PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER

Committee on Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water

Water Science and Technology Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Committee on Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by American Water Works Association Research Foundation under Award Number 3043, the WateReuse Foundation under Award Number WRF-04-001, the U.S. Geological Survey under Award Number 04HQAG0171, the CALFED Bay-Delta Program and the California Department of Water Resources Conjunctive Water Management Branch, the City of Phoenix, the Inland Empire Utilities Agency, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, the Chino Basin Watermaster, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California, the National Science Foundation under Award Number BES-043406, and the National Research Council President's Committee of the National Academies. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11438-7 (Book) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11438-1 (Book) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11439-4 (PDF) International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11439-X Library of Congress Control Number: 2007943741 Additional copies of Prospects for Managed Underground Storage of Recoverable Water are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph, J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice-chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON SUSTAINABLE UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER EDWARD J. BOUWER, Chair, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland RICHELLE M. ALLEN-KING, State University of New York at Buffalo JONATHAN D. ARTHUR, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee WILLIAM A. BLOMQUIST, Indiana University, Purdue University, Indianapolis JAMES CROOK, Independent Consultant, Norwell, Massachusetts DENISE D. FORT, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque PETER FOX, Arizona State University, Tempe JORGE I. RESTREPO, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing ZHUPING SHENG, Texas A&M, El Paso CATHERINE J. SHRIER, Golder Associates, Denver, Colorado HENRY J. VAUX, JR., University of California, Berkeley MICHAEL WEHNER, Orange County Water District, Fountain Valley, California National Research Council Staff WILLIAM S. LOGAN, Study Director ELLEN A. DE GUZMAN, Research Associate v

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WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD CLAIRE WELTY, Chair, University of Maryland, Baltimore County JOAN G. EHRENFELD, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey SIMON GONZALEZ, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City CHARLES N. HAAS, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania JAMES M. HUGHES, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia THEODORE L. HULLAR, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York KIMBERLY L. JONES, Howard University, Washington, D.C. G. TRACY MEHAN III, The Cadmus Group, Inc., Arlington, Virginia JAMES K. MITCHELL, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg DAVID H. MOREAU, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill LEONARD SHABMAN, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. DONALD I. SIEGEL, Syracuse University, New York SOROOSH SOROOSHIAN, University of California, Irvine HAME M. WATT, Independent Consultant, Washington, D.C. JAMES L. WESCOAT, JR., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign GARRET P. WESTERHOFF, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, New York Staff STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director LAUREN E. ALEXANDER, Senior Staff Officer LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer JEFFREY W. JACOBS, Senior Staff Officer STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Staff Officer WILLIAM S. LOGAN, Senior Staff Officer M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial and Administrative Associate ANITA A. HALL, Senior Program Assistant ELLEN A. DE GUZMAN, Senior Program Associate DOROTHY K. WEIR, Study Associate MICHAEL STOEVER, Senior Project Assistant vi

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Preface As I write this, news articles from the last two weeks include “Shrinking Reservoirs Raise Concerns for Water storage” (Hutchinson [Kansas] News, July 2, 2007), “Solution to Our Dwindling Water Supply Lies Below: Subsurface Water Storage is an Economic Way to Address Seasonal Shortages” (Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce, June 28, 2007), and “Naples' Plan for Water Storage Well Hits Snag” (Naples [Florida] News, June 20, 2007). Virtually every day’s newspaper articles describe difficult choices that have to be made in water management all over the country and the possible role of underground storage of water in addressing these challenges. Putting away water in times of abundance and retrieving it in times of need is nothing new. Traditionally water has been stored in surface reservoirs. However, problems associated with surface reservoirs, such as, evaporative losses, sediment accumulation, land consumption, and ecological impacts, have driven water managers to seek alternatives for providing reliable water supplies. One of these alternatives is storing water underground. The number of these projects has grown in the last two decades. From 3 underground storage systems in 1983, the number jumped to 72 in late 2005 with projections indicating continued increases. Many of these projects are being developed in areas where water supply crises are anticipated in the future. Throughout the United States, freshwater supplies may be hard pressed to meet projected needs for a variety of reasons, such as overdrafted aquifers, increased competitive use of water, and climate change. While there is no indication of any slowdown in the number of projects being planned and developed, many scientific, operational, and institutional issues remain to be addressed–hence, the timing of this study. This project traces its roots to a strategic planning session of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) of the National Research Council (NRC), which rated the topic among its highest priorities. In 2003, along with the AWWA Research Foundation (AwwaRF), the WSTB organized a planning workshop that brought together more than two dozen scientists and engineers to evaluate the potential for underground storage to contribute clean and reliable water. The planning workshop also helped to highlight priority issues that are reflected in the study’s statement of task (see Summary Box S-1). Augmenting freshwater supply by underground storage is such a pressing concern that when the WSTB sought support for the study, a wide range of sponsorship was generated from federal, state, and private organizations. Sponsors for this study reflect the wide interests in the potential for managing underground storage. We would like to thank the following for supporting the vii

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viii PREFACE study and providing staff, assistance, data, and information in a timely and helpful manner to the committee: AwwaRF, WateReuse Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), The CALFED Bay-Delta Program and the California Department of Water Resources Conjunctive Water Management Branch, the City of Phoenix, the Inland Empire Utilities Agency, the Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles, the Chino Basin Watermaster, the Water Replenish- ment District of Southern California, the National Science Foundation, and the NRC President's Committee of the National Academies. In developing this report, the committee received advice and input from Richard Atwater, Inland Empire Utilities Agency; Robert Hultquist, California Department of Health Services; John Izbicki, USGS; Paul Kinshella, Phoenix Water District; Jeff Mosher, WateReuse Foundation; Hoover Ng, Water Replenishment District of Southern California; Chris Pitre, Golder Associates; David Pyne, ASR Systems; Steve Ragone, National Ground Water Association; Judy Richtar, Florida Department of Environmental Protection; Martha Rincon, Los Angeles County Sanitation District; Shane Snyder, Southern Nevada Water Authority; John Taylor, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region V; Ryan Ulrich, AwwaRF; Mark Wildermuth, Chino Basin Watermaster; Greg Woodside, Orange County Water District; and Gary Zeigler, consultant. We also thank all those who took the time to share their perspectives and expertise by participating in meetings, and field trips and by sending their written comments. The accomplishment of this report depended upon highly devoted staff and the efforts of the committee members. I thank Will Logan and Ellen de Guzman, the NRC study director and research associate, respectively, for their input to this project. Ellen and Will planned the committee meetings, compiled information, interacted with the committee members to maximize their contributions and writings, offered insightful comments and directions, and synthesized and edited the final report. I thank the committee members who took the time to share their perspectives and knowledge about underground storage systems and their experiences with water management. It is rewarding to work with such a talented and articulate group of professionals. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: ; Jean Bahr, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Michael Brinkmann, San Antonio Water System, Texas; Christopher Brown, Golder Associates, Jacksonville, Florida; Peter Dillon, CSIRO, Center for Groundwater Studies, Australia; Charles Haas,

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PREFACE ix Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Tanya Heikkila, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.; William Jury, University of California, Riverside; Ronald Lacewell, Texas A&M University, College Station; R. David Pyne, ASR Systems LLC, Gainesville, Florida; John Taylor, U.S. EPA, Chicago, Illinois, and; Madeline Schreiber, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Jerome Gilbert, J. Gilbert, Inc. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Edward J. Bouwer Committee Chair

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Contents Summary ............................................................................................................... 1 Chapter 1: Introduction ...................................................................................... 13 Conclusion ..................................................................................................... 22 References ...................................................................................................... 23 Chapter 2: Overview of Managed Underground Storage (MUS) Systems .....25 Components of Managed Underground Storage Systems............................... 25 History of Managed Underground Storage Systems....................................... 34 Reasons for Using Managed Underground Storage........................................ 38 Role of Regulation and Federal Agency Programs in MUS System Development ..................................................................... 42 Conclusion ...................................................................................................... 43 References....................................................................................................... 43 Chapter 3: Hydrogeological Considerations...................................................... 47 Aquifer Types and Characteristics in the Context of MUS Systems .............. 48 Hydraulics of Recharge................................................................................... 57 Recovery of Stored Water............................................................................... 65 Methods for Characterization of Aquifer and MUS Systems ......................... 69 Impacts and Constraints of the MUS System ................................................. 92 Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................... 98 References.................................................................................................... 100 Chapter 4: Water Quality Considerations ...................................................... 109 Introduction.................................................................................................. 109 Constituents in Waters That Can Affect Performance and Operation of MUS .................................................... 110 Subsurface Processes That Affect Water Quality in MUS Systems ............ 118 Behavior of Selected Contaminants in MUS Systems ................................. 137 Effects of Water Quality on MUS Performance .......................................... 154 Tools to Predict Water Quality and Aquifer Changes During MUS ........... 157 Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................ 169 References.................................................................................................... 171 xi

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xii PROSPECTS FOR MANAGED UNDERGROUND STORAGE OF RECOVERABLE WATER Chapter 5: Legal, Economic, and Other Institutional Considerations......... 181 Law, Regulations, and the Managed Underground Storage of Recoverable Water ........................................ 183 Economic Issues .......................................................................................... 207 Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................ 217 References.................................................................................................... 219 Chapter 6: Project Development, Monitoring, and Management ................ 223 From Feasibility to Closure: Stages of an MUS Project ............................. 224 Prediction, Reduction, and Prevention of Clogging..................................... 241 Monitoring Issues ........................................................................................ 243 Public Perception and Involvement ............................................................. 256 Financial Drivers and Related Considerations ............................................. 260 Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................ 262 References.................................................................................................... 265 Chapter 7: Managed Underground Storage in a Water Resource Systems Context........................................................................................................ 269 Conclusions and Recommendations ............................................................ 274 References.................................................................................................... 275 Acronyms and Glossary ...................................................................................... 277 Appendix A: Physical, Chemical, and Microbiological Constituents of MUS Waters ....................................................................... 297 Appendix B: Committee Biographical Information ............................................ 333