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## Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC)

### Citation Manager

. "Appendix D: Energy Conversion." Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007.

 Page 365

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Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States

### Appendix D Energy Conversion

#### ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS

 From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad Exajoule EJ 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948 Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2] Btce 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720 Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3] Btoe 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559 Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4] Tcm NG 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725 Quadrillion Btu Quad 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000 [1] These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ (low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values.

#### ABBREVIATIONS

mtce = million ton of coal equivalent

mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent

bpd = barrels of oil per day

 Page 365
 Front Matter (R1-R20) Summary (1-16) 1 Introduction (17-24) 2 Energy Resources (25-60) 3 Air Pollution: Sources, Impacts, and Effects (61-112) 4 Institutional and Regulatory Frameworks (113-160) 5 Energy Intensity and Energy Efficiency (161-186) 6 Coal Combustion and Pollution Control (187-206) 7 Renewable Energy Resources (207-228) 8 The Pittsburgh Experience (229-252) 9 The Huainan Experience (253-274) 10 The Los Angeles Experience (275-300) 11 The Dalian Experience (301-320) 12 Findings and Recommendations (321-336) Appendixes (337-338) Appendix A: Web-Based Resources on Energy and Air Quality (339-346) Appendix B: Alternative Energy Resources (347-352) Appendix C: Summary of PM Source-Apportionment Studies in China (353-364) Appendix D: Energy Conversion (365-366)

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OCR for page 365
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States Appendix D Energy Conversion ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS From one: To: EJ Btce Btoe Tcm NG Quad Exajoule EJ 1.000 0.033 0.022 0.025 0.948 Billion metric tons coal equivalent [2] Btce 30.300 1.000 0.675 0.761 28.720 Billion metric tons oil equivalent [3] Btoe 44.900 1.482 1.000 1.128 42.559 Trillion cubic meters natural gas [4] Tcm NG 39.800 1.314 0.886 1.000 37.725 Quadrillion Btu Quad 1.055 0.035 0.023 0.027 1.000 [1] These factors follow the U.S. convention of high-heat values. [2] Chinese conversion factors for coal and other fuels are low-heat values. China typically converts all its energy statistics into “metric tons of standard coal equivalent” (tce); one tce equals 29.31 GJ (low heat), equivalent to 31.52 GJ/tce (high heat). [3] China uses a conversion factor for its oil of 41.87 GJ/metric ton (low heat), equivalent to 44.07 GJ/t (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for oil are 95% of high-heat values. [4] China uses a conversion factor for its natural gas of 38.98 GJ/thousand cubic meters (low heat), equivalent to 43.31 GJ/tcm (high heat), assuming that low-heat values for natural gas are 90% of high-heat values. ABBREVIATIONS Quad= quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (Btu) mtce = million ton of coal equivalent mtoe = million ton of oil equivalent bpd = barrels of oil per day

OCR for page 366
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States One barrel of oil = 0.136 tons of oil One short ton (2000 lb.) = 0.907 metric tons One cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters One kilowatt hour (kWh) = 3.6 × 10 6 J. One million barrels of oil per day = 2.24 EJ per year Adapted from NRC, Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United States, 2000.