et al. "Teaching Reasoning." Science, 238 (October 30, 1987), 625-631. Norman, Colin. "Math Education: A Mixed Picture." Science, 241 (July 22, 1988), 408-409. Oaxaca, Jaime and Reynolds, Ann W. Changing America: The New Face of Science and Engineering (Interim Report.) Washington, D.C.: Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, September 1988. Office of Technology Assessment. Educating Scientists and Engineers, Grade School to Grad School. Wash- ington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment, 1988. Peterson, Ivars. The Mathematical Tourist: Snapshots of Modern Mathematics. New York: W. H. Free- man, 1988. Price, Jack and Gawronski, J. D. (eds.). Changing School Mathematics: A Responsive Process. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1981. Ralston, Anthony et al. A FrameworkforRevision ofthe K-12 Mathematics Curriculum. Task Force Report submitted to the Mathematical Sciences Education Board, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 1988. Ralston, Anthony and Young, Gail S. The Future of College Mathematics. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983. Resnick, Lauren B. Education and Learning to Think. Committee on Mathematics, Science, and Tech- nology Education, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1987. Resnick, Lauren B. "Mathematics and Science Learning: A New Conception." Science, 220 (April 29, 1983), 477-478. Rheinboldt, Werner C. (ed.). Computational Modeling and Mathematics Applied to the Physical Sciences. Committee on the Applications of Mathematics, Office of Mathematical Sciences, Commission on Phys- ical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1984. Rheinboldt, Werner C. Future Directions in Computational Mathematics, Algorithms, and Scientific Soft- ware. Philadelphia, Pa.: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1985. Romberg, Thomas A. '`A Common Curriculum for Mathematics." Individual Differences and the Common Curriculum: Eighty-Second Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1983, 124. Romberg, Thomas A. "Policy Implications of the Three R's of Mathematics Education: Revolution, Re- form, and Research." Paper presented at annual meeting of American Educational Research Associa- tion, 1988. Romberg, Thomas A. SchoolMathematics: Optionsforthe 1990s. Chairman's Report of a Conference, Madison, Wisconsin. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Education, 1984. Romberg,ThomasA.andStewart,DeborahM.(eds.). TheMonitoringofSchoolMathematics: Background Papers, V. 1-3. Madison, Wis.: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin, 1987. 111

OCR for page 97
References Sanders, Ted. Mathematics in Illinois: State of the State, 1984-19S5. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois State Board of Education, 1987. Schoenfeld, Alan H. (ed.). Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1987. Schoenfeld, Alan H. Mathematical Problem Solving. New York: Academic Press, 1985. Shulman, Lee S. and Sykes, Gary. A National Board for Teaching? In Search of a Bold Standard. New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 1986. Simon, Barry (ebb. Report of the Committee on American Graduate Mathematics Enrollments. Washing- ton, D.C.: Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 1987. Smith, David A.; Porter, Gerald J.; Leinbach, L. Carl; Wenger, Ronald H. (eds.~. Computers and Math- ematics: The Use of Computers in Undergraduate Instruction. MAA Notes No. 9. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America 1988. I ^' ^~ BAA ~A ~ ~ ~ ~` 1 x4AA~A A~' ~ ~ V V State Education Assessment Center. Recommendations on Developing Science/Mathematics Indicators with the States and Year-One Report of the Project. Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1987. State Education Assessment Center. State Education Policies Related to Science and Mathematics. Wash- ington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers, 1987. State University of New York. Three- Year Sequence for High School Mathematics, Course I-III. New York: University of the State of New York, The State Education Department, 1983. Steen, Lynn Arthur. "A Time of Transition: Mathematics for the Middle Grades." In R. Lodholz (ed.~: A Change in Emphasis. Parkway, Mo.: Parkway School District, 1986, 1-9. Steen, Lynn Arthur (ed.~. Calculus for a New Century: A Pump, Not a Filter. MAA Notes No. 8. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America, 1988. Steen, Lynn Arthur. "Mathematics Education: A Predictor of Scientific Competitiveness." Science, 237 (July 1 7, 1 987), 25 1-252, 302. Steen, Lynn Arthur. "The Science of Patterns." Science, 240 (April 29, 1988), 61 1-616. Steen, Lynn Arthur and Albers, Donald J. (eds.~. Teaching Teachers, Teaching Students: Reflections on Mathematical Education. Boston, Mass.: Birkhauser Boston, 1981. Stevenson, Harold W., et al. "Mathematics Achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American Children." Science, 231 (February 14, 1986), 693-699. Stewart, William L. (dir.~. Foreign Citizens in U.S. Science and Engineering: History, Status, and Outlook. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1987. Tammadge, Alan and Starr, Phyllis. A Parents' Guide to School Mathematics. School Mathematics Project I Handbooks. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Taylor, John L. (edgy. Teacher Shortage in Science and Mathematics: Myths, Realities, and Research. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education, 1984. Thompson, A. G. "The Relationship of Teachers' Conceptions of Mathematics and Mathematics Teaching to Instructional Practice." EdfucationalStuclties in Mathematics, 15 ( 1984), 105-127. ~2

OCR for page 97
...documenting the challenge Tobias, Sheila. "Insiders and Outsiders." Academic Connections. The College Board (Winter 1988), 1~5. Turner, Nura and Rains, Dorothea. Careers of Mathematical1ly Talented Students: A 27-YearStudy of Top-Rankers in the 1958-1960 AHSME, 1986. Tyson-Bernstein, Harriet. A Conspiracy of Good Intentions: America's Textbook Fiasco. Washington, D.C.: Council for Basic Education, 1988. Weiss, Iris R. "Middle School Mathematics Teachers: Results from the 1985-86 National Survey of Sci- ence and Mathematics Education." Office of Opportunities in Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, November 1987. What Works: Research About Teaching and Learning. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Department of Education, 1 986. What Works: Schools That Work, Educating Disadvantaged Children. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1987. Widnall, Sheila E. "AAAS Presidential Lecture: Voices from the Pipeline." Science, 241 (September 30, 1988), 1 740-1 745. Wilf, Herbert S. "The Disk with the College Education." American Mathematical Monthly, 89 (1982), 4-8. Willoughby, Stephen S. Teaching Mathematics: What Is Basic? Occasional Paper 31. Washington' D.C.: Council for Basic Education, 1981. Wirszup, Izaak and Streit, Robert (eds.~. Developments in School Mathematics Education Around the Woriai. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1987. Zorn, Paul. "Computing in Undergraduate Mathematics." Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 34 (October 1987), 917-923. ~3

OCR for page 97
Credits 114 Credits for EVERYBODYCOUNTS Composition contributed by the American Mathematical Society. Editorial coordination by Audrey Pendergast. Graphic design by Permut & Associates. Models on cover courtesy of Camera-Reacly Kids Talent Management anti Permut & Associates. Cover photography by Frank Capri Photography. Photographs courtesy of: p. xiv-NASA; p. I-NASA; p. 15-Wis- consin Center for Education Research; p. 16-Danny Lyon, EPA-Documerica; p. 17-U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Educating Scientists and Engineers: Grade School to Grad School, OTA-SET-377, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1988, p. 95; p. 20-Tom Keller/The Founda- tion for Advancements in Science and Education; p. 24-GoUfrey Argent; p. 30-Charies Frizzell/Wisconsin Center for Education Research; p. 31-The George Washington University; p. 42-Car! Zitzmann/George Mason University; p. 43-Houston Inclependent School District (blinc! teacher anti blind student); p. 55-The George Washington University; p. 56-Wisconsin Center for Eclucation Research; p. 57- The George Washington University; p. 71-Wisconsin Center for Education Research; p. 72-The George Washington University; p. 73-Wisconsin Center for Eciucation Research; p. 85-H.-O. Peitgen and P. H. Richter, The Beaus of Fractals, Berlin: Springer-Veriag, 1986, p. 22; p. 86- Katherine Lambert/Special Projects Division, National Science Teachers Association (Erich Bloch, Director, National Science Founclation and Sue Poole White, Washington, D.C., mathema- tics teacher, winner of 1987 Presidential Award for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching); p. 87-Special Projects Division, National Science Teachers Association; p. 98- Houston Tn(lepenclent School District; p. 99-The George Wash- ington University.