BOX 9.4

Increasing Growing Season

Myneni et al. (1997) published a groundbreaking paper using daily satellite data over a 9-year period to show increases in the length of the growing season in the boreal region. They used a time series of NDVI, a measure of the photosynthetic activity of vegetation canopies, derived from the daily AVHRR satellite data, and showed an increase in length of the growing season in the boreal region (north of 45°) of 12 days (8 days in spring and 4 days in autumn) from 1981 to 1991. They demonstrated that this extension of the growing season and enhanced amplitude of NDVI over the summer were likely correlated with warmer spring and autumn temperatures over the region. This result partially corroborated an estimated 7-day extension of the growing season that was inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Uniquely, their analysis detected significant spatial variation in the distribution of enhanced NDVI, with western and eastern Canada and southern and central Alaska having large increases in contrast with little change in other areas, such as central Canada and Siberia. Monitoring the spatially variable increase in biospheric activity over the circumpolar region was only possible because of the availability of polar-orbiting satellites.

Furthermore, scatterometer data from satellites provide further evidence that the growing season has lengthened in the Arctic region over the past 20 years. Figure 9.5 shows the progression of the spring 2000 thaw in Alaska. Similar measurements made since 1988 show that the thaw in the Arctic has been advancing by almost 1 day a year. These observations could not have been made without satellites since melting occurs rapidly across the Arctic during the period of melt and the timing varies between years, depending on weather conditions.

FIGURE 9.5 Progression of the spring thaw in Alaska during the year 2000 with snow and ice (blue), ice and slush with bare ground (yellow), and water and bare ground (red). A series of SeaWinds scatterometer measurements on the QuickScat satellite, which are sensitive to water in frozen and liquid states, were used to make these images. SOURCE: Kimball et al. (2006). Reprinted with permission from the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the Association of American Geographers, copyright 2006.

and Baret (1990), has rigorously demonstrated the potential to retrieve several plant biochemicals from reflectance and transmittance data and is in wide use today. As summarized by Ustin et al. (2004), the list of plant biochemicals has become longer with studies of chlorophyll fluorescence (Zarco-Tejeda et al. 2000a, b), canopy water content (Gao and Goetz 1995, Zarco-Tejeda et al. 2003), and canopy nitrogen content (Kokaly and Clark 1999). Many of the more recent advances are based on new imaging spectroscopy technology using NASA’s Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), an aircraft instrument operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory since 1987. NASA has flown one hyperspectral imager in space, the Earth Observing-1 Hyperion, which was launched in 2000 as an engineering test



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