Quad= quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (Btu)
mtce = million ton of coal equivalent
mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent
bpd = barrels of oil per day
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OCR for page 365
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States Appendix D Energy Conversion ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad Exajoule EJ 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948 Billion metric tons coal equivalent  Btce 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720 Billion metric tons oil equivalent  Btoe 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559 Trillion cubic meters natural gas  Tcm NG 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725 Quadrillion Btu Quad 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000  These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values.  Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ (low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat).  China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values.  China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values. ABBREVIATIONS Quad= quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (Btu) mtce = million ton of coal equivalent mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent bpd = barrels of oil per day
OCR for page 366
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States One barrel of oil = 0.136 tons of oil One short ton (2000 lb.) = 0.907 metric tons One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters One kilowatt hour (kWh) = 3.6 × 10 6 J. One million barrels of oil per day = 2.24 EJ per year Adapted from NRC, Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States, 2000.