From one: |
To: |
EJ |
Btce |
Btoe |
Tcm NG |
Quad |
Exajoule |
EJ |
1.000 |
0.033 |
0.022 |
0.025 |
0.948 |
Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2] |
Btce |
30.300 |
1.000 |
0.675 |
0.761 |
28.720 |
Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3] |
Btoe |
44.900 |
1.482 |
1.000 |
1.128 |
42.559 |
Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4] |
Tcm NG |
39.800 |
1.314 |
0.886 |
1.000 |
37.725 |
Quadrillion Btu |
Quad |
1.055 |
0.035 |
0.023 |
0.027 |
1.000 |
[1] These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ (low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values. |
Quad= quadrillion (10^{15}) British thermal units (Btu)
mtce = million ton of coal equivalent
mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent
bpd = barrels of oil per day
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OCR for page 365
Appendix D
Energy Conversion
ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS
From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad
Exajoule 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948
EJ
Billion metric tons coal 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720
Btce
equivalent [2]
Billion metric tons oil 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559
Btoe
equivalent [3]
Trillion cubic meters natural 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725
Tcm NG
gas [4]
Quadrillion Btu 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000
Quad
[1] These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values.
[2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts
all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ
(low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat).
[3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07
GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values.
[4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat),
equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of
high-heat values.
ABBREVIATIONS
(1015)
Quad = quadrillion British thermal units (Btu)
mtce = million ton of coal equivalent
mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent
bpd = barrels of oil per day
OCR for page 365
APPENDIx D
One barrel of oil = 0.136 tons of oil
One short ton (2000 lb.) = 0.907 metric tons
One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters
One kilowatt hour (kWh) = 3.6 × 10 6 J.
One million barrels of oil per day = 2.24 EJ per year
Adapted from NRC, Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States, 000.