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OCR for page 365
Appendix D Energy Conversion ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad Exajoule EJ 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948 Billion metric tons coal Btce 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720 equivalent [2] Billion metric tons oil Btoe 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559 equivalent [3] Trillion cubic meters natural Tcm NG 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725 gas [4] Quadrillion Btu Quad 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000 [1] These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ (low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values. Abbreviations Quad = quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (Btu) mtce = million ton of coal equivalent mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent bpd = barrels of oil per day 365

OCR for page 365
366 APPENDIX D One barrel of oil = 0.136 tons of oil One short ton (2000 lb.) = 0.907 metric tons One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters One kilowatt hour (kWh) = 3.6 × 10 6 J. One million barrels of oil per day = 2.24 EJ per year Adapted from NRC, Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States, 2000.