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the heaviest toll among young people. She stated that it is now clear that the health and economic burden of violence and injury should no longer be measured only in terms of the effects of death and injury on the immediate victims. Of great importance also, she stated, are the likely short- and longer-term consequences—including the hindrance that these kinds of problems are likely to be to the economic development of these countries. She hypothesized that these factors likely persuaded the Wellcome Trust of the importance of investing in basic research to examine and better understand the socioeconomic determinants of the problem to assist in development of the kinds of preventive efforts that need pursuit.

In her research, she described use of the Conflict Tactics Scale to measure levels of interpersonal violence by examining a number of social variables that include migration, social networks, family structures, psychosocial factors, demographics, and the usual socioeconomic variables. She highlighted a few findings from the study. First, she and her colleagues were struck by the fact that there were roughly equivalent levels of physical violence on men and on women. Secondly, men were more at risk of physical abuse by strangers, while women were more at risk of abuse from persons known to them. Thirdly, there was more reported sexual abuse of women than of men, but it should be noted that sexual abuse of men by women can be high. Of the things that stood out, she pointed to the lack of any serious gender differential in the levels of exposure and the magnitude of the problem, especially between partners. When looking at some of the data on the perpetration of violence within partnerships, she stated that while there is probably some female overreporting or male underreporting, it is nonetheless interesting to see that fewer men were perpetrators of physical violence. She also noted that there were no statistical gender differences in sexual coercion. These findings queried the attitudes of violence that would be found in this kind of environment. LeFranc and colleagues also utilized qualitative data in their study suggesting that violent attitudes and the preference for violent conflict resolution tactics may not only be widespread, but also begin at very early ages.

She also discussed the findings from a UNICEF-supported study on violence against children in Dominica. LeFranc and her colleagues were surprised by the preponderance of violence-oriented responses perpetrated by children for seemingly mundane, nonviolent offenses such as being pushed in the schoolyard or peers ruining homework papers—which garnered responses such as cutting, stabbing, choking, hitting, beating, and sexual assault in retaliation. The data also indicated that the punishment strategies at home and at school could be harsh and violent. Certainly, where an average of only 14 percent of the children in the discussions had never been hit by a teacher and only 15 percent had never been hit at home, violent corporal punishment is widespread, possibly indiscriminate, and probably



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