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Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty (2010) Committee on Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine (CWSEM)Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT)

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. "Appendix 4-1: Distribution of Undergraduate Course Load for Faculty by Gender and Discipline." Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.

 Page 296

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Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty

Two statistical tests were carried out. First, a chi-square test of independence of rows was applied to determine whether the pattern of the number of undergraduate courses taught1 by men and women differed. (These tests were either on three or four degrees of freedom.) The tests were not significant at the .05 level except for electrical engineering. It is important to mention that one could have different patterns without having women teach more of fewer courses. For instance, men might teach 1 or 2 courses more often than women do, who in turn might teach 0 or 3 courses more often, but where the mean number of courses remained close.

Therefore, we added a simple two-sample t-test of the average number of courses for men and women. The means are displayed below for each of the disciplinary areas. The t-tests were all not significant at the .05 for the null hypothesis of no difference, again except for electrical engineering. It is clear from the table that men teach more undergraduate courses than do women.

 BIOLOGY Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 4 Total Men 31 55 12 2 0 100 Women 31 58 11 2 2 104 Total 62 113 23 4 2 204 Chi-squared test of independence: 2.05 (4 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.73. Means: Men .85 vs. Women .90, t-test is equal to –0.51 p-value 0.61.
 CHEMISTRY Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 Total Men 43 49 8 1 101 Women 43 48 4 2 97 Total 86 97 12 3 198 Chi-squared test of independence: 1.60 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.66. Means: Men .67 vs. Women .64, t-test is equal to 0.36 p-value 0.72.
 1 Fractional courses were rounded up to the nearest integral number of courses. Missing data was removed from the data prior to analysis. Finally, the data were from the committee’s survey of faculty.
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OCR for page 296
Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty Appendix 4-1 Distribution of Undergraduate Course Load for Faculty by Gender and Discipline Two statistical tests were carried out. First, a chi-square test of independence of rows was applied to determine whether the pattern of the number of undergraduate courses taught1 by men and women differed. (These tests were either on three or four degrees of freedom.) The tests were not significant at the .05 level except for electrical engineering. It is important to mention that one could have different patterns without having women teach more of fewer courses. For instance, men might teach 1 or 2 courses more often than women do, who in turn might teach 0 or 3 courses more often, but where the mean number of courses remained close. Therefore, we added a simple two-sample t-test of the average number of courses for men and women. The means are displayed below for each of the disciplinary areas. The t-tests were all not significant at the .05 for the null hypothesis of no difference, again except for electrical engineering. It is clear from the table that men teach more undergraduate courses than do women. BIOLOGY             Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 4 Total Men 31 55 12 2 0 100 Women 31 58 11 2 2 104 Total 62 113 23 4 2 204 Chi-squared test of independence: 2.05 (4 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.73. Means: Men .85 vs. Women .90, t-test is equal to –0.51 p-value 0.61. CHEMISTRY           Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 Total Men 43 49 8 1 101 Women 43 48 4 2 97 Total 86 97 12 3 198 Chi-squared test of independence: 1.60 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.66. Means: Men .67 vs. Women .64, t-test is equal to 0.36 p-value 0.72. 1 Fractional courses were rounded up to the nearest integral number of courses. Missing data was removed from the data prior to analysis. Finally, the data were from the committee’s survey of faculty.

OCR for page 297
Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty MATHEMATICS           Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 Total Men 21 30 15 2 68 Women 22 38 24 0 84 Total 43 68 39 2 152 Chi-squared test of independence: 3.39 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.33. Means: Men .97 vs. Women 1.02, t-test is equal to –0.42 p-value 0.68. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING           Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 Total Men 33 46 14 1 94 Women 44 41 4 2 91 Total 77 87 18 3 185 Chi-squared test of independence: 7.70 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.05. Means: Men .82 vs. Women .60, t-test is equal to 2.09 p-value 0.04. PHYSICS           Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 Total Men 33 53 9 0 95 Women 31 66 14 1 112 Total 64 119 23 1 207 Chi-squared test of independence: 2.19 (3 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.53. Means: Men .75 vs. Women .87, t-test is equal to –1.34 p-value 0.18. CIVIL ENGINEERING             Courses Taught 0 1 2 3 4 Total Men 22 44 13 4 0 83 Women 36 67 13 3 1 120 Total 58 111 26 7 1 203 Chi-squared test of independence: 2.63 (4 degrees of freedom), p-value 0.62. Means: Men .99 vs. Women .88, t-test is equal to 0.94 p-value 0.35.