FIGURE 2-1 Primary commercial energy consumption by fuel type.

NOTE: China’s nuclear power production represents less than 1 percent of total consumption.

SOURCES: EIA, 2006a; NBS, 2005a.

and the United States by fuel type. This figure illustrates some discrepancies in the fuel consumption of the two countries:

  • More than two-thirds of China’s energy consumption is derived from coal, whereas the United States derives less than a quarter of its energy from coal.

  • The United States relies on natural gas for 24 percent of its energy, whereas China relies on it for only 3 percent of its energy.

  • Petroleum supplies 39 percent of U.S. energy needs, but only 21 percent of China’s.

Energy data on supplies, consumption, and future projections are largely dependent upon official statistics. In addition to their utility in forecasting trends and in making energy policy adjustments, energy data are also critical in developing air pollution mitigation strategies. A projected increase in coal consumption signals a need for action to address potential increases in SO2 and CO2 emissions. Emissions are generally estimated using statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA), or official statistics from a country (Akimoto et al., 2006). Much of the data presented in this chapter come from official national sources (the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the United States and the China Energy Annual Review). It should be noted, however, that China’s National Bureau of Statistics has recently adjusted energy consumption statistics for 2001-2004, and that statistics from 1996-2002 have been called into question and were likely underreported (Sinton and Fridley, 2003; Tu, 2006; Akimoto et

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