References

Boer, G. J. and Yu, B., 2003a: Climate sensitivity and climate state. Climate Dynamics, 21: 167-176.

Boer, G. J. and Yu, B., 2003b: Climate sensitivity and response. Climate Dynamics, 20:415-429.

Boer, G. J. and Yu, B., 2003c: Dynamical aspects of climate sensitivity. Geophysical Research Letters, 30: 35-31.

Gauss, M., Myhre, G., Pitari, G., Prather, M. J., Isaksen, I. S. A., Berntsen, T. K., Brasseur, G. P., Dentener, F. J., Derwent, R. G., Hauglustaine, D. A., Horowitz, L. W., Jacob, D. J., Johnson, M., Law, K. S., Mickley, L. J., Müller, J. F., Plantevin, P. H., Pyle, J. A., Rogers, H. L., Stevenson, D. S., Sundet, J. K., van Weele, M., and Wild, O., 2003: Radiative forcing in the 21st century due to ozone changes in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 108: ACH 15-11 ACH 15-21.

Gauss, M., Myhre, G., Isaksen, I. S. A., Grewe, V., Pitari, G., Wild, O., Collins, W. J., Dentener, F. J., Ellingsen, K., Gohar, L. K., Hauglustaine, D. A., Iachetti, D., Lamarque, J. F., Mancini, E., Mickley, L. J., Prather, M. J., Pyle, J. A., Sanderson, M. G., Shine, K. P., Stevenson, D. S., Sudo, K., Szopa, S., and Zeng, G., 2006: Radiative forcing since preindustrial times due to ozone change in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6: 575-599.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Lacis, A., and Ruedy, R., 1997a: The missing climate forcing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, 352: 231-240.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., and Ruedy, R., 1997b: Radiative forcing and climate response. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 102: 6831-6864.

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lacis, A., Asamoah, K., Beckford, K., Borenstein, S., Brown, E., Cairns, B., Carlson, B., Curran, B., De Castro, S., Druyan, L., Etwarrow, P., Ferede, T., Fox, M., Gaffen, D., Glascoe, J., Gordon, H., Hollandsworth, S., Jiang, X., Johnson, C., Lawrence, N., Lean, J., Lerner, J., Lo, K., Logan, J., Luckett, A., McCormick, M. P., McPeters, R., Miller, R., Minnis, P., Ramberran, I., Russell, G., Russell, P., Stone, P., Tegen, I., Thomas, S., Thomason, L., Thompson, A., Wilder, J., Willson, R., and Zawodny, J., 1997c:



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OCR for page 22
Review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program’s Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.2, “Climate Projections Based on Emission Scenarios for Long-lived and Short-lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols” References Boer, G. J. and Yu, B., 2003a: Climate sensitivity and climate state. Climate Dynamics, 21: 167-176. Boer, G. J. and Yu, B., 2003b: Climate sensitivity and response. Climate Dynamics, 20:415-429. Boer, G. J. and Yu, B., 2003c: Dynamical aspects of climate sensitivity. Geophysical Research Letters, 30: 35-31. Gauss, M., Myhre, G., Pitari, G., Prather, M. J., Isaksen, I. S. A., Berntsen, T. K., Brasseur, G. P., Dentener, F. J., Derwent, R. G., Hauglustaine, D. A., Horowitz, L. W., Jacob, D. J., Johnson, M., Law, K. S., Mickley, L. J., Müller, J. F., Plantevin, P. H., Pyle, J. A., Rogers, H. L., Stevenson, D. S., Sundet, J. K., van Weele, M., and Wild, O., 2003: Radiative forcing in the 21st century due to ozone changes in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 108: ACH 15-11 ACH 15-21. Gauss, M., Myhre, G., Isaksen, I. S. A., Grewe, V., Pitari, G., Wild, O., Collins, W. J., Dentener, F. J., Ellingsen, K., Gohar, L. K., Hauglustaine, D. A., Iachetti, D., Lamarque, J. F., Mancini, E., Mickley, L. J., Prather, M. J., Pyle, J. A., Sanderson, M. G., Shine, K. P., Stevenson, D. S., Sudo, K., Szopa, S., and Zeng, G., 2006: Radiative forcing since preindustrial times due to ozone change in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6: 575-599. Hansen, J., Sato, M., Lacis, A., and Ruedy, R., 1997a: The missing climate forcing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, 352: 231-240. Hansen, J., Sato, M., and Ruedy, R., 1997b: Radiative forcing and climate response. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 102: 6831-6864. Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lacis, A., Asamoah, K., Beckford, K., Borenstein, S., Brown, E., Cairns, B., Carlson, B., Curran, B., De Castro, S., Druyan, L., Etwarrow, P., Ferede, T., Fox, M., Gaffen, D., Glascoe, J., Gordon, H., Hollandsworth, S., Jiang, X., Johnson, C., Lawrence, N., Lean, J., Lerner, J., Lo, K., Logan, J., Luckett, A., McCormick, M. P., McPeters, R., Miller, R., Minnis, P., Ramberran, I., Russell, G., Russell, P., Stone, P., Tegen, I., Thomas, S., Thomason, L., Thompson, A., Wilder, J., Willson, R., and Zawodny, J., 1997c:

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Review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program’s Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.2, “Climate Projections Based on Emission Scenarios for Long-lived and Short-lived Radiatively Active Gases and Aerosols” Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 102: 25,679-625,720. Joshi, M., Shine, K., Ponater, M., Stuber, N., Sausen, R., and Li, L., 2003: A comparison of climate response to different radiative forcings in three general circulation models: Towards an improved metric of climate change. Climate Dynamics, 20: 843-854. Mickley, L. J., Jacob, D. J., Field, B. D., and Rind, D., 2004: Climate response to the increase in tropospheric ozone since preindustrial times: A comparison between ozone and equivalent CO2 forcings. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 109: D05106 05101-05113. Naik, V., Mauzerall, D., Horowitz, L., Schwarzkopf, M. D., Ramaswamy, V., and Oppenheimer, M., 2005: Net radiative forcing due to changes in regional emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 110: 1-14. Ramaswamy, V. and Bowen, M. M., 1994: Effect of changes in radiatively active species upon the lower stratospheric temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99:18,909-918,921. Wigley, T. M. L., Smith, S. J., and Prather, M. J., 2002: Radiative forcing due to reactive gas emissions. Journal of Climate, 15: 2690-2696. Wigley, T. M. L., Ammann, C. M., Santer, B. D., and Raper, S. C. B., 2005: Effect of climate sensitivity on the response to volcanic forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 110: 1-8. Wild, M., Ohmura, A., Gilgen, H., Morcrette, J. J., and Slingo, A., 2001: Evaluation of downward longwave radiation in general circulation models. Journal of Climate, 14: 3227-3239. Wild, O., Modelling the global tropospheric ozone budget: Exploring the variability in current models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2643–2660, 2007. Williams, M., Rastetter, E. B., Shaver, G. R., Hobbie, J. E., Carpino, E., and Kwiatkowski, B. L., 2001: Primary production of an arctic watershed: An uncertainty analysis. Ecological Applications, 11: 1800-1816. Wu, S., Mickley, L .J., Jacob, D. J., Logan, J. A., Yantosca, R. M., and Rind, D., 2007: Why are there large differences between models in global budgets of tropospheric ozone?, J. Geophys. Res., 112: D05302, doi:10.1029/2006JD007801.

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