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C Input from the Broader Astronomy and Astrophysics Community BEYOND EINSTEIN WEB SITE AND E-MAILS Over the course of this study, a Web site ( was maintained to inform the science community of the charge to the Committee on NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation; of the committee’s membership; and about its activities, including town halls and committee meeting dates. Additionally, presentations made to the committee at its meetings were made available on the Web site for general public access. The other main feature of the Web site was the e-mail address provided (, which the public was invited to use to make comments. These comments were shared with the committee and were posted in a special comments section of the Web site. The committee found the 23 submitted and posted comments to be insightful and useful in its deliberations. BEYOND EINSTEIN TOWN HALLS In an effort to engage viewpoints from the diverse astronomy and astrophysics community not represented on the committee itself, four town hall meetings were held across the country (in Newport Beach, California; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Baltimore, Maryland; and Chicago, Illinois; from February through April 2007). The full committee was divided into four groups so that there were at least 4 or 5 committee members present at each town hall. Online registration for each of these town halls allowed participants to register either as a speaker or as an observer. Speakers were encouraged to submit brief abstracts addressing the following questions: • What are the most valuable science opportunities of the Beyond Einstein Program? • What are the long-term goals for the science, beyond the science goals of the mission projects; are we opening a new field or resolving existing questions? • To what degree can ground-based or existing space-based capabilities solve some of these questions? • What is the degree of precision needed from the measurements to move the science forward? Speakers for each town hall were chosen on the basis of the relevance of their abstracts to the questions that they were asked to address. Due to time constraints, the committee was not able to accommodate every applicant as a speaker; however, all participants, registrants, and walk-in attendees were invited to use the open-microphone 139

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140 NASA’S BEYOND EINSTEIN PROGRAM period to make comments. Chosen speakers were given 5 minutes to make their oral presentations, with about 3 minutes afterward for questions from members of the committee. An open-microphone session following the speaker session allowed any person who attended the town hall to make a 2-minute statement. The town halls were well attended, with between 15 and 23 speakers per town hall and many open-micro- phone participants. During each of these town halls, committee members and staff took notes that were compiled and shared with the rest of the committee. The committee found the town halls to be very informative, with many engaging and useful presentations from the participants. Following are lists of speakers and of the organizing committee members for each of the town halls. TOWN HALL NO. 1 FEBRUARY 1, 2007 THE ISLAND HOTEL, NEWPORT BEACH, CALIFORNIA Town Hall Speakers Robert Cahn, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Richard Ellis, California Institute of Technology Daniel Holz, Los Alamos National Laboratory/University of Chicago Albert Lazzarini, California Institute of Technology Eric Linder, University of California, Berkeley Greg Madejski, Stanford University Matt Malkan, University of California, Los Angeles Harald Pfeiffer and Mark Scheel, California Institute of Technology Katja Pottschmidt, University of California, San Diego Alexandre Refregier, CEA Saclay Richard Rothschild, University of California, San Diego Michael Seiffert, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Kip Thorne, California Institute of Technology Brent Ware, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Alan Weinstein, California Institute of Technology Organizing Committee Members Joel Primack (Chair, Town Hall No. 1), Eric Adelberger, David Bearden, Charles Kennel, Andrew Lankford, Joseph Rothenberg, Edward Wright TOWN HALL NO. 2 FEBRUARY 12, 2007 THE ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS Town Hall Speakers Charles Baltay, Yale University Nancy Brickhouse, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Claude Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bruno Coppi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Martin Elvis, Smithsonian Astrophysics Observatory Enectali Figueroa-Feliciano, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kathryn Anne Flanagan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Peter Fritschel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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APPENDIX C 141 Alan Guth, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Gregory Harry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Julia C. Lee, Harvard University Herman Marshall, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Stephen S. Murray, Smithsonian Astrophysics Observatory Michael Nowak, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Feryal Ozel, University of Arizona Ron Remillard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Natalie Roe, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory David Shoemaker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Q. Daniel Wang, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Organizing Committee Members Edward Wright (Chair, Town Hall No. 2), Thomas Appelquist, James Barrowman, Mark Devlin, Lisa Randall TOWN HALL NO. 3 MARCH 14, 2007 THE MARYLAND SCIENCE CENTER, BALTIMORE, MARYLAND Town Hall Speakers Kevork Abazajian, University of Maryland Drew Baden, University of Maryland David Band, Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology Volker Beckmann, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center George Chartas, Pennsylvania State University Lee Samuel Finn, Pennsylvania State University Andrew Fruchter, Space Telescope Science Institute Neil Gehrels, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center John P. Hughes, Rutgers University Demosthenes Kazanas, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center Arthur Kosowsky, University of Pittsburgh Nancy Levenson, University of Kentucky Sean McWilliams, University of Maryland Cole Miller, University of Maryland John Nousek, Pennsylvania State University Rachel Osten, University of Maryland Andrew Ptak, Johns Hopkins University Louis Rubbo, Pennsylvania State University Roald Sagdeev, University of Maryland, College Park Rita Sambruna, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center Randall Smith, Johns Hopkins University Tracy J. Turner, University of Maryland, Baltimore County Organizing Committee Members Karl Gebhardt (Chair, Town Hall No. 3), William Adkins, William Gibson, Craig Sarazin, James Ulvestad

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142 NASA’S BEYOND EINSTEIN PROGRAM TOWN HALL NO. 4 APRIL 4, 2007 COURTYARD MARRIOTT CHICAGO DOWNTOWN, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS Town Hall Speakers Nahum Arav, University of Colorado Peter Bender, JILA and the University of Colorado Patrick Brady, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Joel N. Bregman, University of Michigan Edward Brown, Michigan State University Megan Donahue, Michigan State University Anne Ealet, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France Alfred Garson, Washington University in St. Louis Dragan Huterer, University of Chicago Stephen Kent, Fermilab Edward W. (Rocky) Kolb, University of Chicago Arieh Konigl, University of Chicago Henric Krawczynski, Washington University in St. Louis Brian McNamara, University of Waterloo Jon Miller, University of Michigan Stuart Mufson, Indiana University Richard O’Shaughnessy, Northwestern University Tod Strohmayer, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center Simon Swordy, University of Chicago Gregory Tarle, University of Michigan Melville Ulmer, Northwestern University Alberto Vecchio, University of Birmingham William Wester, Fermilab Organizing Committee Members Stephan Meyer (Chair, Town Hall No. 4), Joseph Fuller, Jr., Fiona Harrison, Dennis McCarthy, Clifford Will, Michael Witherell