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Appendix A Examples of Scientific Accomplishments and Relevant Satellite Missions TABLE A.1  Examples of Landmark Satellite Missions That Have Contributed Significantly to the Scientific Accomplishments Discussed in this Report Satellite Accomplishment ATS/SMS/GOES • Weather observations of the tropics and midlatitudes from geostationary altitude (2, 3) Meteosat • Tropical cyclone detection and forecasting (3) GMS Aura • Observing stratospheric ozone (5) • Observing trace gases in the stratosphere, ozone chemistry (5) • Observing trace gases in the troposphere, tropospheric chemistry and transport (5) • Tropospheric ozone (5) • Global climatology of aerosols (4) CloudSat • Global distribution of cloud properties (4) CALIPSO Envisat • Stratospheric ozone (5) • Stratospheric trace gases (5) • Tropospheric ozone (5) • Tropospheric trace gases (5) ERS 1 and 2 • Observing stratospheric ozone (5) • Observing trace gases in the stratosphere (5) • Tropospheric ozone (5) • Observing trace gases in the troposphere (5) • Glacier extent and position of equilibrium line (7) • Understanding ocean tides (8) • Westward-propagating sea surface height variability (8) • Mapping global fires (10) • First images of earthquakes (11) Explorer 7 • Earth radiation budget (2, 4) GPS • Plate tectonics (11) GRACE • Analysis of groundwater (6) • Geodesy (11) • Mean Gravity Model (11) ICESat • Ice shelf collapse (7) continued 121

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122 APPENDIX A TABLE A.1  Continued Satellite Accomplishment LAGEOS • Geodesy (11) Landsat • Seasonal snow cover (6) • Increasing growing season (9) • Studying plant physiology (9) • Monitoring agricultural lands (10) • Estimating tropical deforestation (10) • Mapping global land cover (2, 10) • Understanding desertification (10) • Monitoring urban areas (10) Nimbus series • Observing stratospheric dynamics (5) • Observing distribution and decrease of stratospheric ozone (5) • Measuring stratospheric trace gases (5) • Antarctic ozone hole (5) • Tropospheric ozone (5) • Declining Arctic summer sea ice (7) • Satellite images corroborate Sverdrup’s theory (8) • First global maps of marine primary productivity (9) • First atmospheric soundings (3, 4, 5) NOAA • Impact of a volcanic eruption on climate (4) • Global sea surface temperature observations (8) • Atmospheric temperature and moisture soundings for weather prediction (3) • Monitoring global total ozone column over Antarctica (5) QuikScat • Ocean wind measurements reveal two-way ocean-atmosphere interaction (8) RadarSat • Nonuniform and dynamic ice streams in Antarctica (7) • Declining Arctic summer sea ice (7) SRTM • Use of satellite-derived elevation data in hydrology (6) • First fine-resolution topography map (11) Terra/Aqua • Distribution of tropospheric carbon monoxide, ozone precursor (5) • Mapping global fires (10) • Indirect effects of aerosols (4) • Global distribution of cloud properties (4) • Global climatology of aerosols (4) • Global marine and terrestrial primary productivity (9) • The carbon cycle (9) TIROS • Weather imagery (2, 3) • Numerical weather prediction (3) TOPEX/Poseidon • Global mean sea level (8) • Understanding ocean tides (8) • Westward propagating sea-surface height variability (8) • Discovery of internal tides and their contribution to ocean mixing (8) • El Niño (9) TRMM • Precipitation over the oceans and the tropics (6) • Ligntning as source of tropospheric NOx (5) UARS • Stratospheric ozone distribution (5) • Role of chloride in ozone depletion (5) • Transport and partitioning of chlorine species in stratosphere (5) • Depiction of tropical tape recorder (5) NOTE: ERS = European Remote Sensing Satellite; GOME = Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment; GPS = Global Positioning System; GRACE = Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment; ICESat = Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite; NOAA = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; SRTM = Shuttle Radar Topography Mission; TIROS = Television InfraRed Observation Satellite; TOPEX = Topography Experiment; TRMM = Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.