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Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements Appendix A Examples of Scientific Accomplishments and Relevant Satellite Missions TABLE A.1 Examples of Landmark Satellite Missions That Have Contributed Significantly to the Scientific Accomplishments Discussed in this Report Satellite Accomplishment ATS/SMS/GOES Meteosat GMS Weather observations of the tropics and midlatitudes from geostationary altitude (2, 3) Tropical cyclone detection and forecasting (3) Aura Observing stratospheric ozone (5) Observing trace gases in the stratosphere, ozone chemistry (5) Observing trace gases in the troposphere, tropospheric chemistry and transport (5) Tropospheric ozone (5) Global climatology of aerosols (4) CloudSat CALIPSO Global distribution of cloud properties (4) Envisat Stratospheric ozone (5) Stratospheric trace gases (5) Tropospheric ozone (5) Tropospheric trace gases (5) ERS 1 and 2 Observing stratospheric ozone (5) Observing trace gases in the stratosphere (5) Tropospheric ozone (5) Observing trace gases in the troposphere (5) Glacier extent and position of equilibrium line (7) Understanding ocean tides (8) Westward-propagating sea surface height variability (8) Mapping global fires (10) First images of earthquakes (11) Explorer 7 Earth radiation budget (2, 4) GPS Plate tectonics (11) GRACE Analysis of groundwater (6) Geodesy (11) Mean Gravity Model (11) ICESat Ice shelf collapse (7)
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Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements Satellite Accomplishment LAGEOS Geodesy (11) Landsat Seasonal snow cover (6) Increasing growing season (9) Studying plant physiology (9) Monitoring agricultural lands (10) Estimating tropical deforestation (10) Mapping global land cover (2, 10) Understanding desertification (10) Monitoring urban areas (10) Nimbus series Observing stratospheric dynamics (5) Observing distribution and decrease of stratospheric ozone (5) Measuring stratospheric trace gases (5) Antarctic ozone hole (5) Tropospheric ozone (5) Declining Arctic summer sea ice (7) Satellite images corroborate Sverdrup’s theory (8) First global maps of marine primary productivity (9) First atmospheric soundings (3, 4, 5) NOAA Impact of a volcanic eruption on climate (4) Global sea surface temperature observations (8) Atmospheric temperature and moisture soundings for weather prediction (3) Monitoring global total ozone column over Antarctica (5) QuikScat Ocean wind measurements reveal two-way ocean-atmosphere interaction (8) RadarSat Nonuniform and dynamic ice streams in Antarctica (7) Declining Arctic summer sea ice (7) SRTM Use of satellite-derived elevation data in hydrology (6) First fine-resolution topography map (11) Terra/Aqua Distribution of tropospheric carbon monoxide, ozone precursor (5) Mapping global fires (10) Indirect effects of aerosols (4) Global distribution of cloud properties (4) Global climatology of aerosols (4) Global marine and terrestrial primary productivity (9) The carbon cycle (9) TIROS Weather imagery (2, 3) Numerical weather prediction (3) TOPEX/Poseidon Global mean sea level (8) Understanding ocean tides (8) Westward propagating sea-surface height variability (8) Discovery of internal tides and their contribution to ocean mixing (8) El Niño (9) TRMM Precipitation over the oceans and the tropics (6) Ligntning as source of tropospheric NOx (5) UARS Stratospheric ozone distribution (5) Role of chloride in ozone depletion (5) Transport and partitioning of chlorine species in stratosphere (5) Depiction of tropical tape recorder (5) NOTE: ERS = European Remote Sensing Satellite; GOME = Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; GPS = Global Positioning System; GRACE = Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment; ICESat = Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite; NOAA = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; SRTM = Shuttle Radar Topography Mission; TIROS = Television InfraRed Observation Satellite; TOPEX = Topography Experiment; TRMM = Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.